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1.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 25(2): 218-223, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879551

ABSTRACT

Objective: Neurological emergencies saw a paradigm shift in approach during the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic with the challenge to manage patients with and without COVID-19. We aimed to compare the various neurological disorders and 3 months outcome in patients with and without SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: In an ambispective cohort study design, we enrolled patients with and without SARS CoV-2 infection coming to a medical emergency with neurological disorders between April 2020 and September 2020. Demographic, clinical, biochemical, and treatment details of these patients were collected and compared. Their outcomes, both in-hospital and at 3 months were assessed by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Results: Two thirty-five patients (235) were enrolled from emergency services with neurological disorders. Of them, 81 (34.5%) were COVID-19 positive. The mean (SD) age was 49.5 (17.3) years, and the majority of the patients were male (63.0%). The commonest neurological diagnosis was acute ischemic stroke (AIS) (43.0%). The in-hospital mortality was higher in the patients who were COVID-19 positive (COVID-19 positive: 29 (35.8%) versus COVID-19 negative: 12 (7.8%), P value: <0.001). The 3 months telephonic follow-up could be completed in 73.2% of the patients (142/194). Four (12.1%) deaths occurred on follow-up in the COVID-19 positive versus fifteen (13.8%) in the COVID-19 negative patients (P value: 1.00). The 3-month mRS was worse in the COVID-19 positive group (P value <0.001). However, this was driven by higher in-hospital morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 positive patients. Conclusion: Patients with neurological disorders presenting with COVID-19 infection had worse outcomes, including in-hospital and 3 months disability.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331491

ABSTRACT

In regard to the global pandemic of COVID-19, it seems that persons with epilepsy (PWE) are not more vulnerable to get infected by SARS-CoV-2, nor are they more susceptible to a critical course of the disease. However, management of acute seizures in patients with COVID-19 as well as management of PWE and COVID-19 needs to consider potential drug-drug interactions between antiseizure drugs and candidate drugs currently assessed as therapeutic options for COVID-19. Repurposing of several licensed and investigational drugs is discussed for therapeutic management of COVID-19. While for none of these approaches, efficacy and tolerability has been confirmed yet in sufficiently powered and controlled clinical studies, testing is ongoing with multiple clinical trials worldwide. Here, we have summarized the possible mechanisms of action of drugs currently considered as potential therapeutic options for COVID-19 management along with possible and confirmed drug-drug interactions that should be considered for a combination of antiseizure drugs and COVID-19 candidate drugs.

3.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 86(1): 21-42, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736733

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated neurological, mental health disorders, and neurocognitive issues. However, there is a lack of inexpensive and efficient brain evaluation and screening systems. As a result, a considerable fraction of patients with neurocognitive or psychobehavioral predicaments either do not get timely diagnosed or fail to receive personalized treatment plans. This is especially true in the elderly populations, wherein only 16% of seniors say they receive regular cognitive evaluations. Therefore, there is a great need for development of an optimized clinical brain screening workflow methodology like what is already in existence for prostate and breast exams. Such a methodology should be designed to facilitate objective early detection and cost-effective treatment of such disorders. In this paper we have reviewed the existing clinical protocols, recent technological advances and suggested reliable clinical workflows for brain screening. Such protocols range from questionnaires and smartphone apps to multi-modality brain mapping and advanced imaging where applicable. To that end, the Society for Brain Mapping and Therapeutics (SBMT) proposes the Brain, Spine and Mental Health Screening (NEUROSCREEN) as a multi-faceted approach. Beside other assessment tools, NEUROSCREEN employs smartphone guided cognitive assessments and quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) as well as potential genetic testing for cognitive decline risk as inexpensive and effective screening tools to facilitate objective diagnosis, monitor disease progression, and guide personalized treatment interventions. Operationalizing NEUROSCREEN is expected to result in reduced healthcare costs and improving quality of life at national and later, global scales.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain Mapping , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Male , Quality of Life
4.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 25(1): 76-81, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726289

