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1.
Viruses ; 15(2):309, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2200907

ABSTRACT

Background, Aims, Methods, Results, Conclusions: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a global challenge due to its ability to mutate into variants that spread more rapidly than the wild-type virus. The molecular biology of this virus has been extensively studied and computational methods applied are an example paradigm for novel antiviral drug therapies. The rapid evolution of SARS-CoV-2 in the human population is driven, in part, by mutations in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S-) protein, some of which enable tighter binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2). More stable RBD-ACE2 association is coupled with accelerated hydrolysis by proteases, such as furin, trypsin, and the Transmembrane Serine Protease 2 (TMPRSS2) that augment infection rates, while inhibition of the 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro) can prevent the viral replication. Additionally, non-RBD and non-interfacial mutations may assist the S-protein in adopting thermodynamically favorable conformations for stronger binding. This study aimed to report variant distribution of SARS-CoV-2 across European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) countries and relate mutations with the driving forces that trigger infections. Variants' distribution data for SARS-CoV-2 across EU/EEA countries were mined from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) based on the sequence or genotyping data that are deposited in the Global Science Initiative for providing genomic data (GISAID) and The European Surveillance System (TESSy) databases. Docking studies performed with AutoDock VINA revealed stabilizing interactions of putative antiviral drugs, e.g., selected anionic imidazole biphenyl tetrazoles, with the ACE2 receptor in the RBD-ACE2 complex. The driving forces of key mutations for Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Epsilon, Kappa, Lambda, and Omicron variants, which stabilize the RBD-ACE2 complex, were investigated by computational approaches. Arginine is the critical amino acid in the polybasic furin cleavage sites S1/S2 (681-PRRARS-686) S2' (814-KRS-816). Critical mutations into arginine residues that were found in the delta variant (L452R, P681R) and may be responsible for the increased transmissibility and morbidity are also present in two widely spreading omicron variants, named BA.4.6 and BQ.1, where mutation R346T in the S-protein potentially contributes to neutralization escape. Arginine binders, such as Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs), could be a class of novel drugs for treating COVID-19.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116215

ABSTRACT

The effectiveness of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination strategies is affected by several factors, including the genetic background of the host. In our study, we evaluated the contribution of the functional polymorphism rs1883832 affecting the Kozak sequence of the TNFSF5 gene (c.-1C>T), encoding CD40, to humoral immune responses after vaccination with the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. The rs1883832 polymorphism was analyzed by PCR-RFLP in 476 individuals (male/female: 216/260, median age: 55.0 years, range: 20-105) of whom 342 received the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine and 134 received the adenovirus-based vector vaccines (67 on ChAdOx1-nCoV-19 vaccine, 67 on Ad.26.COV2.S vaccine). The IgG and IgA responses were evaluated with chemiluminescent microparticle and ELISA assays on days 21, 42, and 90 after the first dose. The T allele of the rs1883832 polymorphism (allele frequency: 32.8%) was significantly associated with lower IgA levels and represented, as revealed by multivariable analysis, an independent risk factor for reduced anti-spike protein IgA levels on days 42 and 90 following BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination. Similar to serum anti-spike IgA levels, a trend of lower anti-spike IgA concentrations in saliva was found in individuals with the T allele of rs1883832. Finally, the intensity of IgA and IgG responses on day 42 significantly affected the prevalence of COVID-19 after vaccination. The rs1883832 polymorphism may be used as a molecular predictor of the intensity of anti-spike IgA responses after BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Male , Middle Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , CD40 Antigens/genetics , Vaccination , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , RNA, Messenger
4.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(11): ofac501, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107550

ABSTRACT

Since May 2022, a large number of monkeypox cases have been reported in Europe, the United States, and other nonendemic settings. Taking into account the strict measures implemented due to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and the desire of people to reclaim what is perceived as lost time, mass gatherings this summer were highly attended. Based on data for the secondary attack rate among unvaccinated contacts from endemic countries, we estimate that, on average, >1 secondary case is anticipated per infectious person if he/she has a high number of group contacts (>30) or >8 close contacts. Although the role of group contacts in mass gatherings is uncertain (less likely to involve physical contact, shorter duration), close contacts associated with the event (eg, intimate/sexual contact with other attendees) might be the amplifying event. Enforcing awareness, early recognition, and engaging affected populations in the monkeypox response are important to control transmission.

