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1.
J Thorac Dis ; 14(4): 851-856, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1798612

ABSTRACT

Background: During COVID-19 pandemic, people who developed pneumonia and needed supplemental oxygen, where treated with low-flow oxygen therapy systems and non-invasive methods, including oxygen therapy using high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) and the application of bi-level or continuous positive airway pressure (BiPAP or CPAP). We aimed to investigate the outcomes of critical COVID-19 patients treated with HFNC and unveil predictors of HFNC failure. Methods: We retrospectively enrolled patients admitted to COVID-19 wards and treated with HFNC for COVID-19-related severe hypoxemic respiratory failure. The primary outcome of this study was treatment failure, such as the composite of intubation or death during hospital stay. The association between treatment failure and clinical features was evaluated using logistic regression models. Results: One hundred thirty-two patients with a median (IQR) PaO2/FiO2 ratio 96 (63-173) mmHg at HFNC initiation were studied. Overall, 45.4% of the patients were intubated. Hospital mortality was 31.8%. Treatment failure (intubation or death) occurred in 50.75% and after adjustment for age, gender, Charlson Comorbidity index (CCI) score and National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2) score on admission and PaO2/FiO2 ratio and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) severity at the time of HFNO initiation, it was significantly associated with the presence of dyspnea [adjusted OR 2.48 (95% CI: 1.01-6.12)], and higher Urea serum levels [adjusted OR 1.25 (95% CI: 1.03-1.51) mg/dL]. Conclusions: HFNC treatment was successful in almost half of the patients with severe COVID-19-related acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF). The presence of dyspnea and high serum Urea levels on admission are closely related to HFNC failure.

2.
J Pers Med ; 12(2)2022 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690200

ABSTRACT

A limited number of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) cases may require treatment in an intensive care unit (ICU). Arterial blood lactate levels are routinely measured in the ICU to estimate disease severity, predict poor outcomes, and monitor therapeutic handlings. A number of studies have suggested that, simultaneously with lactate, pyruvate should also be measured, providing augmented prognostic ability, and a better understanding of the underlying metabolic alterations in ICU patients. Hence, the aim of the present study was to elucidate the relationship between lactate levels and the lactate-to-pyruvate (LP) ratio with the clinical outcome in mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients. Lactate and pyruvate were serially measured during the first 24 h of ICU stay. A group of ICU non-COVID-19 patients was used as a comparison group. The majority of COVID-19 patients (82.5%) had normal lactate levels and a normal LP ratio on ICU admission (normal metabolic pattern). A small, yet significant, percentage of patients had either elevated lactate levels or a high LP ratio (abnormal metabolic pattern); these patients exhibited a significantly higher risk of ICU mortality compared to the patients with a normal metabolic pattern (72.7% vs. 34.6%, p = 0.04). In our critically ill COVID-19 patients, elevated lactate levels or high LP ratios on admission to the ICU could be associated with poor clinical outcome.

3.
Crit Care Med ; 49(12): 2131-2136, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522360

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Critical illness is characterized by increased serum cortisol concentrations and bioavailability resulting from the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which constitutes an essential part of the stress response. The actions of glucocorticoids are mediated by a ubiquitous intracellular receptor protein, the glucocorticoid receptor. So far, data on coronavirus disease 2019 and glucocorticoid receptor alpha expression are lacking. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: One academic multidisciplinary ICU. SUBJECTS: Twenty-six adult coronavirus disease 2019 patients; 33 adult noncoronavirus disease 2019 patients, matched for age, sex, and disease severity, constituted the control group. All patients were steroid-free. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Glucocorticoid receptor alpha, glucocorticoid-inducible leucine zipper expression, and serum cortisol were measured on ICU admission. In coronavirus disease 2019 patients, glucocorticoid receptor alpha and glucocorticoid-inducible leucine zipper messenger RNA expression were upregulated (4.7-fold, p < 0.01 and 14-fold, p < 0.0001, respectively), and cortisol was higher (20.3 vs 14.3 µg/dL, p < 0.01) compared with the control group. CONCLUSIONS: ICU coronavirus disease 2019 patients showed upregulated glucocorticoid receptor alpha and glucocorticoid-inducible leucine zipper expression, along with cortisol levels, compared with ICU noncoronavirus disease 2019 patients. Thus, on ICU admission, critical coronavirus disease 2019 appears to be associated with hypercortisolemia, and increased synthesis of glucocorticoid receptor alpha and induced proteins.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Hydrocortisone/blood , Leucine Zippers/physiology , Receptors, Glucocorticoid/biosynthesis , Academic Medical Centers , Adult , Aged , Comorbidity , Critical Illness , Female , Greece , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
4.
In Vivo ; 35(6): 3305-3313, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485627

