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1.
Life ; 12(9):1335, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2006122

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection may result in severe pneumonia leading to mechanical ventilation and intensive care (ICU) treatment. Complement activation was verified in COVID-19 and implicated as a contributor to COVID-19 pathogenesis. This study assessed the predictive potential of complement factors C3a and C5b-9 for COVID-19 progression and outcome. We grouped 80 COVID-19 patients into severe COVID-19 patients (n = 38) and critically ill (n = 42) and subdivided into non-intubated (n = 48) and intubated (n = 32), survivors (n = 57) and non-survivors (n = 23). Results: A significant increase for C3a and C5b-9 levels was observed between: severely and critically ill patients (p < 0.001 and p < 0.0001), non-intubated vs intubated (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05), survivors vs non-survivors (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01). ROC analysis for the need for ICU treatment revealed a higher AUC for C5b-9 (0.764, p < 0.001) compared to C3a (AUC = 0.739, p < 0.01). A higher AUC was observed for C3a for the need for intubation (AUC = 0.722, p < 0.001) or mortality (AUC = 0.740, p < 0.0001) compared to C5b-9 (need for intubation AUC = 0.656, p < 0.05 and mortality AUC = 0.631, p = NS). Combining the two markers revealed a powerful prediction tool for ICU admission (AUC = 0.773, p < 0.0001), intubation (AUC = 0.756, p < 0.0001) and mortality (AUC = 0.753, p < 0.001). C3a and C5b-9 may be considered as prognostic tools separately or in combination for the progression and outcome of COVID-19.

2.
Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association ; 37(Suppl 3), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1998576

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS Patients (pts) with end-stage kidney disease (ESRD) may be more vulnerable to infections and may have a suboptimal response to vaccination. Dialysis patient (pt) began to be vaccinated against COVID-19 in February 2021. However, there were many doubts about whether immunization would be effective for them, as these pts have an impaired immune system, and it seems that this population responds poorly to vaccinations. Serum neutralizing antibodies (AbN) rapidly appear after the SARS-CoV-2 infection and the vaccination and are maintained for several months. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants has raised concerns about the breadth of the neutralizing antibody responses. METHOD Serum samples were obtained from 181 patients receiving dialysis. Levels of circulating SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike IgG(S) and anti-nucleocapsid IgG (N) antibodies were quantified using the Abbott Diagnostics SARS-CoV-2 IgG chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (Abbott Diagnostics, Abbott Park, IL, USA) on an Abbott Diagnostics Architect i2000 SR and an Alinity analyzer, according to the manufacturer's instructions. Serum neutralizing antibodies (AbN) by commercially available assays (cPass SARS-CoV-2 Neutralization Antibody Detection Kit), at the first and the third months after the vaccination, were identified.Table 1. Paired samples statistics MeanNStd. deviationStd. error meanPair 1AbN177.737315324.179861.95483AbN357.090615331.290752.52971Pair 2AbIgGspike15360.85691446252.38034521.03169AbIgGspike31670.86671443814.62641317.88553 Comparison of neutralizers and antiSpikes between measurements 1 month and 3 months after vaccination (method: paired t-test). RESULTS The IgG-spike Abs had a statistically significant decrease at 3 months after the vaccination in relation to the measurements 1 month after that. AbN had a statistically significant decline at 3 months after the vaccination in relation to the measurements 1 month after. Pts with cardiovascular disease (CD) had significantly lower levels of antibodies than those who did not have CD. Additionally, CD was an aggravating factor in combination with the other comorbidities for the development of antibodies. Pts with a history of malignancy had significantly lower levels of antibodies in relation to those who did not. Those under therapy with antihistamines in the 1st month after the vaccination presented a statistically lower level of the AbNs, but this difference did not exist in the measurements 3 months after vaccination. There was a correlation between the AbNs and the age, also between the time these patients underwent dialysis. Those who had COVID-19 infection presented higher levels of the antibodies AbN/IgG-spiked Ab at 3 months. CONCLUSION It is presented that the IgG-spike Abs and the AbN had a statistically significant decrease at 3 months after the vaccination, which shows the importance of completing vaccination with the third dose after 3 months. Also, it is presented that CD is a risk factor for lower levels of Abs. Randomized clinical trials for COVID-19 vaccines included a few patients with kidney disease;therefore, the vaccine immunogenicity is uncertain in this population.