5.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095199

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Molecular and antigen point-of-care tests (POCTs) have augmented our ability to rapidly identify and manage SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, their clinical performance varies among individual studies. OBJECTIVES: The evaluation of the performance of molecular- and antigen-based POCTs in confirmed or suspected or probable COVID-19 cases compared to laboratory-based reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in real-life settings. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Cochrane COVID-19 study register and COVID-19 Living Evidence Database from the University of Bern. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Peer-reviewed or preprint observational studies or randomized controlled trials that evaluated any type of FDA approved and/or with EUA and/or CE-marked from EC/EU commercially available antigen and/or molecular POCTs for SARS-CoV-2, including multiplex PCR panels. PARTICIPANTS: Close contacts and/or patients with symptomatic and/or asymptomatic confirmed, suspected or probable COVID-19 infection of any age. INDEX TESTS: Molecular and/or antigen-based SARS-CoV-2POCTs. REFERENCE STANDARD: Laboratory-based SARS-CoV-2RT-PCR. ASSESSMENT OF RISK OF BIAS: Eligible studies were subjected to quality control and risk of bias assessment using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2) tool. METHODS OF DATA SYNTHESIS: Summary sensitivities and specificities with their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using the bivariate model. Subgroup analysis was performed when at least 3 studies informed the outcome. RESULTS: A total of 123 eligible publications (97 and 26 studies assessing antigen and molecular POCTs, respectively) were retrieved from 4,674 initial records. The pooled sensitivity and specificity for the 13 molecular-based POCTs was 92.8% (95%CI:88.9%-95.4%) and 97.6% (95%CI:96.6%-98.3%), respectively. The sensitivity of antigen-based POCTs pooled from 138 individual evaluations was considerably lower than molecular-based POCTs; the pooled sensitivity and specificity rates were 70.6% (95%CI:67.2%-73.8%) and 98.9% (95%CI:98.5%-99.2%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Further studies are needed to evaluate the performance of molecular and antigen POCTs in underrepresented patient subgroups and different respiratory samples.

6.
Interfaces ; 52(5):398, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2065085

ABSTRACT

In the summer of 2020, in collaboration with the Greek government, we designed and deployed Eva-the first national-scale, reinforcement learning system for targeted COVID-19 testing. In this paper, we detail the rationale for three major design/algorithmic elements: Eva's testing supply chain, estimating COVID-19 prevalence, and test allocation. Specifically, we describe the design of Eva's supply chain to collect and process thousands of biological samples per day with special emphasis on capacity procurement. Then, we propose a novel, empirical Bayes estimation strategy to estimate COVID-19 prevalence among various passenger types with limited data and showcase how these estimates were instrumental in making a variety of downstream decisions. Finally, we propose a novel, multiarmed bandit algorithm that dynamically allocates tests to arriving passengers in a nonstationary environment with delayed feedback and batched decisions. All our design and algorithmic choices emphasize the need for transparent reasoning to enable human-in-the-loop analytics. Such transparency was crucial to building trust and acceptance among policymakers and public health experts in a period of global crisis.