ABSTRACT

Background: Governments have imposed lockdowns in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. Hospitals have restricted outpatient clinics and elective services meant for non-COVID illnesses. This has led to patients facing unprecedented challenges and uncertainties. This study was carried out to assess patients' concerns and apprehensions about the effect of the lockdown on their treatments. Materials and Methods: An ambispective, observational cross-sectional single centre study was conducted. Patients were contacted telephonically and requested to answer a structured questionnaire. Their responses were documented and summarized as frequency and proportions. Results: A total of 727 patients were interviewed. Epilepsy (32%) was the most common neurological illness in our cohort followed by stroke (18%). About half the patients and/or their caregivers reported health-related concerns during the lockdown. The primary concern was how to connect with their treating neurologist if need arose. Forty-seven patients (6.4%) had drug default. Among patients on immunomodulatory treatments, only eight patients had drug default. High compliance rates were also observed in the stroke and epilepsy cohorts. Of the 71 patients who required emergency care during the lockdown, 24 could reach our hospital emergency. Fourteen patients either had a delay or could not seek emergency care. Two-thirds of our patients found the telemedicine experience satisfactory. Conclusion: The ongoing pandemic will continue to pose challenges to both physicians and patients. Patients in follow-up may need to be contacted regularly and counselled regarding the importance of maintaining drug compliance. Telemedicine can be used to strengthen the healthcare delivery to patients with non-COVID illnesses.

5.
Epilepsy Behav Rep ; 17: 100516, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587922

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 caused devastating effects of human loss and suffering along with disruption in clinical research, forcing reconceptualization and modification of studies. This paper attempts to outline the steps followed and detail the modifications undertaken to deal with the impacts of the pandemic on the first ongoing randomized controlled trial on effectiveness of neuropsychological rehabilitation in adult patients with drug-resistant epilepsy in India. All modifications were based on evolving guidelines and circumstantial context and were planned, reviewed and approved by important stakeholders. Results obtained from the trial need to be interpreted and analysed within this context. These modifications have implications for wider outreach of neuropsychology services in India.

6.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 83(4): 1563-1601, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468319

ABSTRACT

Neurological disorders significantly impact the world's economy due to their often chronic and life-threatening nature afflicting individuals which, in turn, creates a global disease burden. The Group of Twenty (G20) member nations, which represent the largest economies globally, should come together to formulate a plan on how to overcome this burden. The Neuroscience-20 (N20) initiative of the Society for Brain Mapping and Therapeutics (SBMT) is at the vanguard of this global collaboration to comprehensively raise awareness about brain, spine, and mental disorders worldwide. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of the various brain initiatives worldwide and highlight the need for cooperation and recommend ways to bring down costs associated with the discovery and treatment of neurological disorders. Our systematic search revealed that the cost of neurological and psychiatric disorders to the world economy by 2030 is roughly $16T. The cost to the economy of the United States is $1.5T annually and growing given the impact of COVID-19. We also discovered there is a shortfall of effective collaboration between nations and a lack of resources in developing countries. Current statistical analyses on the cost of neurological disorders to the world economy strongly suggest that there is a great need for investment in neurotechnology and innovation or fast-tracking therapeutics and diagnostics to curb these costs. During the current COVID-19 pandemic, SBMT, through this paper, intends to showcase the importance of worldwide collaborations to reduce the population's economic and health burden, specifically regarding neurological/brain, spine, and mental disorders.


Subject(s)
Global Burden of Disease , International Cooperation , Mental Disorders , Nervous System Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Burden of Disease/organization & administration , Global Burden of Disease/trends , Global Health/economics , Global Health/trends , Humans , Mental Disorders/economics , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Nervous System Diseases/economics , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/therapy , Neurosciences/methods , Neurosciences/trends , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Epilepsy Behav ; 124: 108342, 2021 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415844

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted healthcare services for chronic disorders such as epilepsy. In this study, the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on persons with epilepsy (PWE) with regard to their seizure control, depression status, and medication adherence was assessed. METHODS: After ethical clearance, 449 PWE who had been previously evaluated for depression at All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, India, were telephonically revaluated using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and surveyed for source of medication and medication adherence over past 6 months. The prevalence and the association of depression, suicidality, and seizures during pandemic with different PWE variables were determined. RESULTS: Out of 449 PWE, 70.6% responded. 19.9% were diagnosed positive for depression as per MINI while suicidal ideation was observed in 5.4%. Seventy six (23.9%) PWE reported seizures during pandemic. The incidence was greater in females, unemployed, previously uncontrolled epilepsy, polytherapy, altered use of medications, and depressed PWE. Seizure during pandemic, increased seizure frequency, previous history of depression, and altered use of medications were all significantly associated with depression during COVID-19 pandemic (2.6-95%CI, 1.45-4.73; 1.9-95%CI, 1.01-3.57; 8.8-95%CI, 4.54-17.21; 2.9-95%CI, 1.19-7.24), and polytherapy (2.9-95%CI, 0.92-9.04), seizures during pandemic (3.9-95%CI, 1.45-10.53) and previous history of depression and suicidality, were related with suicidal ideation. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 pandemic-induced disruptions can be detrimental for PWE, and restoring services to the precovid levels as well as putting appropriate continuity plans in place for care of PWE should be a priority.

