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1.
Pediatric Critical Care Medicine Conference: 11th Congress of the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies, WFPICCS ; 23(11 Supplement 1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2190801

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Suggested therapeutic options for Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) include intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) and steroids. Prior studies have shown the benefit of combination therapy with both agents on fever control or the resolution of organ dysfunction. The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of IVIG and steroids on hospital and ICU length of stay (LOS). METHOD(S): This was a retrospective study on 356 hospitalized MIS-C patients from 03/20-9/21 (28 U.S. sites) in the SCCM Discovery Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study (VIRUS) COVID-19 Registry. The effect of IVIG and steroids initiated in the first two days of admission, alone or in combination, on LOS was analyzed using intention to treat analysis. Adjustment for confounders was made by multivariable mixed regression with a random intercept for the site. RESULT(S): Median age of the study population was 8.8 (IQR 4.0, 13) years. 247/356 (70%) patients required ICU admission during hospitalization. Of the total patients, 153 (43%) received IVIG and steroids, 33 (9%) received IVIG only, 43 (12%) received steroids only, and 127 (36%) received neither within first two days. After adjustment of confounders, only combination therapy showed a significant decrease of ICU LOS by 1.6 days compared to no therapy (exponentiated coefficient 0.71 [95% CI 0.51, 0.97, p=0.03]). No significant difference was observed in hospital LOS or the secondary outcome variables. CONCLUSION(S): Combination therapy with IVIG and steroids initiated in the first 2 days of admission favorably impacts ICU LOS in children with MIS-C.

2.
Pediatric Critical Care Medicine Conference: 11th Congress of the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies, WFPICCS ; 23(11 Supplement 1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2190760

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Evidence for therapies for pediatric COVID-19 is limited. Primary aim was to study the effect of steroid administration within 2 days of admission for pediatric non-MIS-C-COVID-19 on hospital and ICU length of stay (LOS). The secondary aim was to study its effect on inflammation and fever defervescence. METHOD(S): A retrospective study of 1163 children hospitalized with non-MISC-COVID-19, from 03/20 to 09/21, from 58 hospitals (7 countries, 92% US), in the Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study (VIRUS) registry. Effect of steroid administration <= 2 days of admission on hospital and ICU LOS was studied using intention to treat analysis, adjusted for confounders by multivariable mixed linear regression. RESULT(S): Median age was 7(IQR 0.9,14.3) years. 184(15.8%) children who received steroids within <= 2 days were compared to 979 (84.1%) children who did not. 56.5% (n=658) required respiratory support. Patients in the steroid group were older, with higher severity of illness. A greater proportion required respiratory and vasoactive support. On multivariable linear regression with random intercept for site (Table), there was no significant difference in hospital LOS (exponentiated [exp] co-efficient 0.92, 95%CI = 0.77, 1.10, p=0.374) or ICU LOS (exp co-efficient 1.02, 95%CI = 0.78, 1.34, p=0.864) between the groups. There was no significant difference in time to fever defervescence and normalization of inflammatory mediators by Day 3. CONCLUSION(S): In pediatric non-MIS-C COVID-19, steroid treatment <= 2 days of hospital admission did not show a statistically significant effect on hospital or ICU LOS. (Table Presented).

