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Pediatr Nephrol ; 2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680823


BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is seen in one-fifth of pediatric patients with COVID-19 requiring hospital admission, and is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and residual kidney impairment. The majority of kidney pathology data in patients with COVID-19 is derived from adult case series and there is an overall lack of histologic data for most pediatric patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We assembled a multi-institutional cohort of five unvaccinated pediatric patients with COVID-19 and associated kidney dysfunction with available histology. RESULTS: Three complex patients with current or prior SARS-CoV-2 infection had multifactorial thrombotic microangiopathy with clinical features of hemolytic uremic syndrome (in two) or disseminated intravascular coagulation (in one); one died and another developed chronic kidney disease stage 5. Two with recently preceding SARS-CoV-2 infection presented with nephrotic syndrome; one had IgA vasculitis and one had minimal change disease. Within a short follow-up time, none has returned to baseline kidney function. CONCLUSION: Although uncommon, COVID-19-associated kidney injury can have significant morbidity in the unvaccinated pediatric and adolescent population. A higher resolution version of the Graphical abstract is available as Supplementary information.

Cell ; 185(6): 1025-1040.e14, 2022 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649487


During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, novel and traditional vaccine strategies have been deployed globally. We investigated whether antibodies stimulated by mRNA vaccination (BNT162b2), including third-dose boosting, differ from those generated by infection or adenoviral (ChAdOx1-S and Gam-COVID-Vac) or inactivated viral (BBIBP-CorV) vaccines. We analyzed human lymph nodes after infection or mRNA vaccination for correlates of serological differences. Antibody breadth against viral variants is lower after infection compared with all vaccines evaluated but improves over several months. Viral variant infection elicits variant-specific antibodies, but prior mRNA vaccination imprints serological responses toward Wuhan-Hu-1 rather than variant antigens. In contrast to disrupted germinal centers (GCs) in lymph nodes during infection, mRNA vaccination stimulates robust GCs containing vaccine mRNA and spike antigen up to 8 weeks postvaccination in some cases. SARS-CoV-2 antibody specificity, breadth, and maturation are affected by imprinting from exposure history and distinct histological and antigenic contexts in infection compared with vaccination.

Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Germinal Center , Antigens, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination
Am J Kidney Dis ; 77(1): 82-93.e1, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-851328


RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Kidney biopsy data inform us about pathologic processes associated with infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We conducted a multicenter evaluation of kidney biopsy findings in living patients to identify various kidney disease pathology findings in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and their association with SARS-CoV-2 infection. STUDY DESIGN: Case series. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: We identified 14 native and 3 transplant kidney biopsies performed for cause in patients with documented recent or concurrent SARS-CoV-2 infection treated at 7 large hospital systems in the United States. OBSERVATIONS: Men and women were equally represented in this case series, with a higher proportion of Black (n=8) and Hispanic (n=5) patients. All 17 patients had SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, but only 3 presented with severe COVID-19 symptoms. Acute kidney injury (n=15) and proteinuria (n=11) were the most common indications for biopsy and these symptoms developed concurrently or within 1 week of COVID-19 symptoms in all patients. Acute tubular injury (n=14), collapsing glomerulopathy (n=7), and endothelial injury/thrombotic microangiopathy (n=6) were the most common histologic findings. 2 of the 3 transplant recipients developed active antibody-mediated rejection weeks after COVID-19. 8 patients required dialysis, but others improved with conservative management. LIMITATIONS: Small study size and short clinical follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Cases of even symptomatically mild COVID-19 were accompanied by acute kidney injury and/or heavy proteinuria that prompted a diagnostic kidney biopsy. Although acute tubular injury was seen among most of them, uncommon pathology such as collapsing glomerulopathy and acute endothelial injury were detected, and most of these patients progressed to irreversible kidney injury and dialysis.

Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Proteinuria/etiology , Proteinuria/pathology , Adult , Aged , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Kidney/pathology , Male , Middle Aged