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1.
J Hosp Infect ; 106(3): 536-553, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841704

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In pandemics such as COVID-19, shortages of personal protective equipment are common. One solution may be to decontaminate equipment such as facemasks for reuse. AIM: To collect and synthesize existing information on decontamination of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) using microwave and heat-based treatments, with special attention to impacts on mask function (aerosol penetration, airflow resistance), fit, and physical traits. METHODS: A systematic review (PROSPERO CRD42020177036) of literature available from Medline, Embase, Global Health, and other sources was conducted. Records were screened independently by two reviewers, and data was extracted from studies that reported on effects of microwave- or heat-based decontamination on N95 FFR performance, fit, physical traits, and/or reductions in microbial load. FINDINGS: Thirteen studies were included that used dry/moist microwave irradiation, heat, or autoclaving. All treatment types reduced pathogen load by a log10 reduction factor of at least three when applied for sufficient duration (>30 s microwave, >60 min dry heat), with most studies assessing viral pathogens. Mask function (aerosol penetration <5% and airflow resistance <25 mmH2O) was preserved after all treatments except autoclaving. Fit was maintained for most N95 models, though all treatment types caused observable physical damage to at least one model. CONCLUSIONS: Microwave irradiation and heat may be safe and effective viral decontamination options for N95 FFR reuse during critical shortages. The evidence does not support autoclaving or high-heat (>90°C) approaches. Physical degradation may be an issue for certain mask models, and more real-world evidence on fit is needed.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Decontamination/standards , Equipment Reuse/standards , Guidelines as Topic , Hot Temperature , Respiratory Protective Devices/virology , Ultraviolet Rays , Humans
2.
J Hosp Infect ; 106(3): 504-521, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800824

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Decontaminating and reusing filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) for healthcare workers is a potential solution to address inadequate FFR supply during a global pandemic. AIM: The objective of this review was to synthesize existing data on the effectiveness and safety of using chemical disinfectants to decontaminate N95 FFRs. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted on disinfectants to decontaminate N95 FFRs using Embase, Medline, Global Health, Google Scholar, WHO feed, and MedRxiv. Two reviewers independently determined study eligibility and extracted predefined data fields. Original research reporting on N95 FFR function, decontamination, safety, or FFR fit following decontamination with a disinfectant was included. FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION: A single cycle of vaporized hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) successfully removes viral pathogens without affecting airflow resistance or fit, and maintains an initial filter penetration of <5%, with little change in FFR appearance. Residual hydrogen peroxide levels following decontamination were within safe limits. More than one decontamination cycle of vaporized H2O2 may be possible but further information is required on how multiple cycles would affect FFR fit in a real-world setting before the upper limit can be established. Although immersion in liquid H2O2 does not appear to adversely affect FFR function, there is no available data on its ability to remove infectious pathogens from FFRs or its impact on FFR fit. Sodium hypochlorite, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, and ethylene oxide are not recommended due to safety concerns or negative effects on FFR function.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Decontamination/standards , Disinfectants/administration & dosage , Equipment Reuse/standards , Hydrogen Peroxide/administration & dosage , Respiratory Protective Devices/virology , Sodium Hypochlorite/administration & dosage , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Ultraviolet Rays
3.
J Hosp Infect ; 106(1): 163-175, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687870

ABSTRACT

Inadequate supply of filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) for healthcare workers during a pandemic such as the novel coronavirus outbreak (SARS-CoV-2) is a serious public health issue. The aim of this study was to synthesize existing data on the effectiveness of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) for N95 FFR decontamination. A systematic review (PROSPERO CRD42020176156) was conducted on UVGI in N95 FFRs using Embase, Medline, Global Health, Google Scholar, WHO feed, and MedRxiv. Two reviewers independently determined eligibility and extracted predefined variables. Original research reporting on function, decontamination, or mask fit following UVGI were included. Thirteen studies were identified, comprising 54 UVGI intervention arms and 58 N95 models. FFRs consistently maintained certification standards following UVGI. Aerosol penetration averaged 1.19% (0.70-2.48%) and 1.14% (0.57-2.63%) for control and UVGI arms, respectively. Airflow resistance for the control arms averaged 9.79 mm H2O (7.97-11.70 mm H2O) vs 9.85 mm H2O (8.33-11.44 mm H2O) for UVGI arms. UVGI protocols employing a cumulative dose >20,000 J/m2 resulted in a 2-log reduction in viral load. A >3-log reduction was observed in seven UVGI arms using >40,000 J/m2. Impact of UVGI on fit was evaluated in two studies (16,200; 32,400 J/m2) and no evidence of compromise was found. Our findings suggest that further work in this area (or translation to a clinical setting) should use a cumulative UV-C dose of 40,000 J/m2 or greater, and confirm appropriate mask fit following decontamination.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfection/standards , Equipment Reuse/standards , Guidelines as Topic , Masks/standards , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Ultraviolet Rays , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Efficiency , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Safety/standards
4.
Osteoporos Int ; 25(7): 1875-83, 2014 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24760243