3.
Medical Mycology ; 60(Supplement 1):121, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2189366

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Candida spp.accounts for 70%-80% of invasive bloodstream fungal infections.It is most commonly spread in long-term care facilities, caring for people with severe medical conditions. Patients hospitalized for COVID-19 are at risk for healthcare-associated infections like candidemia. Candida auris is an emerging, multidrug-resistant, healthcare-associated fungal pathogen. Candida auris is currently one of the most common clinical fungal pathogens, causing nosocomial infections. Due to its higher drug-resistance rate, C. auris is more difficult to treat, requires longer hospitalization periods, and results in higher morbidity and mortality than other Candida species. Aim and Objectives: To analyze the risk factors associated with C. auris candidemia in COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 patients at tertiary care center. Material(s) and Method(s): We prospectively analyzed all positive blood samples which were received in the Microbiology department at SGPGI, Lucknow for a period of 1 year (March 2020-March 2021).Blood samples were inoculated and cultured in BACTECBottles (BD) andincubated for 5days at 37degreeC.The bottles whichflagged positive, aGram's stain wasperformed and were sub-cultured on SDA for isolation of yeast colonies. Isolated yeasts were identified by phenotypic method and confirmed by MALDI-T OF MS. Demographics details of the patients were collected and recorded. The significant associated risk factors with C. auris candidemia were analyzed. Result(s): A total of 13 000 blood samples were received during the 1-year study period from different departments of the hospital.1.25% (n = 163) of the blood culture samples were positive for candidemia. Out of 163 Candida culture-positive blood samples, 27.61% (n = 45) were C. auris. A total of 64% (n = 29) C. auris candidemia was seen in non-COVID-19 patients, 31.1% (n = 14) in COVID-19patients, and twopatients had ahistory ofpost-COVID-19 infection.Theassociated risk factors included the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, intravenous catheterization, underlying respiratory illness, mechanical ventilation, use of steroids, and dialysis. A total of 46.6% (n = 21) mortality was seen with C. auris candidemia. Conclusion(s): Candida auris candidemia continues to be a threat in hospitalized patients. This study shows prevalence of C. auris candidemia in COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 patients with 47% mortality. Candida auris is continuously reported from different departments in our institute, especially from intensive care units with high morbidity and mortality.An alertness, awareness and infection control practices by the healthcare personnel will help in early diagnosis and appropriate antifungal therapy and control the spread of C. auris.

4.
Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2175624

ABSTRACT

SARS-nCoV was identified as corona virus had spread worldwide very quickly and affected more than million people worldwide. To halt this acceleration and for efficient control the knowledge on genomic information is of utmost importance. We attempted to determine the nature of variation i.e., insertion, deletion, substitution, among structural sequences required to code for membrane, spike, nucleocapsid, envelope protein and glycosylation variation between SARS CoV and SARS nCoV spike glycoproteins, respectively. Comparative sequence analysis was performed by using retrieved sequences from the NCBI database. The analyzed sequences revealed, that the sequences coding for envelope protein show minor substituting amino acids. SARS CoV showed 94.74 percent amino acid identities with SARS nCoV amino acid sequences coding for envelope protein. In comparison to SARS nCoV, distinct amino acid residues vary in SARS CoV sequences coding for membrane, nucleocapsid, and spike proteins, respectively. S protein coding sequences of SARS CoV exhibited one deletion, six insertion and six hundred three substitutions in SARS nCoV sequence. Insertion of valine was found in receptor binding domain of SARS nCoV at position 487, and NSPR amino acid residues at position 683-686. Deletions and substitutions were also found in nucleotide sequences of strain B.1.617.2 of SARS nCoV. Additionally, binding interaction pattern of ACE2 receptor protein with original wild-type SARS-CoV-2 strain with the recently evolved Omicron variant was also evaluated. The docking results substantiated that the specific variation in binding residues is likely to impact virulence pattern of both variants.

5.
2nd International Conference on Advances in VLSI and Embedded Systems, AVES 2021 ; 962:163-173, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2173937

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus is the most challenging threat today in our society. This virus has caused a huge number of deaths worldwide. Experts are still searching for an effective and long-term vaccine. In the present scenario, people are relying on wearing mask, self-quarantine, social-distancing and sanitizing hands for defending this infectious coronavirus. The health-care units, academicians, researchers and governments as well as business houses are trying their level best to prevent the spread of this disease. In this paper, design and implementation of an Internet of Things (IoT)-based smart and cost-effective system for tracking and monitoring of COVID-19 suspected patients have been introduced. Proposed system has significant social impact as it can be used to reduce the chances of community transmission of this deadly virus. Proposed reusable cost-effective system can help the hospital and local authority to monitor and track the movement of quarantined people. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

6.
Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease ; 16:16, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201498

