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2.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Some vaccines elicit non-specific immune responses that may protect against heterologous infections. We evaluated the association between recombinant adjuvanted zoster vaccine (RZV) and COVID-19 outcomes at Kaiser Permanente Southern California. METHODS: In a cohort design, adults aged ≥50 years who received ≥1 RZV dose before 3/1/2020 were matched 1:2 to unvaccinated individuals and followed until 12/31/2020. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for COVID-19 outcomes were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. In a test-negative design, cases had a positive SARS-CoV-2 test and controls had only negative tests, during 3/1/2020-12/31/2020. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% CIs for RZV receipt were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS: In the cohort design, 149,244 RZV recipients were matched to 298,488 unvaccinated individuals. The aHRs (95% CI) for COVID-19 diagnosis and hospitalization were 0.84 (0.81-0.87) and 0.68 (0.64-0.74), respectively. In the test-negative design, 8.4% of 75,726 test-positive cases and 13.1% of 340,898 test-negative controls had received ≥1 RZV dose. The aOR (95% CI) was 0.84 (0.81-0.86). CONCLUSION: RZV vaccination was associated with a 16% lower risk of COVID-19 diagnosis and 32% lower risk of hospitalization. Further study of vaccine-induced non-specific immunity for potential attenuation of future pandemics is warranted.

3.
Nat Med ; 2022 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700263

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant is highly transmissible with potential immune escape. We conducted a test-negative case-control study to evaluate mRNA-1273 vaccine effectiveness (VE) against infection and hospitalization with Omicron or Delta. The large, diverse study population included 26,683 SARS-CoV-2 test-positive cases with variants determined by S gene target failure status (16% Delta and 84% Omicron). The two-dose VE against Omicron infection at 14-90 days was 44.0% (95% confidence interval, 35.1-51.6%) but declined quickly. The three-dose VE was 93.7% (92.2-94.9%) and 86.0% (78.1-91.1%) against Delta infection and 71.6% (69.7-73.4%) and 47.4% (40.5-53.5%) against Omicron infection at 14-60 days and >60 days, respectively. The three-dose VE was 29.4% (0.3-50.0%) against Omicron infection in immunocompromised individuals. The three-dose VE against hospitalization with Delta or Omicron was >99% across the entire study population. Our findings demonstrate high, durable three-dose VE against Delta infection but lower effectiveness against Omicron infection, particularly among immunocompromised people. However, three-dose VE of mRNA-1273 was high against hospitalization with Delta and Omicron variants.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307396

