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Infect Dis Ther ; 10(4): 2333-2351, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345213


INTRODUCTION: The anti-inflammatory effect of macrolides prompted the study of oral clarithromycin in moderate COVID-19. METHODS: An open-label non-randomized trial in 90 patients with COVID-19 of moderate severity was conducted between May and October 2020. The primary endpoint was defined at the end of treatment (EOT) as no need for hospital re-admission and no progression into lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) for patients with upper respiratory tract infection and as at least 50% decrease of the respiratory symptoms score without progression into severe respiratory failure (SRF) for patients with LRTI. Viral load, biomarkers, the function of mononuclear cells and safety were assessed. RESULTS: The primary endpoint was attained in 86.7% of patients treated with clarithromycin (95% CIs 78.1-92.2%); this was 91.7% and 81.4% among patients starting clarithromycin the first 5 days from symptoms onset or later (odds ratio after multivariate analysis 6.62; p 0.030). The responses were better for patients infected by non-B1.1 variants. Clarithromycin use was associated with decreases in circulating C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6; by increase of production of interferon-gamma and decrease of production of interleukin-6 by mononuclear cells; and by suppression of SARS-CoV-2 viral load. No safety concerns were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Early clarithromycin treatment provides most of the clinical improvement in moderate COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION:, NCT04398004.

Cureus ; 13(6): e15976, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304861


Bordetella bronchiseptica is a gram-negative coccobacillus that colonizes the respiratory system of mammals such as dogs, cats, rabbits and others and might cause upper respiratory tract infections. Although it can be rarely pathogenic in humans, there are several case reports describing infections in humans. We describe the case of a patient without prolonged immunosuppression or underlying diseases, with bacteremia from Bordetella bronchiseptica, while being treated in a tertiary hospital for COVID-19 infection.