3.
J Sleep Res ; : e13656, 2022 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879081

ABSTRACT

Growing evidence suggests that sleep could affect the immunological response after vaccination. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate possible associations between regular sleep disruption and immunity response after vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In total, 592 healthcare workers, with no previous history of COVID-19, from eight major Greek hospitals were enrolled in this study. All subjects underwent two Pfizer-BioNTech messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) COVID-19 vaccine BNT162b2 inoculations with an interval of 21 days between the doses. Furthermore, a questionnaire was completed 2 days after each vaccination and clinical characteristics, demographics, sleep duration, and habits were recorded. Blood samples were collected and anti-spike immunoglobulin G antibodies were measured at 20 ± 1 days after the first dose and 21 ± 2 days after the second dose. A total of 544 subjects (30% males), with median (interquartile range [IQR]) age of 46 (38-54) years and body mass index of 24·84 (22.6-28.51) kg/m2 were eligible for the study. The median (IQR) habitual duration of sleep was 6 (6-7) h/night. In all, 283 participants (52%) had a short daytime nap. In 214 (39.3%) participants the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score was >5, with a higher percentage in women (74·3%, p < 0.05). Antibody levels were associated with age (r = -0.178, p < 0.001), poor sleep quality (r = -0.094, p < 0.05), insomnia (r = -0.098, p < 0.05), and nap frequency per week (r = -0.098, p < 0.05), but after adjusting for confounders, only insomnia, gender, and age were independent determinants of antibody levels. It is important to emphasise that insomnia is associated with lower antibody levels against COVID-19 after vaccination.

4.
Autoimmun Rev ; 20(12): 102985, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491722

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The first wave of COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted almost all areas of the health care services to some extent throughout the world. Although the negative impact of COVID-19 on patients with autoimmune diseases has also been recognized, available data in this regard are limited. In the current study of the European Autoimmunity Standardisation Initiative (EASI) we aimed to provide reliable data on the extent of the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on test requests for different autoantibodies in European countries. METHODS: Data on test numbers and on the number of positive results were collected in 97 clinical laboratories from 15 European countries on a monthly basis for the year before (2019) and the year during (2020) the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: A reduction in the number of autoantibody tests was observed in all European countries in the year 2020 compared to 2019. The reduction affected all autoantibody tests with an overall decrease of 13%, ranging from 1.4% (Switzerland) to 25.5% (Greece). In all countries, the decrease was most pronounced during the first wave of the pandemic (March-May 2020) with an overall decrease in those three months of 45.2%. The most affected autoantibodies were those commonly requested by general practitioners (anti-tTG IgA (-71%), RF IgM (-66%) and ACPA (-61%)). In the second wave of the pandemic (October-December 2020) the decrease was less pronounced (6.8%). With respect to the rate of positive results, subtle differences were observed for distinct autoantibodies during the pandemic, but the total rate of positive results was similar in both years. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated a strong decrease in autoantibody requests during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in 15 European countries. The second wave was characterized by a less pronounced impact, with some participating countries hardly affected, while some other countries experienced a second decline. The decrease was clearly associated with the level of lock-down and with the required adjustments in the health care systems in different countries, supporting the importance of an effective strategy for the coordination of autoimmune testing in challenging situations as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Europe , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
In Vivo ; 35(6): 3305-3313, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485627