ABSTRACT

Background: Phase 3 trials found mRNA-1273 was highly effective in preventing COVID-19. We conducted a prospective cohort study at Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) to determine the real-world vaccine effectiveness (VE) of mRNA-1273 in preventing COVID-19 diagnosis and severe disease.Methods: For this planned interim analysis, individuals aged ≥18 years receiving 2 doses of mRNA-1273 ≥24 days apart (12/18/2020-3/31/2021) were 1:1 matched with randomly selected unvaccinated individuals on age, sex, and race/ethnicity, with follow-up through 6/30/2021. Outcomes were COVID-19 diagnosis (SARS-CoV-2 positive molecular test or COVID-19 diagnosis code) or severe disease (COVID-19 hospitalization and COVID-19 hospital death). Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) and confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards models accounting for multiple comparisons. Adjusted VE was calculated as (1-aHR)x100. Whole genome sequencing was performed on SARS-CoV-2 positive specimens.Findings: This analysis included 352,878 recipients of 2 doses of mRNA-1273 matched to 352,878 unvaccinated individuals. VE (99·3% CI) against COVID-19 diagnosis was 87·4% (84·8-89·6%). VE against COVID-19 hospitalization and hospital death was 95·8% (90·7-98·1%) and 97·9% (66·9-99·9%), respectively. VE was higher against symptomatic (88·3% [98·3% CI: 86·1%-90·2%]) than asymptomatic COVID-19 (72·7% [53·4%-84·0%]), but was generally similar across age, sex, and racial/ethnic subgroups. VE among individuals with history of COVID-19 ranged from 8·2-33·6%. The most prevalent variants were Delta (47·1%), Alpha (21·4%), Gamma (11·4%), Epsilon (4·3%), and Iota (4·3%) among fully vaccinated individuals and Alpha (41·2%), Epsilon (18·2%), Delta (11·0%) and Gamma (8·6%) among unvaccinated individuals.Interpretation: These interim results provide reassuring evidence of the VE of 2 doses of mRNA-1273 across age, sex, and racial/ethnic subgroups, and against asymptomatic and symptomatic COVID-19, and severe COVID-19 outcomes. Among individuals with history of COVID-19, mRNA-1273 vaccination may offer added protection beyond immunity acquired from prior infection. Longer follow-up is needed to fully evaluate VE of mRNA-1273 against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.Funding: Moderna Inc.Declaration of Interests: KJB, LSS, LQ, BKA, YL, GSL, YT, AF, HST, JET, HFT are employees of Kaiser Permanente Southern California, which has been contracted by Moderna for the conduct of this present study. CAT is an employee of and a shareholder in Moderna Inc. KJB received funding from GlaxoSmithKline, Dynavax, Pfizer, Gilead, and Seqirus unrelated to this manuscript. LSS received funding from GlaxoSmithKline, Dynavax, and Seqirus unrelated to this manuscript. LQ received funding from GlaxoSmithKline and Dynavax unrelated to this manuscript. BKA received funding from GlaxoSmithKline, Dynavax, Seqirus and Pfizer unrelated to this manuscript. YL received funding from GlaxoSmithKline, Dynavax, Seqirus and Pfizer unrelated to this manuscript. GSL received funding from GlaxoSmithKline unrelated to this manuscript. YT received funding from GlaxoSmithKline unrelated to this manuscript. AF received funding from Pfizer, GlaxoSmithKline, CDC, and Gilead unrelated to this manuscript. HST received funding from GlaxoSmithKline, Pfizer, ALK, and Wellcome unrelated to this manuscript. JET received funding from Pfizer unrelated to this manuscript. HFT received funding from GlaxoSmithKline and Seqirus unrelated to this manuscript;HFT also served in advisory boards for Janssen and Pfizer.Ethics Approval Statement: The KPSC Institutional Review Board provided ethical approval for the study.

5.
Lancet Reg Health Am ; 6: 100134, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670848

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Phase 3 trials found mRNA-1273 was highly effective in preventing COVID-19. We conducted a prospective cohort study at Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) to determine the real-world vaccine effectiveness (VE) of mRNA-1273 in preventing COVID-19 infection and severe disease. METHODS: For this planned interim analysis, individuals aged ≥18 years receiving 2 doses of mRNA-1273 ≥24 days apart (18/12/2020-31/03/2021) were 1:1 matched to randomly selected unvaccinated individuals by age, sex, and race/ethnicity, with follow-up through 30/06/2021. Outcomes were COVID-19 infection (SARS-CoV-2 positive molecular test or COVID-19 diagnosis code) or severe disease (COVID-19 hospitalization and COVID-19 hospital death). Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) and confidence intervals (CI) for COVID-19 outcomes comparing vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals were estimated by Cox proportional hazards models accounting for multiple comparisons. Adjusted VE was calculated as (1-aHR)x100. Whole genome sequencing was performed on SARS-CoV-2 positive specimens from the KPSC population. FINDINGS: This analysis included 352,878 recipients of 2 doses of mRNA-1273 matched to 352,878 unvaccinated individuals. VE (99·3% CI) against COVID-19 infection was 87·4% (84·8-89·6%). VE against COVID-19 hospitalization and hospital death was 95·8% (90·7-98·1%) and 97·9% (66·9-99·9%), respectively. VE was higher against symptomatic (88·3% [98·3% CI: 86·1-90·2%]) than asymptomatic COVID-19 (72·7% [53·4-84·0%]), but was generally similar across age, sex, and racial/ethnic subgroups. VE among individuals with history of COVID-19 ranged from 8·2-33·6%. The most prevalent variants were Alpha (41·6%), Epsilon (17·5%), Delta (11·5%), and Gamma (9·1%), with Delta increasing to 54·0% of variants by June 2021. INTERPRETATION: These interim results provide reassuring evidence of the VE of 2 doses of mRNA-1273 across age, sex, and racial/ethnic subgroups, and against asymptomatic and symptomatic COVID-19, and severe COVID-19 outcomes. Among individuals with history of COVID-19, mRNA-1273 vaccination may offer added protection beyond immunity acquired from prior infection. Longer follow-up is needed to fully evaluate VE of mRNA-1273 against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. FUNDING: Moderna Inc.