ABSTRACT

Awake self-proning is being used widely as respiratory support in COVID-19 hypoxemia, in resource limited settings. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of early awake self-proning in preventing mortality and need for intubation in adults with moderate COVID-19 hypoxemia. In this randomized clinical trial with intention-to-treat analysis, we enrolled eligible adults with COVID-19 hypoxemia (SpO2 <94%), requiring supplemental oxygen via nasal prongs or facemask from a tertiary-care setting in Jodhpur, India between June 15 to December 24, 2020. Awake proning comprised of 4-hour cycles with prone position maintained 2 h per cycle. The control group did not maintain any specific position. All participants received standard care. The primary outcomes were 30-day mortality and requirement for mechanical ventilation. Of 502 participants included, mean (SD) age was 59.7 (12.7) years with 124 women (24.6%);257 were randomized to awake-proning, 245 to control group and all 502 were included for follow-up mortality analysis. Mortality at follow-up was 16.3% in the awake-prone and 15.1% in the control group [OR:1.10 (0.68-1.78), p=0.703). Requirement of mechanical ventilation was 10% in both groups (p=0.974). Survival time (in days) was not significantly different between the groups [Log-rank test, HR: 1.08 (95% CI, 0.70-1.68), p=0.726]. Likewise, time to intubation was comparable (Log-rank test, HR: 0.93 (95% CI, 0.56-1.70), p=0.974). Hence, awake self-proning did not improve survival or requirement of mechanical-ventilation in non-intubated patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 hypoxemia. Trial Registration: Clinical trial registry of India, ID: CTRI/2020/06/025804. *************************************************************** *Appendix Authors list Deepak Kumar1, Gopal Krishna Bohra1, Nishant Kumar Chauhan2, Nikhil Kothari3, Vijaya Lakshmi Nag4 Sanjeev Misra5 1Department of Internal Medicine;2Department of Pulmonary Medicine;3Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care;4Department of Microbiology;5Department of Surgical Oncology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, India.

7.
International Journal of Academic Medicine and Pharmacy ; 4(5):392-395, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2156289

ABSTRACT

Background: To assess effectiveness of Bain's circuit attached to a NIV mask for assisting spontaneous ventilation. Material(s) and Method(s): Fifty- six adult COVID- 19 patients were divided into 2 groups of twenty- eight each. In group I, patients were ventilated using the modified Bain's circuit attached to an appropriately sized NIV mask and in group II patients were continued on ventilation using BiPAP. Hemodynamic variables such as partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), partial pressure of O2 (pO2), SO2, heart rate and pH values were recorded at baseline, after 30 minutes and after 2 hours. Result(s): There was non- significant difference in mean heart rate, SpO2, pH, pO2, pCO2 and SO2 at baseline, after 30 minutes after 2 hours in group I and group II (P> 0.05). Conclusion(s): Modified Bain's circuit can be considered as an alternative to non-invasive ventilation in COVID- 19 patients. Copyright © 2022 Necati Ozpinar. All Rights Reserved.

8.
Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies ; 12(4):1-25, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2135932

