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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244038

ABSTRACT

In late 2019, a new member of the Coronaviridae family, officially designated as "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2" (SARS-CoV-2), emerged and spread rapidly. The Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) outbreak was accompanied by a high rate of morbidity and mortality worldwide and was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020. Within the Coronaviridae family, SARS-CoV-2 is considered to be the third most highly pathogenic virus that infects humans, following the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Four major mechanisms are thought to be involved in COVID-19 pathogenesis, including the activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) signaling pathway, oxidative stress and cell death, cytokine storm, and endothelial dysfunction. Following virus entry and RAS activation, acute respiratory distress syndrome develops with an oxidative/nitrosative burst. The DNA damage induced by oxidative stress activates poly ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1), viral macrodomain of non-structural protein 3, poly (ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), and transient receptor potential melastatin type 2 (TRPM2) channel in a sequential manner which results in cell apoptosis or necrosis. In this review, blockers of angiotensin II receptor and/or PARP, PARG, and TRPM2, including vitamin D3, trehalose, tannins, flufenamic and mefenamic acid, and losartan, have been investigated for inhibiting RAS activation and quenching oxidative burst. Moreover, the application of organic and inorganic nanoparticles, including liposomes, dendrimers, quantum dots, and iron oxides, as therapeutic agents for SARS-CoV-2 were fully reviewed. In the present review, the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are explained by focusing on molecular mechanisms. Potential therapeutic targets, including the RAS signaling pathway, PARP, PARG, and TRPM2, are also discussed in depth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Nanomedicine/methods , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cholecalciferol/pharmacology , GTPase-Activating Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , GTPase-Activating Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , TRPM Cation Channels/antagonists & inhibitors , TRPM Cation Channels/metabolism , Tannins/pharmacology , Trehalose/pharmacology
2.
Int J Mol Med ; 47(6)2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197577

ABSTRACT

The biological abilities of interleukin­6 (IL­6) have been under investigation for nearly 40 years. IL­6 works through an interaction with the complex peptide IL­6 receptor (IL­6R). IL­6 is built with four α­chain nanostructures, while two different chains, IL­6Rα (gp80) and gp130/IL6ß (gp130), are included in IL­6R. The three­dimensional shapes of the six chains composing the IL­6/IL­6R complex are the basis for the nanomolecular roles of IL­6 signalling. Genes, pseudogenes and competitive endogenous RNAs of IL­6 have been identified. In the present review, the roles played by miRNA in the post­transcriptional regulation of IL­6 expression are evaluated. mRNAs are absorbed via the 'sponge' effect to dynamically balance mRNA levels and this has been assessed with regard to IL­6 transcription efficiency. According to current knowledge on molecular and nanomolecular structures involved in active IL­6 signalling, two different IL­6 models have been proposed. IL­6 mainly has functions in inflammatory processes, as well as in cognitive activities. Furthermore, the abnormal production of IL­6 has been found in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS­CoV­2; also known as COVID­19). In the present review, both inflammatory and cognitive IL­6 models were analysed by evaluating the cytological and histological locations of IL­6 signalling. The goal of this review was to illustrate the roles of the classic and trans­signalling IL­6 pathways in endocrine glands such as the thyroid and in the central nervous system. Specifically, autoimmune thyroid diseases, disorders of cognitive processes and SARS­CoV­2 virus infection have been examined to determine the contribution of IL­6 to these disease states.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Cognition , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/immunology , Interleukin-6/analysis , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
3.
Front Immunol ; 11: 2130, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-782001

ABSTRACT

In the last decades, a number of infectious viruses have emerged from wildlife or re-emerged, generating serious threats to the global health and to the economy worldwide. Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers, Lassa fever, Dengue fever, Yellow fever, West Nile fever, Zika, and Chikungunya vector-borne diseases, Swine flu, Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and the recent Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are examples of zoonoses that have spread throughout the globe with such a significant impact on public health that the scientific community has been called for a rapid intervention in preventing and treating emerging infections. Vaccination is probably the most effective tool in helping the immune system to activate protective responses against pathogens, reducing morbidity and mortality, as proven by historical records. Under health emergency conditions, new and alternative approaches in vaccine design and development are imperative for a rapid and massive vaccination coverage, to manage a disease outbreak and curtail the epidemic spread. This review gives an update on the current vaccination strategies for some of the emerging/re-emerging viruses, and discusses challenges and hurdles to overcome for developing efficacious vaccines against future pathogens.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Vaccination , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antibody-Dependent Enhancement/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology
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