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The study provides a novel prediction model for COVID-19 progression and outcome by the combination of the CD8+: B-cells ratio with neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Immune phenotyping was performed in 120 COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: A decrease in CD8+:B-cell (p<0.0001) and in lymphocyte-to-CRP (LCR) ratio (p<0.0001) was observed in intubated patients versus non-intubated with an increase for CD4+:CD8+ (p<0.01), NLR (p<0.0001) and CRP: Albumin (p<0.001). Receiving operating curve (ROC) analysis predicting requirement for mechanical ventilation revealed the highest AUC for CD8+:B-cells, (AUC=0.795, p<0.001) versus NLR (AUC=0.783, p<0.001), LCR (AUC=0.779, p<0.001), Albumin:CRP (AUC=0.750, p<0.001) and CD4+:CD8+ (AUC=0.779, p<0.001). Combination of the CD8+: B-cell ratio with the NLR increased the AUC (AUC=0.845, p<0.001). The combined ratios correlated with outcome defined as duration of hospital (r=0.435, p<0.001) or ICU stay (r=0.596, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Combination of the CD8+: B-cell ratio and NLR serves as a useful prognostic tool for COVID-19 patient progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neutrophils , B-Lymphocytes , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Lymphocytes , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
5.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 11(4): 338-343, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446308

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Immunoglobulins (Igs) comprise a critical part of the immune response. Little information exists on Ig serum levels in COVID-19 patients. We, therefore, investigated whether hospital admission Igs in patients with mild-to-critical disease are associated with clinical outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective, observational, single-center, cross-sectional study included 126 consecutive non-critically ill and critically ill and COVID-19 patients, in whom IgG, IgM, and IgA were measured on hospital admission. RESULTS: The cohort was divided in survivors and non-survivors, based on in-hospital mortality. Median IgG levels of survivors were significantly higher than non-survivors (p < 0.01). The cohort was subsequently divided in IgG deficient (< 690 mg/dl) and sufficient (≥ 690 mg/dl) patients. IgG-deficient patients had a higher mortality rate (p < 0.01). The multivariate logistic regression model showed that subnormal IgG was significantly associated with increased mortality risk (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: In our COVID-19 cohort, admission subnormal IgG levels might be independently associated with reduced survival.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Intensive Care Units , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Minerva Endocrinol (Torino) ; 47(1): 111-116, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431239

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Low testosterone (mainly total testosterone [TTe]) has been noted in patients with COVID-19. Calculated free testosterone (FTe) and bioavailable testosterone (BavTe) may reflect more accurately this hormone's levels. In this study, we sought to assess TTe, FTe as well as BavTe in male patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Sera were collected upon admission from 65 men (10 in the intensive care units [ICU] and 55 in the wards) with polymerase chain reaction - proven COVID-19. A group of age-matched COVID-19-negative men (N.=29) hospitalized in general medical wards served as controls. Age, Body Mass Index (BMI) and 28-day mortality were noted. Measurements included TTe, sex-hormone binding globulin, albumin (the latter two for calculating FTe and BavTe) and laboratory markers of inflammation (white blood cell count [WBC], D-Dimers [D-D], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], ferritin [Fer] and C-reactive protein [CRP]). RESULTS: Profoundly low TTe, FTe and BavTe were noted in most patients, and were associated with disease severity/outcome (being the lowest in COVID-19 patients in the ICU and overall being lower in non-survivors; analysis of covariance P<0.05). Pearson's correlations for logTe, logFTe or logBavTe versus WBC, D-D, LDH, Ferr or CRP were negative, ranging from -0.403 to -0.293 (P=0.009 to 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: TTe, FTe and BavTe are prone to be low in patients with COVID-19, are negatively associated with disease severity and may be considered to have prognostic value.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Testosterone , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein , Female , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male
7.
J Pers Med ; 11(9)2021 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417166

ABSTRACT

Studies have hypothesized a potential role of the interleukin (IL)-23/17 axis in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, to date, levels of IL-23 and 17 have not been compared between critically ill COVID-19 patients and critically ill non-COVID-19 patients. IL-23 and 17 were measured on admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) in critically ill COVID-19 (N = 38) and critically ill non-COVID-19 (N = 34) patients with an equal critical illness severity. Critically ill non-COVID-19 patients did not have sepsis or septic shock on ICU admission. None of the enrolled patients had previously received corticosteroids. In our study, circulating IL-17 levels were higher in the COVID-19 patients. More specifically, critically ill COVID-19 patients had levels of 0.78 (0.05-1.8) pg/mL compared to 0.11 (0.05-0.9) pg/mL in the critically ill non-COVID-19 patients (p = 0.04). In contrast, IL-23 levels were comparable between groups. A group of patients hospitalized in the specialized COVID-19 clinic (N = 16) was also used to evaluate IL-17 and IL-23 levels with respect to COVID-19 severity. Non-critically ill COVID-19 patients had undetectable levels of both cytokines. Our results support the notion of inhibiting IL-17 in critical COVID-19 infection.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409704

