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1.
Panminerva Med ; 2022 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1743139

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To assess the clinical effectiveness of Tocilizumab (TCZ) in moderate-to-severe hospitalized COVID-19 patients and factors associated with clinical response. METHODS: 508 inpatients with moderate-to-severe SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled. TCZ effect in addition to standard medical therapy was evaluated in terms of death during hospital stay. Unadjusted and adjusted risk of mortality for TCZ treated patients versus TCZ untreated ones was estimated using robust Cox regression model. We considered the combination of TCZ and ICU as time-dependent exposure and created a model using duplication method to assess the TCZ effect in very severe COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: TCZ REDUCED DEATH DURING HOSPITAL STAY IN THE UNADJUSTED MODEL (HR 0.54, 95%CI 0.33- 0.88) and also in the adjusted model, although with loss of statistical significance (HR 0.72, 0.43- 1.20). Better effectiveness was observed in patients with low SpO2/FiO2 ratio (HR 0.35, 0.21-0.61 vs 1.61, 0.54-4.82, p<0.05), and, without statistical significance, in patients with high CRP (HR 0.51, 0.30-0.87 vs 0.41, 0.12-1.37, p =NS) and high IL-6 (HR 0.49, 0.29-0.82 vs 1.00, 0.28-3.55, p=NS). TCZ was effective in patients not admitted to ICU, both in the unadjusted (HR 0.33, 0.14-0.74) and in the adjusted (HR 0.39, 0.17-0.91) model but no benefit was observed in critical ICU-admitted patients both in the unadjusted (HR 0.66, 0.37-1.15) and in the adjusted model (HR 0.95, 0.54-1.68). CONCLUSIONS: our real-life study suggests clinical efficacy of TCZ in moderate-to-severe COVID-19 patients but not in end-stage disease. Thus, to enhance TCZ effectiveness, patients should be selected before grave compromise of clinical conditions.

2.
Infection ; 2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729429

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Pregnant and postpartum women are at increased risk of developing severe COVID-19. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are now widely used in high-income countries to treat mild to moderate COVID-19 outpatients at risk for developing severe disease. Very few data are available on the use of mAbs in special populations, including pregnant and postpartum women. Here we present our early experience with mAbs in these two populations. METHODS: Electronic records of pregnant and postpartum women treated with mAbs at Careggi University Hospital, Florence, were retrieved. Relevant data were extracted (age, presence of risk factors for COVID-19, oxygen support, mAb type, gestational age, and pregnancy status). When available, outcomes at 28 days after administration were also included. RESULTS: From March 1st to September 30th 2021, eight pregnant and two postpartum women have been treated with mAbs at our center. The median age was 31 years (IQR 30-33.5, range 29-38), median gestational age was 24 weeks. Seven patients had additional risk factors. According to the Italian disposition, all patients received casirivimab/imdevimab, with five receiving a 2.4 mg dose and five receiving a 8 g dose. Eight patients improved. One developed myocarditis, considered a COVID-19 complication. Another required a transient increase of low flow oxygen support before improving and being discharged. At a 28 days follow-up, all patients were clinically recovered. We did not observe mAbs related adverse events. CONCLUSION: Although preliminary data should be interpreted with caution, it is remarkable how mAbs were well tolerated by pregnant women with COVID-19. Further data on mAbs in this special population should be collected but the use of mAbs in pregnant and postpartum patients should be considered. Even thus oral antivirals are becoming available, they are not recommended in pregnant and postpartum women. This population may specifically benefit from treatment with last generation mAbs.

4.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e77, 2021 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203371

ABSTRACT

Control of the novel COronaVIrus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) in a hospital setting is a priority. A COVID-19-infected surgeon performed surgical activities before being tested. An exposure risk classification was applied to the identified exposed subjects and high- and medium-risk contacts underwent active symptom monitoring for 14 days at home. All healthcare professionals (HCPs) were tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) at the end of the quarantine and serological tests were performed. Three household contacts and 20 HCPs were identified as high- or medium-risk contacts and underwent a 14-day quarantine. Fourteen HCPs and 19 patients were instead classified as low risk. All the contacts remained asymptomatic and all HCPs tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. About 25-28 days after their last exposure, HCPs underwent serological testing and two of them had positive IgM but negative confirmatory swabs. In a low COVID-19 burden area, the in-hospital transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from an infectious doctor did not occur and, despite multiple and frequent contacts, a hospital outbreak was avoided. This may be linked to the adoption of specific recommendations and to the use of standard personal protective equipment by HCPs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Surgeons , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Contact Tracing/instrumentation , Contact Tracing/methods , Epidemiology , Humans , Infection Control/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/standards
6.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 164(2): 294-296, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125766