6.
BMJ ; 375: e068848, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583187

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of the mRNA-1273 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 variants and assess its effectiveness against the delta variant by time since vaccination. DESIGN: Test negative case-control study. SETTING: Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC), an integrated healthcare system. PARTICIPANTS: Adult KPSC members with a SARS-CoV-2 positive test sent for whole genome sequencing or a negative test from 1 March 2021 to 27 July 2021. INTERVENTIONS: Two dose or one dose vaccination with mRNA-1273 (Moderna covid-19 vaccine) ≥14 days before specimen collection versus no covid-19 vaccination. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Outcomes included infection with SARS-CoV-2 and hospital admission with covid-19. In pre-specified analyses for each variant type, test positive cases were matched 1:5 to test negative controls on age, sex, race/ethnicity, and specimen collection date. Conditional logistic regression was used to compare odds of vaccination among cases versus controls, with adjustment for confounders. Vaccine effectiveness was calculated as (1-odds ratio)×100%. RESULTS: The study included 8153 cases and their matched controls. Two dose vaccine effectiveness was 86.7% (95% confidence interval 84.3% to 88.7%) against infection with the delta variant, 98.4% (96.9% to 99.1%) against alpha, 90.4% (73.9% to 96.5%) against mu, 96-98% against other identified variants, and 79.9% (76.9% to 82.5%) against unidentified variants (that is, specimens that failed sequencing). Vaccine effectiveness against hospital admission with the delta variant was 97.5% (92.7% to 99.2%). Vaccine effectiveness against infection with the delta variant declined from 94.1% (90.5% to 96.3%) 14-60 days after vaccination to 80.0% (70.2% to 86.6%) 151-180 days after vaccination. Waning was less pronounced for non-delta variants. Vaccine effectiveness against delta infection was lower among people aged ≥65 years (75.2%, 59.6% to 84.8%) than those aged 18-64 years (87.9%, 85.5% to 89.9%). One dose vaccine effectiveness was 77.0% (60.7% to 86.5%) against infection with delta. CONCLUSIONS: Two doses of mRNA-1273 were highly effective against all SARS-CoV-2 variants, especially against hospital admission with covid-19. However, vaccine effectiveness against infection with the delta variant moderately declined with increasing time since vaccination.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , /administration & dosage , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , California , Case-Control Studies , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296665

ABSTRACT

Background: We conducted a prospective cohort study at Kaiser Permanente Southern California to study the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of mRNA-1273 over time and during the emergence of the Delta variant. Methods: The cohort for this planned interim analysis consisted of individuals aged ≥18 years receiving 2 doses of mRNA-1273 through June 2021, matched 1:1 to randomly selected unvaccinated individuals by age, sex, and race/ethnicity, with follow-up through September 2021. Outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 infection, and COVID-19 hospitalization and hospital death. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing outcomes in the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups. Adjusted VE (%) was calculated as (1-aHR)x100. HRs and VEs were also estimated for SARS-CoV-2 infection by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and during the Delta period (June-September 2021). VE against SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 hospitalization was estimated at 0-<2, 2-<4, 4-<6, and 6-<8 months post-vaccination. Results: 927,004 recipients of 2 doses of mRNA-1273 were matched to 927,004 unvaccinated individuals. VE (95% CI) was 82.8% (82.2-83.3%) against SARS-CoV-2 infection, 96.1% (95.5-96.6%) against COVID-19 hospitalization, and 97.2% (94.8-98.4%) against COVID-19 hospital death. VE against SARS-CoV-2 infection was similar by age, sex, and race/ethnicity, and was 86.5% (84.8-88.0%) during the Delta period. VE against SARS-CoV-2 infection decreased from 88.0% at 0-<2 months to 75.5% at 6-<8 months. Conclusions: These interim results provide continued evidence for protection of 2 doses of mRNA-1273 against SARS-CoV-2 infection over 8 months post-vaccination and during the Delta period, and against COVID-19 hospitalization and hospital death.

