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1.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(5)2022 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847278

ABSTRACT

Due to the prevailing ambiguity regarding the performance of rapid antigen tests (RATs) for B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant diagnosis, a commercial RAT was evaluated in the emergency ward of a general hospital in Larissa, Central Greece. The sampling and the evaluation were repeated twice by different personnel. Discordance between the two samplings was observed regarding the sensitivity (47.5%, 95% CI: 39.0-56.1 vs. 78.6%, 95% CI: 69.1-86.2) and specificity (93.8%, 95% CI: 86.0-97.9 vs. 100.0%, 95% CI: 93.3-100.0) of the RAT. Furthermore, the test displayed slightly lower sensitivity (78.6% vs. 85.5%, 95% CI: 79.1-90.5) compared to its initial evaluation that was conducted by our team when the B.1.1.7 (Alpha) variant was dominant.

2.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 21(6): 853-859, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772530

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to estimate vaccination and susceptibility rates against vaccine-preventable diseases among healthcare personnel (HCP) in eight hospitals. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey. RESULTS: A total of 1284 HCP participated (physicians: 31.3%, nursing personnel: 36.6%, paramedical personnel: 11.1%, administrative personnel: 13.2%, supportive personnel: 7.3%). Vaccination rates were 32.9% against measles and mumps, 38.1% against rubella, 5.7% against varicella, 9.2% against hepatitis A, 65.8% against hepatitis B, 31.8% against tetanus-diphtheria, 7.1% against pertussis, 60.2% against influenza, and 80.1% against COVID-19. Susceptibility rates were as follows: 27.8% for measles, 39.6% for mumps, 33.4% for rubella, 22.2% for varicella, 86.3% for hepatitis A, 34.2% for hepatitis B, 68.2% for tetanus-diphtheria, and 92.9% for pertussis. Older HCP had higher susceptibility rates against mumps, rubella, varicella, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, tetanus-diphtheria, and pertussis (p-values <0.001 for all). Mandatory vaccinations were supported by 81.85% of HCP. CONCLUSIONS: Although most HCPs supported mandatory vaccinations, significant vaccination gaps, and susceptibility rates were recorded. The proportion of susceptible HCP to measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella has increased in the past decade, mostly because of reduction in acquired cases of natural illness. Vaccination programs for HCP should be developed. A national registry to follow HCP's vaccination rates is urgently needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chickenpox , Diphtheria , Hepatitis A , Hepatitis B , Measles , Mumps , Rubella , Tetanus , Whooping Cough , Attitude , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Mumps/epidemiology , Mumps/prevention & control , Tertiary Care Centers , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715377

ABSTRACT

Our aim was to study attitudes toward vaccinations, full vaccination rates and susceptibility rates against vaccine-preventable diseases among students attending a University Dental School. A total of 134 students were studied. Full vaccination rates were as follows: 56.5% against measles and mumps, 70.6% against rubella, 32.3% against varicella, 44.1% against hepatitis A, 45.9% against hepatitis B, and 87.7% against COVID-19. In the past decade, 63.2% of students had received a booster shot against tetanus-diphtheria, 47.8% against pertussis, and 28.1% against poliomyelitis, while 29.4% of students had been vaccinated against influenza in the past year. Susceptibility rates were 40.4% for measles, 42.4% for mumps, 28.3% for rubella, 32.3% for varicella, 55.3% for hepatitis A, 54.1% for hepatitis B, 36.8% for tetanus-diphtheria, 52.2% for pertussis, and 71.9% for poliomyelitis. Overall, 123 (91.8%) students favored mandatory vaccinations, mainly for all dentists (88.4%), while 11.6% of students favored them only for dentists who provide care to high-risk patients. In conclusion, most dental students favored mandatory vaccinations, yet we found significant vaccination gaps and susceptibility rates against vaccine-preventable diseases. Vaccinations for dental students should be intensified. A national vaccination registry for healthcare personnel including dental students is urgently needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccination Coverage , Attitude , Greece , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Students, Dental , Vaccination
4.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1465-1472, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527443

ABSTRACT

We studied the third coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic wave in Athens metropolitan area (3 738 901 inhabitants) through two seroepidemiological surveys. Persons presenting in 12 healthcare facilities across Athens in March and June 2021 were studied (764 and 901, respectively). Immunoglobulin G antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein were measured by a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. In March the seroprevalence rate was 11.6%, meaning that 435 208 residents of Athens had evidence of immunity. The respective values in June were 55.7% and 2 082 568 residents. The highest seroprevalence rates attributed to SARS-CoV-2 infection were recorded in persons <18 years (16.3% in March and 31.6% in June), while immunity was mainly vaccine-induced in persons 18-64 years and >65 years. Infection-attributed immunity also increased in older-age groups. Wide ranges in seroprevalence rates were noted across areas in March and June. The highest seroprevalence rates were recorded in Piraeus (47.2%) and West Attica (37.5%). However, the highest increase (>5 times) occurred in Piraeus and the South Section of Athens, which are among the most densely populated areas in Athens. In both study periods, history of COVID-19 or febrile episode, and having a cohabitant with COVID-19 were associated with increased risk for seropositivity among unvaccinated persons (p values <0.001 for all). Residing in Piraeus, the South Section or West Attica was associated with increased risk for seropositivity in June (p values <0.001). Wide heterogeneity in seroprevalence rates was found across areas in Athens, which is mainly attributed to population density. The impact of population mobility and socioeconomic status should be explored.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
5.
Immunobiology ; 226(6): 152136, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433398