ABSTRACT

Learning outcomes: After working through the case and assignment questions, students will be able to understand the following aspects:▪ how good strategic planning can convert a crisis into an opportunity;▪ importance of service excellence and customer satisfaction through customer delight and customer feedback;and▪ utilisation of resources and excellent time management strategies. Case overview/synopsis: This case discusses how vital teamwork and motivated leadership can convert a crisis such as Covid-19 into an opportunity. This case study talks about Uttar Pradesh Metro Rail Corporation (UPMRC), a metro rail corporation working to develop metro trains in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The case discusses how challenging it was for the metro rail corporation to transform its processes in a short period and deal with the crisis on major fronts such as facilities maintenance, human resource management, ensuring safety and security of its staff and riders, motivation of staff, service quality and maintaining all operational aspects. The case discusses how UPMRC is a leader on all fronts and has excelled in its operational work. It talks about what challenges the lockdown and unlocking phase posed in front of the leadership and how teamwork, dedication to exemplary service quality and customer satisfaction gave the team the strength to make changes that improved their processes and helped them overcome the crisis.The case starts with a discussion of metro rail inception and incorporation of UPMRC and then how this newly formed metro has to face the challenges of pre-lockdown period where the team worked very hard for sanitisation and safety. The lockdown created a completely different set of challenges related to the facilities and the entire metro train systems, which was a difficult situation to deal because of restrictions and other challenges. However, the team dealt with situations with strength and strategic planning, leading to better managed processes and staff. The unlocking phase also gave many challenges that the team handled with a lot of care and efficiency. Complexity academic level: This case is suitable for post-graduate-level courses on services marketing, service operations management, general management, crisis management and strategic management. Participants can use the case to develop an understanding of strategic planning and management.This case can also be used in the executive education program for managers to encourage them to think through challenges faced by metro rail corporations. Supplementary materials: Teaching notes are available for educators only. Subject Code: CSS 10: Public Sector Management. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

9.
3rd Innovative Product Design and Intelligent Manufacturing System, IPDIMS 2021 ; : 567-575, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2128498

ABSTRACT

For the past few years, the world has seen a paradigm shift in the way of life. Daily activities of working, learning, etc. were shifted to an online mode so that the spread of the covid virus can be contained. During this time, usage of social media apps was at an all-time high since it was the only way people could socialize. The clubhouse was one such social media app that gained popularity during the lockdown and showed exponential growth in terms of user engagement. But, it was observed that from the survey conducted among 33 users, almost 82% of users showed reluctance in using Clubhouse over time. 84.8% of users welcomed the need for a better User Experience for the platform. An average of 64.2% of users reported different User Experience (UX) related issues in the app. In this paper, the UX side of the app is studied and discussed. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

10.
Internet of Things: Robotic and Drone Technology ; : 33-46, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2079589

ABSTRACT

The chapter addresses a comprehensive review of the Internet of Drone Technology (IoDT) and its advancements in different spheres of our daily life with special focus on smart cities. To be more specific, this chapter explores Internet usage in drone technology corresponding to the scenario of intelligent cities. There has also been discussion about the use of IoDT in unmanned vehicles. The chapter also addresses IoDT concerns related to security and communication. Additional IoDT implementations have been addressed in various agricultural usages. It also discusses the usage of IoT-based drone technology to fight against flood and fire outbreaks, and highlights some future changes that can be explored in this field. Some of the new fields that can be enhanced by IoT-backed drone technology are unique applications like traffic management, control of unmanned vehicles, assistance in emergency corridors, intelligent production as well as agricultural development, disaster management, and, last but not least, the management of COVID outbreak. © 2022 selection and editorial matter, Arun Kumar Rana, Nitin Goyal, Sharad Sharma, Suman Lata Tripathi.

11.
Transport and Sustainability ; 17:149-162, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2078146

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic led to supply chain disruptions resulting in adverse economic impacts on global supply chains. Nationwide lockdowns in countries that play key roles in global manufacturing restricted freight movements through air, ocean, and land routes resulting in delivery delays, higher freight rates and congestion. At the same time, the pandemic has accelerated the growth of the e-commerce sector. Concern around infections has led to a surge in first-time online consumers for categories such as health and pharmaceuticals and fast-moving consumer goods. Companies have had to rethink their approaches to optimising warehouse locations and inventory to meet customer demand. From a freight perspective, the focus has shifted from a single-mode model towards multi-modal logistics to reduce costs and dependence on any one mode. This chapter will review recent developments, long term impacts and opportunities for growth in the context of this important sector and illustrate some of the key impacts of the pandemic using the example of the emerging economy in India. It concludes by synthesising key takeaways and reflecting on the future of the sector. © 2022 by Emerald Publishing Limited.