ABSTRACT

UNLABELLED: This study of changes in dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) spine BMD following diagnosis and treatment for childhood Crohn's disease demonstrated that changes in conventional posteroanterior BMD results were confounded by impaired growth, and suggested that lateral spine measurements and strategies to estimate volumetric BMD were more sensitive to disease and treatment effects. INTRODUCTION: We previously reported significant increases in peripheral quantitative CT (pQCT) measures of trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) following diagnosis and treatment of pediatric Crohn's disease (CD). The objective of this study was to compare pQCT trabecular vBMD and three DXA measures of spine BMD in this cohort: (1) conventional posteroanterior BMD (PA-BMD), (2) PA-BMD adjusted for height Z (PA-BMDHtZ), and (3) width-adjusted volumetric BMD (WA-BMD) estimated from PA and lateral scans. METHODS: Spine DXA [lumbar (L1-4) for posteroanterior and L3 for lateral] and tibia pQCT scans were obtained in 65 CD subjects (ages 7-18 years) at diagnosis and 12 months later. BMD results were converted to sex, race, and age-specific Z-scores based on reference data in >650 children (ages 5-21 years). Multivariable linear regression models identified factors associated with BMD Z-scores. RESULTS: At CD diagnosis, all BMD Z-scores were lower compared with the reference children (all p values <0.01). The pQCT vBMD Z-scores (-1.46 ± 1.30) were lower compared with DXA PA-BMD (-0.75 ± 0.98), PA-BMDHtZ (-0.53 ± 0.87), and WA-BMD (-0.61 ± 1.10) among CD participants. Only PA-BMD Z-scores were correlated with height Z-scores at baseline (R = 0.47, p < 0.0001). pQCT and WA-BMD Z-scores increased significantly over 12 months to -1.04 ± 1.26 and -0.20 ± 1.14, respectively. Changes in all four BMD Z-scores were positively associated with changes in height Z-scores (p < 0.05). Glucocorticoid doses were inversely associated with changes in WA-BMD (p < 0.01) only. CONCLUSIONS: Conventional and height Z-score-adjusted PA DXA methods did not demonstrate the significant increases in trabecular vBMD noted on pQCT and WA-BMD scans. WA-BMD captured glucocorticoid effects, potentially due to isolation of the vertebral body on the lateral projection. Future studies are needed to identify the BMD measure that provides greatest fracture discrimination in CD.


Subject(s)
Bone Density/physiology , Crohn Disease/complications , Crohn Disease/physiopathology , Osteoporosis/etiology , Absorptiometry, Photon/methods , Adolescent , Anthropometry/methods , Body Height/physiology , Child , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Lumbar Vertebrae/diagnostic imaging , Lumbar Vertebrae/physiopathology , Male , Osteoporosis/diagnosis , Osteoporosis/physiopathology , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Tibia/diagnostic imaging , Tibia/physiopathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Young Adult
5.
Am J Transplant ; 14(1): 124-32, 2014 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24298998

ABSTRACT

This prospective study evaluated changes in dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) whole body bone mineral content (WB-BMC) and spine areal bone mineral density (spine-BMD), and tibia quantitative computed tomography (QCT) trabecular and cortical volumetric BMD and cortical area in 56 children over 12 months following renal transplantation. At transplant, spine-BMD Z-scores were greater in younger recipients (<13 years), versus 898 reference participants (p < 0.001). In multivariate models, greater decreases in spine-BMD Z-scores were associated with greater glucocorticoid dose (p < 0.001) and declines in parathyroid hormone levels (p = 0.008). Changes in DXA spine-BMD and QCT trabecular BMD were correlated (r = 0.47, p < 0.01). At 12 months, spine-BMD Z-scores remained elevated in younger recipients, but did not differ in older recipients (≥ 13) and reference participants. Baseline WB-BMC Z-scores were significantly lower than reference participants (p = 0.02). Greater glucocorticoid doses were associated with declines in WB-BMC Z-scores (p < 0.001) while greater linear growth was associated with gains in WB-BMC Z-scores (p = 0.01). Changes in WB-BMC Z-scores were associated with changes in tibia cortical area Z-scores (r = 0.52, p < 0.001), but not changes in cortical BMD Z-scores. Despite resolution of muscle deficits, WB-BMC Z-scores at 12 months remained significantly reduced. These data suggest that spine and WB DXA provides insight into trabecular and cortical outcomes following pediatric renal transplantation.


Subject(s)
Bone Density/physiology , Kidney Transplantation , Absorptiometry, Photon , Adolescent , Body Composition , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Parathyroid Hormone/metabolism , Prospective Studies , Spine/metabolism , Tibia/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
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