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic represents one of the greatest challenges in modern medicine. The disease is characterized by a variable clinical phenotype, ranging from asymptomatic carriage to severe and/or critical disease, which bears poor prognosis and outcome because of the development of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (SARS) requiring ICU hospitalization, multi-organ failure and death. Therefore, the determination of risk factors predisposing to disease phenotype is of outmost importance. The aim of our study was to evaluate which predisposing factors, including MBL2 genotyping, affected clinical phenotype in 264 COVID-19 patients. We demonstrated that older age along with underlying comorbidities, primarily obesity, chronic inflammatory disorders and diabetes mellitus, represent the most important risk factors related to hospitalization, the development of pneumonia and SARS. Moreover, we found that the presence of the MBL deficiency-causing B allele (rs1800450) was significantly associated with almost 2-fold increased risk for developing pneumonia and requiring hospitalization, suggesting its usage as a molecular predictor of severe disease in SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Mannose-Binding Lectin/genetics , Adult , Aged , Alleles , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
6.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(11): 1435-1437, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372864

ABSTRACT

Contamination of surfaces has been implicated in transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We tested by real-time PCR for SARS-CoV-2 contamination environmental samples from three hospitals during the peak of the third pandemic wave. Overall, 19 of 463 (4.1%) samples tested positive: 12 of 173 (6.9%) samples from a COVID-19 hospital, 3 of 177 (1.7%) samples from a non-COVID-19 hospital, and 4 of 113 (3.5%) samples from a pediatric hospital with dedicated COVID-19 clinics. Most positive samples originated from emergency departments (EDs) (47.3%) and the intensive care units (ICUs) (26.3%) of the COVID-19 hospital. Positive samples belonged almost exclusively (18/19) to the highly transmissible B.1.1.7 cluster, that might explain environmental contamination at this stage of the pandemic. The frequency and efficiency of disinfection in high-risk patient areas, such as EDs and ICUs, should be reinforced, especially during this period where highly transmissible variants of concern are widespread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Tertiary Care Centers
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 08 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367843

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is mainly transmitted through droplets without overlooking other sources of transmission, rendered attention on the air quality in indoor areas and more specifically in healthcare settings. The improvement of indoor air quality (IAQ) is ensured by frequent changes of the air that must be carried out in healthcare areas and with assistance from special devices that undertake the filtration of the air and its purification through special filters and lamps. In this research, the performance of air purifiers is assessed in terms of the limitation of PM2.5, PM10, VOCs and CO2 in a postgraduate clinic of the Dentistry School of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens in parallel with mechanical ventilation. Our findings indicate that the use of mechanical ventilation plays a key role on the results, retaining good IAQ levels within the clinic and that air purifiers show a positive impact on IAQ by mainly reducing the levels of PM2.5 and secondly of TVOC.


Subject(s)
Air Filters , Air Pollution, Indoor , COVID-19 , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Dentistry , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(7): 1927-1930, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225856

ABSTRACT

We describe response measures to an outbreak involving 128 (33.4%) coronavirus disease cases (46.1% asymptomatic) among 383 persons onboard a passenger ship. Multivariate analysis indicated that dining in certain rooms and bar areas, nationality, working department (for crew members), and quarantining onboard the ship were significantly associated with infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ships , Disease Outbreaks , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(1): 22-31, 2021 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079738

ABSTRACT

In late 2019 a novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in China and spread throughout the world over a short period of time causing a pandemic of a respiratory disease named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 is easily transmitted from person to person through respiratory droplets and direct contact. The scarce available data indicate that dental healthcare personnel are at increased risk for acquisition of infection. Following the lockdown lifting, dental schools should be prepared to refunction safely and provide essential educational and healthcare services while protecting their students, patients, and personnel. The generation of aerosols in dental practice, in association with the high-transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 through aerosol-generation procedures, the simultaneous provision of dental services to patients in the same areas, and the fact that asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic infected persons may transmit the virus, render the implementation of specific infection prevention and control measures imperative for dental schools. Herein we review the few evidence-based data available to guide infection prevention and control measures for COVID-19 in dental schools.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Infection Control/methods , Schools, Dental , Aerosols , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/transmission , Carrier State/transmission , Carrier State/virology , Humans
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(12): 3182-3187, 2020 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1043091

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As of late February 2020, Greece has been experiencing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. Healthcare personnel (HCP) were disproportionately affected, accounting for ~10% of notified cases. Exclusion from work for 7 days was recommended for HCP with high-risk occupational exposure. Our aim was to evaluate the 7-day exclusion from work policy for HCP with high-risk exposure. METHODS: HCP with a history of occupational exposure to COVID-19 were notified to the Hellenic National Public Health Organization, regardless of their exposure risk category. Exposed HCP were followed for 14 days after last exposure. RESULTS: We prospectively studied 3398 occupationally exposed HCP; nursing personnel accounted for most exposures (n = 1705; 50.2%). Of the 3398 exposed HCP, 1599 (47.1%) were classified as low-risk, 765 (22.5%) as moderate-risk, and 1031 (30.4%) as high-risk exposures. Sixty-six (1.9%) HCP developed COVID-19 at a mean of 3.65 (range: 0-17) days postexposure. Of the 66 HCP with COVID-19, 46, 7, and 13 had a history of high-, moderate- or low-risk exposure (4.5%, 0.9%, and 0.8% of all high-, moderate-, and low-risk exposures, respectively). Hospitalization and absenteeism were more prevalent among HCP with high-risk exposure. A logistic regression analysis showed that the following variables were significantly associated with an increased risk for the onset of COVID-19: male, administrative personnel, underlying disease, and high-risk exposure. CONCLUSIONS: HCP with high-risk occupational exposure to COVID-19 had increased probability of serious morbidity, healthcare seeking, hospitalization, and absenteeism. Our findings justify the 7-day exclusion from work policy for HCP with high-risk exposure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Exposure , Delivery of Health Care , Greece , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Policy , SARS-CoV-2
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