12.
Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2078115

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The paper intends to review academic research on peer to peer (P2P) accommodation sharing, notably Airbnb, for 2010–2022 and to identify the knowledge gaps for future research directions. Design/methodology/approach: Numerous databases were searched using keywords. Based on the central theme of the research papers, the papers were divided into eight segments—consumer behavior, host behavior, host–guest relationship (HGR), trust in Airbnb, dominant theories in Airbnb, Airbnb regulation, Airbnb and hotels and macro impacts of Airbnb. In-depth content analysis resulted in the final 101 papers for inclusion. Findings: The review advances comprehension of the Airbnb phenomenon by enriching the literature with new and most recent studies. Most existing Airbnb research has been conducted in Europe, USA/Canada, followed by Asian countries like China, Singapore, S. Korea and India. Future studies should include South America, Africa and other developing nations. More cross-cultural studies are required to understand consumer and host behavior in different cultural settings. Numerous proposals to fulfill the research gaps identified by the paper are discussed. Practical implications: The study will give better insights into the spiraling P2P accommodation economy. The study will be useful to researchers, scholars, Airbnb, the hotel industry, vacation rental players and destination marketing organizations by relating the study findings to practical competition analysis. The study provides deeper insights into the decision-making process of both guests and hosts by examining the relevant motivators and constraints. It will also assist the Airbnb platform in identifying its strength over the traditional hotel industry and other vacation rentals. The findings will also assist policymakers in better controlling the Airbnb phenomena by providing a comprehensive view of the micro and macro environment. Originality/value: The paper includes the most recent studies from Asian countries like India, Singapore, China, Korea and Taiwan, not covered by earlier reviews. Prior studies mainly focused on European and American countries. Also, the paper tried to cover the macro impacts of Airbnb in-depth and the effects of COVID-19. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

13.
Biomedical Engineering Applications for People with Disabilities and the Elderly in the COVID-19 Pandemic and Beyond ; : 109-117, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2060230

ABSTRACT

Recently, the world has been affected by a coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, which has caused serious illness among many people across the globe. This virus is believed to have been transmitted from bats. It disease originated in Wuhan province in China, at a seafood wholesale market in late 2019. At the time of writing, more than 11 million people had contracted COVID-19 and more than 534,000 had died due to this disease. In this chapter, the effect of this virus on the human body is explained;further, the symptoms and diagnosis also are described. The diagnostic approach is based on virus detection at the device and circuit level. Artificial intelligence models of engineered nanomaterials have the potential to easily detect coronavirus by sensing the variation in size or surface potential of the nanoparticles. The machine learning approaches are also described for the analysis of disease spread and identifying hotspots. This chapter mainly deals with coronavirus symptoms, diagnosis, detection, and analysis with the help of existing artificial intelligence prediction models. It also covers virus detection at the transistor and material levels through biosensors. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

14.
Biomedical Engineering Applications for People with Disabilities and the Elderly in the COVID-19 Pandemic and Beyond ; : 93-104, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2060216

ABSTRACT

The first case of novel coronavirus COVID-19 appeared in China in November 2019 in Wuhan city. The novel virus caused widespread infections all over the world that led to thousands of deaths within a few months. The entire world was affected, without any suitable medicine or treatment to cure the disease. Most of the measures for defense against the virus were nonmedical, such as social distancing, lockdowns, and improved personal hygiene. The main objective of this study was to use data-driven methods like COVID-19 diagnosis based on X-ray images and cough sounds, sentiment analysis, knowledge discovery, semantic analysis, and hotspots detection. The data-driven technologies and COVID-19 research are proving effective in the battle against this deadly disease and will prove useful in the future also. The common consensus on the pandemic is that elderly people are most vulnerable, and epidemiologists consider age to be an important factor in survival. This chapter provides the scientific community and independent researchers with information about the open-source dataset, extensible and accessible studies in the field, along with existing challenges in the use of the dataset. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