ABSTRACT

Autotaxin (ATX; ENPP2) is a secreted lysophospholipase D catalyzing the extracellular production of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a pleiotropic signaling phospholipid. Genetic and pharmacologic studies have previously established a pathologic role for ATX and LPA signaling in pulmonary injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. Here, increased ENPP2 mRNA levels were detected in immune cells from nasopharyngeal swab samples of COVID-19 patients, and increased ATX serum levels were found in severe COVID-19 patients. ATX serum levels correlated with the corresponding increased serum levels of IL-6 and endothelial damage biomarkers, suggesting an interplay of the ATX/LPA axis with hyperinflammation and the associated vascular dysfunction in COVID-19. Accordingly, dexamethasone (Dex) treatment of mechanically ventilated patients reduced ATX levels, as shown in two independent cohorts, indicating that the therapeutic benefits of Dex include the suppression of ATX. Moreover, large scale analysis of multiple single cell RNA sequencing datasets revealed the expression landscape of ENPP2 in COVID-19 and further suggested a role for ATX in the homeostasis of dendritic cells, which exhibit both numerical and functional deficits in COVID-19. Therefore, ATX has likely a multifunctional role in COVID-19 pathogenesis, suggesting that its pharmacological targeting might represent an additional therapeutic option, both during and after hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Datasets as Topic , Dendritic Cells/drug effects , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Endothelium, Vascular/immunology , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Female , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases/metabolism , RNA-Seq , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis
9.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 644055, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295630

ABSTRACT

Objective: We aimed to measure insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and growth hormone (GH) in critically and non-critically ill patients with Covid-19 and assess them vis-a-vis clinical and laboratory parameters and prognostic tools. Subjects and Methods: We included patients who were admitted to the wards or the ICU of the largest Covid-19 referral hospital in Greece; patients with non-Covid-19 pneumonia served as controls. Apart from the routine laboratory work-up for Covid-19 we measured GH and IGF1 (and calculated normalized IGF-1 values as standard deviation scores; SDS), after blood sampling upon admission to the wards or the ICU. Results: We studied 209 critically and non-critically ill patients with Covid-19 and 39 control patients. Patients with Covid-19 who were ICU non-survivors were older and presented with a worse hematological/biochemical profile (including white blood cell count, troponin, glucose, aminotransferases and lactate dehydrogenase) compared to ICU survivors or Covid-19 survivors in the wards. Overall, IGF-1 SDS was higher in Covid-19 survivors compared to non-survivors (-0.96 ± 1.89 vs -2.05 ± 2.48, respectively, p=0.030). No significant differences were noted in GH between the groups. Nevertheless, in critically ill patients with Covid-19, the prognostic value of IGF-1 (raw data), IGF-1 (SDS) and GH for survival/non-survival was on a par with that of APACHE II and SOFA (with a marginal difference between GH and SOFA). Conclusion: In conclusion, our findings suggest that there might be an association between low IGF1 (and possibly GH) and poor outcome in patients with Covid-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Critical Illness , Human Growth Hormone/metabolism , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Case-Control Studies , Critical Illness/mortality , Female , Greece/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Survivors/statistics & numerical data
10.
Shock ; 56(5): 733-736, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146305

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) is a protein that regulates the protein C anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory pathways. A soluble form of EPCR (sEPCR) circulates in plasma and inhibits activated protein C (APC) activities. The clinical impact of sEPCR and its involvement in COVID-19 has not been explored. In this study, we investigated whether sEPCR levels were related to COVID-19 patients' requirement for hospitalization. METHODS: Plasma sEPCR levels were measured on hospital admission in 84 COVID-19 patients, and in 11 non-hospitalized SARS-CoV2-positive patients approximately 6 days after reported manifestation of their symptoms. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify potential risk factors for hospitalization and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to assess their value. RESULTS: In our cohort, hospitalized patients had considerably higher sEPCR levels upon admission compared with outpatients [107.5 (76.7-156.3) vs. 44.6 (12.1-84.4) ng/mL; P < 0.0001)]. The ROC curve using hospitalization as the classification variable and sEPCR levels as the prognostic variable generated an area under the curve at 0.845 (95% CI = 0.710-0.981, P < 0.001). Additionally, we investigated the predictive value of sEPCR combined with BMI, age, or D-dimers. CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort, sEPCR levels in COVID-19 patients upon hospital admission appear considerably elevated compared with outpatients; this could lead to impaired APC activities and might contribute to the pro-coagulant phenotype reported in such patients. sEPCR measurement might be useful as a point-of-care test in SARS-CoV2-positive patients.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Endothelial Protein C Receptor/blood , Adult , Aged , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/biosynthesis , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Outpatients , Phenotype , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , RNA, Viral/metabolism , ROC Curve , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/blood
11.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(1)2021 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028880