8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(43): 1520-1524, 2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498054

ABSTRACT

By September 21, 2021, an estimated 182 million persons in the United States were fully vaccinated against COVID-19.* Clinical trials indicate that Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2), Moderna (mRNA-1273), and Janssen (Johnson & Johnson; Ad.26.COV2.S) vaccines are effective and generally well tolerated (1-3). However, daily vaccination rates have declined approximately 78% since April 13, 2021†; vaccine safety concerns have contributed to vaccine hesitancy (4). A cohort study of 19,625 nursing home residents found that those who received an mRNA vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna) had lower all-cause mortality than did unvaccinated residents (5), but no studies comparing mortality rates within the general population of vaccinated and unvaccinated persons have been conducted. To assess mortality not associated with COVID-19 (non-COVID-19 mortality) after COVID-19 vaccination in a general population setting, a cohort study was conducted during December 2020-July 2021 among approximately 11 million persons enrolled in seven Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) sites.§ After standardizing mortality rates by age and sex, this study found that COVID-19 vaccine recipients had lower non-COVID-19 mortality than did unvaccinated persons. After adjusting for demographic characteristics and VSD site, this study found that adjusted relative risk (aRR) of non-COVID-19 mortality for the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine was 0.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.38-0.44) after dose 1 and 0.34 (95% CI = 0.33-0.36) after dose 2. The aRRs of non-COVID-19 mortality for the Moderna vaccine were 0.34 (95% CI = 0.32-0.37) after dose 1 and 0.31 (95% CI = 0.30-0.33) after dose 2. The aRR after receipt of the Janssen vaccine was 0.54 (95% CI = 0.49-0.59). There is no increased risk for mortality among COVID-19 vaccine recipients. This finding reinforces the safety profile of currently approved COVID-19 vaccines in the United States.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Mortality/trends , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(40): 1415-1419, 2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456568

ABSTRACT

Data from observational studies demonstrate that variants of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, have evolved rapidly across many countries (1,2). The SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of concern is more transmissible than previously identified variants,* and as of September 2021, is the predominant variant in the United States.† Studies characterizing the distribution and severity of illness caused by SARS-CoV-2 variants, particularly the Delta variant, are limited in the United States (3), and are subject to limitations related to study setting, specimen collection, study population, or study period (4-7). This study used whole genome sequencing (WGS) data on SARS-CoV-2-positive specimens collected across Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC), a large integrated health care system, to describe the distribution and risk of hospitalization associated with SARS-CoV-2 variants during March 4-July 21, 2021, by patient vaccination status. Among 13,039 SARS-CoV-2-positive specimens identified from KPSC patients during this period, 6,798 (52%) were sequenced and included in this report. Of these, 5,994 (88%) were collected from unvaccinated persons, 648 (10%) from fully vaccinated persons, and 156 (2%) from partially vaccinated persons. Among all sequenced specimens, the weekly percentage of B.1.1.7 (Alpha) variant infections increased from 20% to 67% during March 4-May 19, 2021. During April 15-July 21, 2021, the weekly percentage of Delta variant infections increased from 0% to 95%. During March 4-July 21, 2021, the weekly percentage of variants was similar among fully vaccinated and unvaccinated persons, but the Delta variant was more commonly identified among vaccinated persons then unvaccinated persons overall, relative to other variants. The Delta variant was more prevalent among younger persons, with the highest percentage (55%) identified among persons aged 18-44 years. Infections attributed to the Delta variant were also more commonly identified among non-Hispanic Black persons, relative to other variants. These findings reinforce the importance of continued monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 variants and implementing multiple COVID-19 prevention strategies, particularly during the current period in which Delta is the predominant variant circulating in the United States.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , California/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
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