9.
Expert Opin Ther Targets ; 25(6): 509-519, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298914

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Although SARS-CoV-2 primarily manifests in the form of respiratory symptoms, emerging evidence suggests that the disease is associated with numerous neurological complications, such as stroke and Guillain-Barre syndrome. Hence, further research is necessary to seek possible therapeutic targets in the CNS for effective management of these complications. AREAS COVERED: This review examines the neurological complications associated with SARS-CoV-2 infections and the possible routes of infection. It progresses to illuminate the possible therapeutic targets for effective management of these neuromodulatory effects and the repurposing of drugs that could serve this purpose. To this end, literature from the year 1998-2021 was derived from PubMed. EXPERT OPINION: The neurological manifestations associated with COVID-19 may be related to poor prognosis and higher comorbidity. Identification of the key molecular targets in the brain that are potential indicators of the observed neuropathology, such as inflammatory mediators and chromatin modifiers, is key. The repurposing of existing drugs to target potential candidates could reduce the mortality attributed to these associated neurological complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
10.
Epilepsy Res ; 174: 106675, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233420

ABSTRACT

In regard to the global pandemic of COVID-19, it seems that persons with epilepsy (PWE) are not more vulnerable to get infected by SARS-CoV-2, nor are they more susceptible to a critical course of the disease. However, management of acute seizures in patients with COVID-19 as well as management of PWE and COVID-19 needs to consider potential drug-drug interactions between antiseizure drugs and candidate drugs currently assessed as therapeutic options for COVID-19. Repurposing of several licensed and investigational drugs is discussed for therapeutic management of COVID-19. While for none of these approaches, efficacy and tolerability has been confirmed yet in sufficiently powered and controlled clinical studies, testing is ongoing with multiple clinical trials worldwide. Here, we have summarized the possible mechanisms of action of drugs currently considered as potential therapeutic options for COVID-19 management along with possible and confirmed drug-drug interactions that should be considered for a combination of antiseizure drugs and COVID-19 candidate drugs. Our review suggests that potential drug-drug interactions should be taken into account with drugs such as chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir while remdesivir and tocilizumab may be less prone to clinically relevant interactions with ASMs.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , Anticonvulsants/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Amides/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inducers/adverse effects , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Drug Combinations , Drug Interactions , Epilepsy/complications , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/adverse effects , Ivermectin/adverse effects , Lopinavir , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Ritonavir , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 37(10): 3219-3224, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173901

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has forced hospitals to prioritize admissions. Epilepsy surgeries have been postponed at most centers. As the pandemic continues with no definite end in sight in the near future, the question arises until when such patients should be denied appropriate treatment. A 12-year-old child with left-sided Rasmussen's encephalitis with drug refractory epilepsy (DRE) presented at the height of the pandemic, with worsening of seizure frequency from 4-5/day to 20/day, with new-onset epilepsia partialis continua. She demonstrated features of progressive cognitive decline. The pros and cons of operating during the pandemic were discussed with the parents by a multidisciplinary team. She underwent endoscopic left hemispherotomy. Postoperatively she became seizure free but developed hospital-acquired mild COVID infection for which she was treated accordingly. Chosen cases of severe DRE, as the one illustrated above, who are deemed to benefit from surgery by a multidisciplinary team of physicians, should be re-categorized into the most severe class of patients and scheduled for surgery as soon as possible. The risk benefit ratio of the seizures being mitigated by surgery on one hand and possibility of acquiring COVID infection during hospital stay has to be balanced and a decision made accordingly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epilepsy , Child , Epilepsy/surgery , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 24(1): 11-14, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150828

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has precipitated a global health crisis. Non-COVID diseases across specialties have been significantly compromised. The greatest challenge has been to continue providing care to non-COVID cases with minimum transmission risk to health care workers, patients, and caregivers. In this specter, better described as a medical holocaust, we present our experiences of dealing with acute neurological patients who could access our facility. We attempted to work on three key areas - initial screening using a more inclusive, dynamic checklist for COVID suspicion over and above the emergency triage, a mandatory initial holding on a separate floor of our inpatient service equipped with infection control strategies similar to a COVID-designated area, and daily screening of health care workers and caregivers for symptoms and possible exposures. It was a steep learning curve, a couple of close shaves, and many more lessons that went into the development of an algorithm that seems to be working well.