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: Critically and non-critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection (Covid-19) may present with higher-than-expected glycemia, even in the absence of diabetes. With this study we aimed to assess glucose, glycemic gap (GlyG) and insulin secretion/sensitivity measures in patients with Covid-19. Materials and Methods: We studied, upon admission, 157 patients with Covid-19 (84: in wards and 73: in intensive care units; ICU); 135 had no history of diabetes. We measured blood glucose upon admission as well as glycated hemoglobin (A1c), plasma insulin and C-peptide. We calculated the GlyG and the Homeostasis Model Assessment 2 (HOMA2) estimates of steady state beta cell function (HOMA2%B) and insulin sensitivity (HOMA2%S). Statistical assessment was done with analysis or the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Compared to patients in the wards without diabetes, patients with diabetes in the wards, as well as patients in the ICU (without or with diabetes) had higher admission glycemia. The GlyG was significantly higher in patients without diabetes in the ICU compared to patients without diabetes in the wards, while HOMA2%B based on glucose and insulin was significantly higher in the ICU patients compared to patients in the wards. Of all the parameters, HOMA2%S based on C-peptide/glucose was higher in survivors (n = 133). Conclusions: In our series of patients with Covid-19, a substantial number of patients with and without diabetes had admission hyperglycemia and those who were critically ill may have had compromised insulin secretion and lowered sensitivity to insulin. These findings lend credence to reports of association between Covid-19 and hyperglycemia/secondary diabetes.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , C-Peptide/blood , COVID-19/blood , Insulin Resistance , Insulin/blood , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Greece/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged
12.
Metabolites ; 10(10)2020 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-906480

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) continues to be a health threat worldwide. Increased blood lactate is common in intensive care unit (ICU) patients; however, its association with outcomes in ICU COVID-19 patients remains currently unexplored. In this retrospective, observational study we assessed whether lactate is associated with outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Blood lactate was measured on ICU admission and thereafter daily up to day 14 in 45 patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE II) was calculated on ICU admission, and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score was assessed on admission and every second day. The cohort was divided into survivors and non-survivors based on 28-day ICU mortality (24.4%). Cox regression analysis revealed that maximum lactate on admission was independently related to 28-day ICU mortality with time in the presence of APACHE II (RR = 2.45, p = 0.008). Lactate's area under the curve for detecting 28-day ICU mortality was 0.77 (p = 0.008). Mixed model analysis showed that mean daily lactate levels were higher in non-survivors (p < 0.0001); the model applied on SOFA scores showed a similar time pattern. Thus, initial blood lactate was an independent outcome predictor in COVID-19 ICU patients. The time course of lactate mirrors organ dysfunction and is associated with poor clinical outcomes.

13.
Metabolites ; 10(10):386, 2020.
Article | MDPI | ID: covidwho-799989

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) continues to be a health threat worldwide. Increased blood lactate is common in intensive care unit (ICU) patients;however, its association with outcomes in ICU COVID-19 patients remains currently unexplored. In this retrospective, observational study we assessed whether lactate is associated with outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Blood lactate was measured on ICU admission and thereafter daily up to day 14 in 45 patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE II) was calculated on ICU admission, and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score was assessed on admission and every second day. The cohort was divided into survivors and non-survivors based on 28-day ICU mortality (24.4%). Cox regression analysis revealed that maximum lactate on admission was independently related to 28-day ICU mortality with time in the presence of APACHE II (RR = 2.45, p = 0.008). Lactate"s area under the curve for detecting 28-day ICU mortality was 0.77 (p = 0.008). Mixed model analysis showed that mean daily lactate levels were higher in non-survivors (p <0.0001);the model applied on SOFA scores showed a similar time pattern. Thus, initial blood lactate was an independent outcome predictor in COVID-19 ICU patients. The time course of lactate mirrors organ dysfunction and is associated with poor clinical outcomes.

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