ABSTRACT

The proportion of patients with residual olfactory and gustatory dysfunction after COVID-19 is increasing, and practical health care strategies need to be developed to manage this novel situation in otolaryngology services worldwide. Starting from our experience in a large Italian hospital, we estimated that >1500 people will complain of some form of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction in the future months in our region. We want to share our logistical and clinical integrated pathway that is aimed to screen and refer each patient to the most appropriate level of care in order to optimize resources and avoid overwhelming the available clinics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated/organization & administration , Olfaction Disorders/therapy , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Taste Disorders/therapy , Taste Disorders/virology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged
7.
Cytokine ; 141: 155456, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062308

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Olfactory and gustatory dysfunction (OD/GD) are now recognized as typical symptoms of COVID-19 infection. However, their pathogenesis remains unclear and no clear prognostic factors have been identified. We have analyzed a cohort of mild/moderate hospitalized patients to identify possible clinical or immunological predictors of recovery from OD/GD. METHODS: Clinical and biological parameters were reviewed along with associated comorbidities. Chemosensory Complaint Score was administered on admission and 30 days after the first negative swab. Unpaired Wilcoxon and chi-squared tests were used to compare the variables in the patients who recovered versus those who did not. RESULTS: From a cohort of 119 hospitalized patients, 43 (36%) reported OD/GD on admission. 60.6% had a full recovery from OD and 69.2% from GD. Only the concentration of IL-10 on admission emerged as significantly associated with recovery of taste (p = 0.041) while allergic respiratory disease was more prevalent in the group who did not recover from OD (p = 0.049) and GD (p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that COVID-19 associated OD/GD is an inflammatory-mediated condition and that clinical and immunological parameters could predict the evolution of these symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Interleukin-10/blood , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/immunology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , Interleukin-10/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/blood , Prognosis , Recovery of Function/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Taste Disorders/blood
11.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 8(8): 2575-2581.e2, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611996

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The early identification of patients at risk of clinical deterioration is of interest considering the timeline of COVID-19 after the onset of symptoms. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to evaluate the usefulness of testing serum IL-6 and other serological and clinical biomarkers, to predict a short-term negative clinical course of patients with noncritical COVID-19. METHODS: A total of 208 patients with noncritical COVID-19 pneumonia at admission were consecutively enrolled. Clinical and laboratory findings obtained on admission were analyzed by using survival analysis and stepwise logistic regression for variable selection. Three-day worsening as outcome in a logistic model to generate a prognostic score was used. RESULTS: Clinical worsening occurred in 63 patients (16 = died; 39 = transferred to intensive care unit; 8 worsening of respiratory failure). Forty-five of them worsened within 3 days after admission. The risk of clinical worsening was progressively enhanced along with increasing quartiles of IL-6 levels. Multivariate analysis showed that IL-6 (P = .005), C-reactive protein (CRP) (P = .003), and SaO2/FiO2 (P = .014) were the best predictors for clinical deterioration in the first 3 days after admission. The combined score yielded an area under the curve = 0.88 (95% confidence interval: 0.83-0.93). A nomogram predicting the probability of 3-day worsening was generated. The score also showed good performance for 7-day and 14- or 21-day worsening and in predicting death occurring during all the follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Combining IL-6, CRP, and SaO2/FiO2 in a score may help clinicians to identify on admission those patients with COVID-19 who are at high risk for a further 3-day clinical deterioration.


Subject(s)
Clinical Deterioration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Interleukin-6/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Young Adult
13.
J Clin Invest ; 130(9): 4694-4703, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-401302

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDCoronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. Antiviral immune response is crucial to achieve pathogen clearance; however, in some patients an excessive and aberrant host immune response can lead to an acute respiratory distress syndrome. The comprehension of the mechanisms that regulate pathogen elimination, immunity, and pathology is essential to better characterize disease progression and widen the spectrum of therapeutic options.METHODSWe performed a flow cytometric characterization of immune cell subsets from 30 patients with COVID-19 and correlated these data with clinical outcomes.RESULTSPatients with COVID-19 showed decreased numbers of circulating T, B, and NK cells and exhibited a skewing of CD8+ T cells toward a terminally differentiated/senescent phenotype. In agreement, CD4+ T and CD8+ T, but also NK cells, displayed reduced antiviral cytokine production capability. Moreover, a reduced cytotoxic potential was identified in patients with COVID-19, particularly in those who required intensive care. The latter group of patients also showed increased serum IL-6 levels that inversely correlated to the frequency of granzyme A-expressing NK cells. Off-label treatment with tocilizumab restored the cytotoxic potential of NK cells.CONCLUSIONThe association between IL-6 serum levels and the impairment of cytotoxic activity suggests the possibility that targeting this cytokine may restore antiviral mechanisms.FUNDINGThis study was supported by funds from the Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine of University of Florence (the ex-60% fund and the "Excellence Departments 2018-2022 Project") derived from Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca (Italy).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic , Interleukin-6/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Critical Care , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Granzymes/blood , Granzymes/immunology , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Immunological , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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