7.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(12): 1578-1590, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049054

ABSTRACT

SCOPE: Despite the large availability of vaccines, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, continues to be a major threat for health-care providers and fragile people. A number of options are now available for outpatients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 at the risk of disease progression for the prevention of deaths or hospitalization. METHODS: A European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases COVID-19 guidelines task force was established by the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Executive Committee. A small group was established, half appointed by the chair and the remaining selected based on an open call. Each panel met virtually once a week. For all decisions, a simple majority vote was used. A long list of clinical questions using the population, intervention, comparison, outcome format was developed at the beginning of the process. For each population, intervention, comparison, outcome, two panel members performed a literature search, with a third panelist involved in case of inconsistent results. Voting was based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. RECOMMENDATIONS: In this update, we focus on anti-viral agents, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and other treatment options proposed for patients with mild or moderate COVID-19 who are at the risk of hospitalization or death. Although the use of anti-virals is recommended, especially nirmatrelvir/ritonavir and remdesivir or, alternatively, molnupirarvir, the administration of mAbs against the spike protein strictly depends on circulating variants or the ability to test timely for variants and sub-variants. At the time of writing (April-June 2022), the only active mAb was tixagevimab/cilgavimab given the predominance of the Omicron BA.2, BA.3, BA.4 and BA.5 sub-lineages in Europe. However, considering that the epidemiological scenario is extremely dynamic, constant monitoring of variants of concern is mandatory.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal
8.
Life (Basel) ; 12(10)2022 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043845

ABSTRACT

Cluster of differentiation (CD) 24, a long-known protein with multifaceted functions, has gained attention as a possible treatment for Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) due to its known anti-inflammatory action. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes and microvesicles, may serve as candidate drug delivery platforms for novel therapeutic approaches in COVID-19 and various other diseases due to their unique characteristics. In the current review, we describe the physiology of CD24 and EVs and try to elucidate their role, both independently and as a combination, in COVID-19 therapeutics. CD24 may act as an important immune regulator in diseases with complex physiologies characterized by excessive inflammation. Very recent data outline a possible therapeutic role not only in COVID-19 but also in other similar disease states, e.g., acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and sepsis where immune dysregulation plays a key pathophysiologic role. On the other hand, CD24, as well as other therapeutic molecules, can be administered with the use of exosomes, exploiting their unique characteristics to create a novel drug delivery platform as outlined in recent clinical efforts. The implications for human therapeutics in general are huge with regard to pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy that will be further elucidated in future randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

9.
Life (Basel) ; 12(9)2022 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006119

ABSTRACT

Early identification of COVID-19 cases has been vital for reducing transmission and enabling treatment. In Greece, in autumn 2021 when Delta was the predominant circulating variant, unvaccinated citizens had to be tested before attending activities, and self-testing was required twice a week for students (5-17 years). Here, we describe the time of diagnosis by age group and possible exposure to assess testing strategies (September to November 2021). Information on the presence of symptoms at the time of diagnosis was available for 69,298 cases; 24,855 (36%) were asymptomatic or tested the same day as onset (early diagnosis), 21,310 (31%) reported testing one day after, and 23,133 (33%) did so two or more days after the onset of symptoms. The median lag was 2 days (1-14). Early diagnosis significantly differed among age groups (p-value < 0.001) and was higher among children. For every one-year increase of age, the odds of an early diagnosis were reduced by 1%. Cases exposed during training activities or in settings such as accommodation centers and hospitals were more frequently diagnosed early. The percentage of persons having a positive self-test before a rapid test/PCR diagnosis ranged from 7% in the age group of 60 years and above to 86% in the age group of 5-17 years. The provision of self-tests in schools and increased testing in closed settings led to an earlier diagnosis and probably to a decreased transmission of the virus in the period during which Delta was the predominant variant in Greece. However, more effort is needed for early diagnosis of adults in the community, especially after the onset of symptoms.

10.
Clin Microbiol Rev ; 34(4): e0001821, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328572

ABSTRACT

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an emergency lifesaving endeavor, performed in either the hospital or outpatient settings, that significantly improves outcomes and survival rates when performed in a timely fashion. As with any other medical procedure, CPR can bear potential risks not only for the patient but also for the rescuer. Among those risks, transmission of an infectious agent has been one of the most compelling triggers of reluctance to perform CPR among providers. The concern for transmission of an infection from the resuscitated subject may impede prompt initiation and implementation of CPR, compromising survival rates and neurological outcomes of the patients. Infections during CPR can be potentially acquired through airborne, droplet, contact, or hematogenous transmission. However, only a few cases of infection transmission have been actually reported globally. In this review, we present the available epidemiological findings on transmission of different pathogens during CPR and data on reluctance of health care workers to perform CPR. We also outline the levels of personal protective equipment and other protective measures according to potential infectious hazards that providers are potentially exposed to during CPR and summarize current guidelines on protection of CPR providers from international societies and stakeholders.