13.
Neurol India ; 69(1): 26-31, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110531

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has affected the world globally causing widespread repercussions on individuals' physical, mental and emotional well-being. In such times, sleep is likely to be affected. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to present the available literature on sleep and also the foresight as to the future national strategy to mitigate the effects of this pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An extensive literature search on PubMed, Google Scholar, Epistemonikos database (https://www.epistemonikos.org), PsycINFO for available literature on the prevalence of sleep problem on COVID-19 was done. Cross-citation search was also conducted to increase relevance of the review. The key words used were- (((((((((((insomnia)) OR (sleep)) OR (sleepiness)) OR ("sleep quality")) OR (OSA)) OR ("obstructive sleep apnoea")) OR ("obstructive sleep apnea")) OR (("sleep problem")) AND "covid-19" OR covid19* OR "COVID-19" OR "2019-nCoV" OR cv19* OR "cv-19" OR "cv 19" OR "n-cov" OR ncov* OR "sars-cov-2" OR "sars-cov2" OR "2019-ncov" OR "SARS-Coronavirus-2" OR "SARS-Coronavirus2" OR (wuhan* AND (virus OR viruses OR viral)) OR (covid* AND (virus OR viruses OR viral)) OR "covid-19-related" OR "SARS-CoV-2-related" OR "SARS-CoV2-related" OR "2019-nCoV-related" OR "cv-19-related" OR "n-cov-related"). Inclusion criteria consisted of articles in English, published from Jan 2020 till 19 Apr 2020. Two reviewers independently screened each research study for inclusion and eligibility. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Sleep is affected during COVID-19 pandemic in patients, their families, health-care workers and their families, population in isolation, and quarantine and as such in public. Limited literature exists with subjective data and no objective criteria were found to study sleep in COVID-19 pandemic. OSA was found to be a frequent baseline characteristic of COVID-19 patients. A need to follow guidelines is of paramount importance and strategies to better sleep in the population needs to be addressed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Wake Disorders , Sleep , COVID-19/complications , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/virology
14.
J Epilepsy Res ; 10(1): 3-7, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-802517

ABSTRACT

The end of the year 2019 was marked by novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, SARS-CoV-2) outbreak in China that rapidly spread to the rest of the world. While the involvement of the lower respiratory system causing pneumonia is identified as the primary target of the virus, extra-pulmonary manifestations, especially of the central nervous system, are also being increasingly reported. Previous research on Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and SARS-CoV have shown neurological involvement in human coronavirus infections. While several cases of seizures have been reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, there is no specific data to suggest an association of COVID-19 with epilepsy. Epilepsy patients on immunosuppressive medications may have a higher risk of contracting the viral infection. There can be an indirect relation of COVID-19 to epilepsy as the viral infection is associated with fever in most COVID-19 cases, which can lower seizure threshold. Additionally, inadequate sleep and stress due to ongoing pandemic of coronavirus can be another trigger for seizure precipitation in epilepsy patients. Drug compliance, availability of antiepileptic drugs, and drug interactions with COVID-19 experimental drugs are major concerns in epilepsy patients. Adopting telemedicine services and the use of epilepsy helplines may be important in assisting epilepsy patients and ensuring that treatment continues uninterrupted.