15.
J Hosp Infect ; 129: 17-21, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049479

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite multifactorial evidence, the safe and effective elimination of free-floating micro-organisms remains a significant scientific challenge. ZeBox Technology exploits microbial Zeta Potential, to extract and eliminate them from free-flowing air, using a non-ionizing electric field, in combination with a microbicidal surface. AIM: Evaluation of ZeBox Technology against aerosolized SARS-CoV-2 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis under controlled conditions. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 and M. tuberculosis H37Ra were used in this study. Individual micro-organisms were aerosolized using a Collison nebulizer inside an air-sealed test chamber. Air samples were collected from the chamber on to a Mixed Cellulose Ester membrane, at various time points, and used for enumeration. SARS-CoV-2 was enumerated using qRT-PCR, while M. tuberculosis H37Ra was quantified using standard microbiological procedures. FINDINGS: We established a viable aerosolized microbial load of ∼10E9 and ∼10E6 for SARS-CoV-2 and M. tuberculosis H37Ra, respectively, inside the test chamber. Under ideal conditions, the floating microbial load was at a steady-state level of 10E9 for SARS-CoV-2 and 10E6 for M. tuberculosis. When the ZeBox-Technology-enabled device was operated, the microbial load reduced significantly. A reduction of ∼10E4.7 was observed for M. tuberculosis, while a reduction of ∼10E7 for SARS-CoV-2 was observed within a short duration. The reduction in airborne SARS-CoV-2 load was qualitatively and quantitatively measured using fluorescence analysis and qRT-PCR methods, respectively. CONCLUSION: This validation demonstrates the efficacy of the developed technology against two of the deadliest micro-organisms that claim millions of lives worldwide. In conjunction with the existing reports, the present validation proved the true broad-spectrum elimination capability of ZeBox technology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Technology
16.
Ieee Access ; 10:95106-95124, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2042709

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus (nCOV) is a new strain that needs to be hindered from spreading by taking effective preventive measures as swiftly as possible. Timely forecasting of COVID-19 cases can ultimately support in making significant decisions and planning for implementing preventive measures. In this study, three common machine learning (ML) approaches via linear regression (LR), sequential minimal optimization (SMO) regression, and M5P techniques have been discussed and implemented for forecasting novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic scenarios. To demonstrate the forecast accuracy of the aforementioned ML approaches, a preliminary sample-study has been conducted on the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic scenario for three different countries including the United States of America (USA), Italy, and Australia. Furthermore, the contributions of this study are extended by conducting an in-depth forecast study on COVID-19 pandemic scenarios for the first, second, and third waves in India. An accurate forecasting model has been proposed, which has been constructed on the basis of the results of the aforementioned forecasting models of COVID-19 pandemic scenarios. The findings of the research highlight that LR is a potential approach that outperforms all other forecasting models tested herein in the present COVID-19 pandemic scenario. Finally, the LR approach has been used to forecast the likely onset of the fourth wave of COVID-19 in India.

17.
Med Mycol ; 60(Suppl 1), 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-2042603

ABSTRACT

 : Poster session 2, September 22, 2022, 12:30 PM - 1:30 PM Introduction: Candida spp. accounts for 70%-80% of invasive bloodstream fungal infections. It is most commonly spread in long-term care facilities, caring for people with severe medical conditions. Patients hospitalized for COVID-19 are at risk for healthcare-associated infections like candidemia. Candida auris is an emerging, multidrug-resistant, healthcare-associated fungal pathogen. Candida auris is currently one of the most common clinical fungal pathogens, causing nosocomial infections. Due to its higher drug-resistance rate, C. auris is more difficult to treat, requires longer hospitalization periods, and results in higher morbidity and mortality than other Candida species. Aim and Objectives: To analyze the risk factors associated with C. auris candidemia in COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 patients at tertiary care center. Material and Methods: We prospectively analyzed all positive blood samples which were received in the Microbiology department at SGPGI, Lucknow for a period of 1 year (March 2020-March 2021). Blood samples were inoculated and cultured in BACTEC Bottles (BD) and incubated for 5 days at 37°C. The bottles which flagged positive, a Gram's stain was performed and were sub-cultured on SDA for isolation of yeast colonies. Isolated yeasts were identified by phenotypic method and confirmed by MALDI-TOF MS. Demographics details of the patients were collected and recorded. The significant associated risk factors with C. auris candidemia were analyzed. Results: A total of 13 000 blood samples were received during the 1-year study period from different departments of the hospital.1.25% (n = 163) of the blood culture samples were positive for candidemia. Out of 163 Candida culture-positive blood samples, 27.61% (n = 45) were C. auris. A total of 64% (n = 29) C. auris candidemia was seen in non-COVID-19 patients, 31.1% (n = 14) in COVID-19 patients, and two patients had a history of post-COVID-19 infection. The associated risk factors included the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, intravenous catheterization, underlying respiratory illness, mechanical ventilation, use of steroids, and dialysis. A total of 46.6% (n = 21) mortality was seen with C. auris candidemia. Conclusions: Candida auris candidemia continues to be a threat in hospitalized patients. This study shows prevalence of C. auris candidemia in COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 patients with 47% mortality. Candida auris is continuously reported from different departments in our institute, especially from intensive care units with high morbidity and mortality. An alertness, awareness and infection control practices by the healthcare personnel will help in early diagnosis and appropriate antifungal therapy and control the spread of C. auris.