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Humans
11.
Math Biosci Eng ; 19(10): 9853-9876, 2022 07 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964172

ABSTRACT

Epidemic spread models are useful tools to study the spread and the effectiveness of the interventions at a population level, to an epidemic. The workhorse of spatially homogeneous class models is the SIR-type ones comprising ordinary differential equations for the unknown state variables. The transition between different states is expressed through rate functions. Inspired by -but not restricted to- features of the COVID-19 pandemic, a new framework for modeling a disease spread is proposed. The main concept refers to the assignment of properties to each individual person as regards his response to the disease. A multidimensional distribution of these properties represents the whole population. The temporal evolution of this distribution is the only dependent variable of the problem. All other variables can be extracted by post-processing of this distribution. It is noteworthy that the new concept allows an improved consideration of vaccination modeling because it recognizes vaccination as a modifier of individuals response to the disease and not as a means for individuals to totally defeat the disease. At the heart of the new approach is an infection age model engaging a sharp cut-off. This model is analyzed in detail, and it is shown to admit self-similar solutions. A hierarchy of models based on the new approach, from a generalized one to a specific one with three dominant properties, is derived. The latter is implemented as an example and indicative results are presented and discussed. It appears that the new framework is general and versatile enough to simulate disease spread processes and to predict the evolution of several variables of the population during this spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics
12.
EMBO Mol Med ; 14(9): e15997, 2022 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1918175

ABSTRACT

A small but significant proportion of COVID-19 patients develop life-threatening cytokine storm. We have developed a new anti-inflammatory drug, EXO-CD24, a combination of an immune checkpoint (CD24) and a delivery platform (exosomes). CD24 inhibits the NF-kB pathway and the production of cytokines/chemokines. EXO-CD24 discriminates damage-from pathogen-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs and PAMPs) therefore does not interfere with viral clearance. EXO-CD24 was produced and purified from CD24-expressing 293-TREx™ cells. Exosomes displaying murine CD24 (mCD24) were also created. EXO-CD24/mCD24 were characterized and examined, for safety and efficacy, in vitro and in vivo. In a phase Ib/IIa study, 35 patients with moderate-high severity COVID-19 were recruited and given escalating doses, 108 -1010 , of EXO-CD24 by inhalation, QD, for 5 days. No adverse events related to the drug were observed up to 443-575 days. EXO-CD24 effectively reduced inflammatory markers and cytokine/chemokine, although randomized studies are required. EXO-CD24 may be a treatment strategy to suppress the hyper-inflammatory response in the lungs of COVID-19 patients and further serve as a therapeutic platform for other pulmonary and systemic diseases characterized by cytokine storm.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exosomes , Animals , CD24 Antigen/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokines/metabolism , Exosomes/metabolism , Humans , Lung , Mice
15.
J Med Virol ; 94(10): 5044-5050, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885417