15.
Epilepsia ; 61(9): 1840-1853, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-772439

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic poses particular challenges to the management of persons with chronic disease. Reports of a possible neuroinvasiveness of SARS-CoV-2 as well as pathophysiological mechanisms and indirect consequences in severe COVID-19 cases raise the question of whether the infection can be associated with an increased risk of seizure recurrence or the development of new onset and acute symptomatic seizures. Although the literature does not provide relevant evidence for seizure worsening in persons with epilepsy during the course of a SARS-CoV-2 infection, there are theoretical risks, for example, seizures triggered by fever. Moreover, a severe disease course and advanced disease stages can, for instance, result in hypoxic encephalopathy, cerebrovascular events, and cytokine storm, which may trigger the development of acute seizures. This is further confirmed by reports of occasional seizures in COVID-19 patients. Although the low number of reports so far suggests that the risk may be relatively low, the reports indicate that an early neurological manifestation with seizures should not be ruled out. In the context of these cases, we discuss possible pathophysiological mechanisms that may trigger ictogenesis in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Seizures/virology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/epidemiology , Seizures/physiopathology
16.
Sleep Vigil ; 4(2): 61-72, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-630722

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sleep services are assigned a non-essential status during COVID-19. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine strongly urges sleep clinicians to continue postponing non-urgent care until a later date, if such a recommendation is made by state officials due to local conditions. At the same time, one cannot ignore the fact that sleep is important for people's health and wellbeing. Therefore, to protect the health of the population, it is essential to find ways and means to continue the practice of sleep medicine even during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: Social environment and work ethics in sleep clinics and sleep laboratories in Asia, Africa, and Latin America are different from those in the US. Under these circumstances, the Indian Society for Sleep Research (ISSR) created a task force to develop guidelines for the practice of sleep medicine, not only for the Indian environment but also for other countries that are affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. The task force examined documents regarding practice of sleep medicine and associated specialities  during COVID-19 by various professional organizations and governmental authorities. The recommendations were examined for their applicability. Wherever gaps were identified, consensus was reached keeping in view the available evidences. OUTCOME AND RECOMMENDATIONS: The emphasis of the guidelines is on avoiding doctor to patient contact during the pandemic. Teleconsultation and other modes of audio-visuals can be used as modes for medical practice during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, in addition to the patient, the presence of a family member, or a reliable informant is recommended. Patients of most sleep disorders can be provided tele-aftercare service. ISSR guidelines also give a list of medications allowed to be prescribed during the first and the follow-up teleconsultation. Hospitals and clinics are slowly opening in India and many other countries. As sleep services resume operations, there is a need to find innovative ways to reduce contact with COVID-19 patients, follow personal protection guidelines, as well as social distancing. This article does discuss strategies for the safe conduct of Level 1 sleep studies. Home sleep testing, which had greater acceptance during the last few years, should be given more attention during the COVID-19 period. Once the decision to reopen the sleep laboratory and resume operations is made, the safety of the patients and office staff should become the major priority. The ISSR recommendation is to postpone and reschedule in-laboratory positive pressure therapy, but it mentions the considerations to be followed in emergency situations. At the same time, high clinical risk patients may be diagnosed on the basis of clinical findings, and without performing polysomnography or home sleep testing. However, at some point, there is a need to reinitiate the in-lab testing. In addition, daily assessment of the COVID-19 situation in the community, along with a review of the situation with local public health and the state health department is advised.

17.
18.
Neurol India ; 68(2): 246-254, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-270267

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 infection outbreak has aroused increasing attention and affected thousands of people nationwide. The long incubation period, high infectious rate, varied manifestation, and absence of effective treatment make it difficult to manage the disease transmission. OBJECTIVE: The intended goals are to encourage efficient management of neurological and neurosurgical patients, resource utilization, and protecting the healthcare provider during the COVID-19 epidemic. Herein, we present a consensus statement from various centers in India. METHODOLOGY: In addition to the literature review, recommendations were included from neurologists and neurosurgeons from various centers in India. RESULTS: Every patient presenting for treatment should be treated as a potential asymptomatic infected case. Patients should be categorized based upon the priority as acute (require immediate treatment/surgery within 24 h), sub-acute (requiring treatment within a maximum of 7-10 days), or chronic (requiring treatment within a month). Non-essential elective surgeries and outpatient clinics should be avoided after informing the patient(s). There is a high risk of aerosol dispersion during intubation and certain neurosurgical procedures particularly those involving drills and endoscopes. These procedures should be performed wearing full personal protective equipment. The workflow of the operating rooms should also be modified significantly. Minor modifications in personal and professional lifestyles and routine training to use the PPE will ensure efficient management of resources. CONCLUSION: These recommendations could be used to mitigate the risks and reduce exposure to other patients, public, and healthcare staff.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Infection Control/standards , Neurology/standards , Neurosurgery/standards , Pandemics , Patient Care/standards , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Neurosurgical Procedures , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission
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