18.
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal ; 27:27, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874025

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Describe the incidence and associated outcomes of gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations of acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in hospitalized children (MIS-C). METHODS: Retrospective review of the Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study registry, a prospective observational, multicenter international cohort study of hospitalized children with acute COVID-19 or MIS-C from March 2020 to November 2020. The primary outcome measure was critical COVID-19 illness. Multivariable models were performed to assess for associations of GI involvement with the primary composite outcome in the entire cohort and a subpopulation of patients with MIS-C. Secondary outcomes included prolonged hospital length of stay defined as being >75th percentile and mortality. RESULTS: Of the 789 patients, GI involvement was present in 500 (63.3%). Critical illness occurred in 392 (49.6%), and 18 (2.3%) died. Those with GI involvement were older (median age of 8 yr), and 18.2% had an underlying GI comorbidity. GI symptoms and liver derangements were more common among patients with MIS-C. In the adjusted multivariable models, acute COVID-19 was no associated with the primary or secondary outcomes. Similarly, despite the preponderance of GI involvement in patients with MIS-C, it was also not associated with the primary or secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: GI involvement is common in hospitalized children with acute COVID-19 and MIS-C. GI involvement is not associated with critical illness, hospital length of stay or mortality in acute COVID-19 or MIS-C.

19.
2nd International Conference on Emerging Technologies for Computing, Communications, and Smart Cities, ETCCS 2021 ; 875:123-136, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1826301

ABSTRACT

Today, a massive outbreak of a deadly virus has challenged humanity in each aspect;we deemed ourselves powerful. Millions of people are at risk, and in some cases, even if the person has reported negative, it is relapsing. Globally, data scientists are also working to tackle this issue by diagnosing, predicting it with the help of machines. Artificial intelligence (AI) serves as a potential tool in fighting against the COVID-19 pandemic. Science the onset of a pandemic, the use of AI has exponentially increased to detect patients suffering or those who are critical. In this paper, the authors discussed the role of AI and the selective review of constraints associated with the functioning of AI. We will also discuss the shortcomings due to the excessive data available between the private and public organizations related to the health sector and their rigorous use without taking note of the data validity. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

20.
1st International Conference of IoT and its Applications, ICIA2020 ; 825:3-12, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1750630

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has been spread over a large geographical area and has affected a large proportion of the population. Maintaining social distance, quarantine, frequent hand-washing, using alcohol-based hand sanitizer and wearing medical mask are essential to protect us and others from COVID-19. To safe the people and help the government authority, several researchers have also developed many mobile applications, medical masks, drones, ventilation systems, etc. for this purpose. In this paper, an efficient android-application-controlled car for human safety against COVID-19 pandemic has been proposed. The proposed architecture can be useful for patient handling and proper transportation of COVID-19-suspected patients. This approach will be beneficial for the ambulance drivers and other emergency service providers who are playing an important role to protect the community from this infectious disease. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

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