ABSTRACT

As national coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mass vaccination campaigns are rolled out, monitoring real-world Vaccine Effectiveness (VE) and its durability is essential. We aimed to estimate COVID-19 VE against severe disease and death in the Greek population, for all vaccines currently in use. Nationwide active surveillance and vaccination registry data during January-December 2021 were used to estimate VE via quasi-Poisson regression, adjusted for age and calendar time. Interaction terms were included to assess VE by age group, against the "delta" severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 variant and waning of VE over time. Two doses of BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, or ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccines offered very high (>90%) VE against both intubation and death across all age groups, similar against both "delta" and previous variants, with one-dose Ad26.COV2.S slightly lower. VE waned over time but remained >80% at 6 months, and three doses increased VE again to near 100%. Vaccination prevented an estimated 19 691 COVID-19 deaths (95% confidence interval: 18 890-20 788) over the study period. All approved vaccines offer strong and also durable protection against COVID-19 severe disease and death. Every effort should be made to vaccinate the population with at least two doses, to reduce the mortality and morbidity impact of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Ad26COVS1 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Humans , Immunization Programs , Vaccination
16.
Ther Adv Neurol Disord ; 15: 17562864221099472, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1868990

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with increased thrombosis prevalence. However, there are insufficient data supporting the appropriate anticoagulation dose in COVID-19. Objective: We aim to systematically assess the currently available data regarding the effects of different dosing regimens of low molecular weight heparin and/or fondaparinux (LMWH/F) on mortality risk as well as the risk of arterial/venous thrombotic events and hemorrhagic complications in confirmed COVID-19 cases. Design: We conducted a living systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of different LMWH/F doses on mortality, thrombotic and hemorrhagic events in COVID-19 patients. Data Sources and Methods: MEDLINE, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane Library, Cochrane COVID-19 study register, European Union Drug Regulating Authorities Clinical Trials Database, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched to detect observational cohort studies and randomized-controlled clinical trials (RCTs) comparing difference doses of LMWH/F among confirmed COVID-19 cases. Results: Thirty-one eligible studies (6 RCTs and 25 cohort studies) with 11,430 hospitalized patients were included. No association was found between LMWH/F and mortality during the following comparisons: (1) no LMWH/F versus any LMWH/F; (2) prophylactic versus higher than prophylactic LMWH/F; (3) prophylactic versus therapeutic LMWH/F; (4) intermediate versus therapeutic LMWH/F; and (5) lower than therapeutic versus therapeutic LMWH/F. Mortality was higher in patients receiving prophylactic versus intermediate LMWH/F (OR = 2.01; 95% CI: 1.19-3.39). However, this effect was mostly driven by observational data. No associations were detected between the intensity of LMWH/F and the risk of thrombotic and hemorrhagic events, except the lower risk for hemorrhage in patients on prophylactic compared to higher LMWH/F doses. Conclusion: The risk for all-cause mortality was higher in patients receiving prophylactic LMWH/F compared to those on an intermediate dose of LMWH/F, based on observational data. These results should be interpreted in light of the moderate quality and heterogeneity of the included studies. Registration: The study protocol has been registered in the International Prospective Register of Ongoing Systematic Reviews PROSPERO (Registration number: CRD42021229771).

17.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(3)2022 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818223

ABSTRACT

Vaccine hesitancy is a major barrier to achieving large-scale COVID-19 vaccination. We report trends in vaccination intention and associated determinants from surveys in the adult general population in Greece. Four cross-sectional phone surveys were conducted in November 2020 and February, April and May 2021 on nationally representative samples of adults in Greece. Multinomial logistic regression was used on the combined data of the surveys to evaluate independent predictors of vaccination unwillingness/uncertainty. Vaccination intention increased from 67.6% in November 2020 to 84.8% in May 2021. Individuals aged 65 years or older were more willing to be vaccinated (May 2021: 92.9% vs. 79.5% in 18-39 years, p < 0.001) but between age-groups differences decreased over time. Vaccination intention increased substantially in both men and women, though earlier among men, and was higher in individuals with prograduate education (May 2021: 91.3% vs. 84.0% up to junior high). From multivariable analysis, unwillingness and/or uncertainty to be vaccinated was associated with younger age, female gender (in particular in the April 2021 survey), lower educational level and living with a child ≤12 years old. Among those with vaccine hesitancy, concerns about vaccine effectiveness declined over time (21.6% in November 2020 vs. 9.6% in May 2021, p = 0.014) and were reported more often by men; safety concerns remained stable over time (66.3% in November 2020 vs. 62.1% in May 2021, p = 0.658) and were reported more often by women. In conclusion, vaccination intention increased substantially over time. Tailored communication is needed to address vaccine hesitancy and concerns regarding vaccine safety.

19.
J Neurol ; 269(7): 3413-3419, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782801

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) has been reported as a rare adverse event in association with thrombosis-thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) following COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS:  We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of investigator-initiated registries including confirmed CVST cases, with the aim to calculate (1) the odds ratio of TTS-CVST versus non-TTS-CVST after vector-based vaccines and (2) after non-vector-based vaccines, (3) the in-hospital mortality ratio of TTS-CVST compared to non-TTS-CVST; and (4) the dependency or death at discharge among TTS-CVST compared to non-TTS-CVST cases. RESULTS: Two eligible studies were included in the meta-analysis, comprising a total of 211 patients with CVST associated with COVID-19 vaccination. Vector-based COVID-19 vaccination was associated with a higher likelihood of TTS-associated CVST than with non-TTS-CVST (OR: 52.34, 95% CI 9.58-285.98). TTS-CVST was also associated with higher likelihood of in-hospital mortality (OR: 13.29; 95% CI 3.96-44.60) and death or dependency at discharge compared to non-TTS-CVST (OR: 6.70; 95% CI 3.15-14.26). TTS-CVST was recorded with a shorter interval between vaccination and symptom onset [Mean Difference (MD):-6.54 days; 95% CI - 12.64 to - 0.45], affecting younger patients (MD:-9.00 years; 95% CI - 14.02 to - 3.99) without risk factors for thromboses (OR:2.34; 95% CI 1.26-4.33), and was complicated more frequently with intracerebral hemorrhage (OR:3.60; 95% CI 1.31-9.87) and concomitant thromboses in other sites (OR:11.85; 95% CI 3.51-39.98) compared to non-TTS-CVST cases. CONCLUSIONS: TTS-CVST following COVID-19 vaccination has distinct risk factor profile, clinical phenotype and prognosis compared to non-TTS-CVST. Further epidemiological data are required to evaluate the impact of different treatment strategies on outcome of TTS-CVST cases following COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Risk Factors , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnosis , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
20.
Ther Adv Chronic Dis ; 13: 20406223221076890, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779561

ABSTRACT

Accumulating evidence points toward a very high prevalence of prolonged neurological symptoms among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors. To date, there are no solidified criteria for 'long-COVID' diagnosis. Nevertheless, 'long-COVID' is conceptualized as a multi-organ disorder with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that may be indicative of underlying pulmonary, cardiovascular, endocrine, hematologic, renal, gastrointestinal, dermatologic, immunological, psychiatric, or neurological disease. Involvement of the central or peripheral nervous system is noted in more than one-third of patients with antecedent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, while an approximately threefold higher incidence of neurological symptoms is recorded in observational studies including patient-reported data. The most frequent neurological manifestations of 'long-COVID' encompass fatigue; 'brain fog'; headache; cognitive impairment; sleep, mood, smell, or taste disorders; myalgias; sensorimotor deficits; and dysautonomia. Although very limited evidence exists to date on the pathophysiological mechanisms implicated in the manifestation of 'long-COVID', neuroinflammatory and oxidative stress processes are thought to prevail in propagating neurological 'long-COVID' sequelae. In this narrative review, we sought to present a comprehensive overview of our current understanding of clinical features, risk factors, and pathophysiological processes of neurological 'long-COVID' sequelae. Moreover, we propose diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms that may aid in the prompt recognition and management of underlying causes of neurological symptoms that persist beyond the resolution of acute COVID-19. Furthermore, as causal treatments for 'long-COVID' are currently unavailable, we propose therapeutic approaches for symptom-oriented management of neurological 'long-COVID' symptoms. In addition, we emphasize that collaborative research initiatives are urgently needed to expedite the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies for neurological 'long-COVID' sequelae.

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