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The study provides a novel prediction model for COVID-19 progression and outcome by the combination of the CD8+: B-cells ratio with neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Immune phenotyping was performed in 120 COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: A decrease in CD8+:B-cell (p<0.0001) and in lymphocyte-to-CRP (LCR) ratio (p<0.0001) was observed in intubated patients versus non-intubated with an increase for CD4+:CD8+ (p<0.01), NLR (p<0.0001) and CRP: Albumin (p<0.001). Receiving operating curve (ROC) analysis predicting requirement for mechanical ventilation revealed the highest AUC for CD8+:B-cells, (AUC=0.795, p<0.001) versus NLR (AUC=0.783, p<0.001), LCR (AUC=0.779, p<0.001), Albumin:CRP (AUC=0.750, p<0.001) and CD4+:CD8+ (AUC=0.779, p<0.001). Combination of the CD8+: B-cell ratio with the NLR increased the AUC (AUC=0.845, p<0.001). The combined ratios correlated with outcome defined as duration of hospital (r=0.435, p<0.001) or ICU stay (r=0.596, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Combination of the CD8+: B-cell ratio and NLR serves as a useful prognostic tool for COVID-19 patient progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neutrophils , B-Lymphocytes , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Lymphocytes , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Life (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438659

ABSTRACT

The present cross-sectional study consists of a comprehensive analysis of epidemiological, laboratory, and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients in relation to their immunogenetic profiles. We studied 125 COVID-19 patients comprising different stages of disease severity; non-hospitalized (mild n = 69) and hospitalized (n = 56). Analysis of disease characteristics revealed no major differences between males and females of each group of patients while hospitalized patients were older and presented with comorbidities. A positive allele association was observed for HLA-DRB1*01 in total COVID-19 patients versus healthy controls. Subgrouping of COVID-19 patients in mild and hospitalized further identified a statistically significant increase in HLA-DRB1*01 in mild COVID-19 patients versus controls. The frequency of A*11, A*23, and DRB1*09 alleles was higher, while the frequency of C*12 was lower, in hospitalized patients versus healthy controls albeit with uncorrected statistical significance. The identification of specific allele associations may provide useful future markers for disease susceptibility in order to allow successful clinical management of COVID-19 patients.

7.
Microorganisms ; 9(8)2021 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355012

ABSTRACT

Anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD (receptor-binding domain) IgG antibody levels were monitored in 1643 volunteer healthcare workers of Eginition, Evangelismos, and Konstantopoulio General Hospitals (Athens, Greece), who underwent vaccination with two doses of COVID-19 BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine (Pfizer) and had no history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Venous blood was collected 20-30 days after the second vaccine dose and anti-RBD IgG levels were determined using CMIA SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant (Abbott) on ARCHITECT i System or ADVIA Centaur SARS-CoV-2 IgG (Siemens) on Centaur XP platform. From the total population of 1643 vaccinees (533 M/1110 F; median age = 49; interquartile range-IQR = 40-56), 1636 (99.6%) had anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG titers above the positivity threshold of the assay used. One-Way ANOVA Kruskal-Wallis H test showed a statistically significant difference in the median of antibody titers between the different age groups (p < 0.0001). Consistently, Spearman's correlation coefficient (r) for IgGs and age as continuous variables was -0.2380 (p = 1.98 × 10-17). Moreover, antibody titers were slightly higher by 1.2-mean fold (p = 3 × 10-6) in the total female population of the three hospitals (median = 1594; IQR = 875-2584) as compared to males (median = 1292; IQR = 671.9-2188). The present study supports that BNT162b2 vaccine is particularly effective in producing high anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels in healthy individuals, and this humoral response is age- and gender-dependent.

8.
J Pers Med ; 11(6)2021 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282528

ABSTRACT

We analyzed the antibody responses of 564 hospital workers in Athens, Greece, after vaccination with two doses of the BNT162b2 (Comirnaty®; BioNTech and Pfizer) mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. A greater antibody increase was observed in women, younger age groups, previously infected individuals and personnel working in COVID-19 clinics. Notably, individuals with a prior COVID-19 infection mounted a significantly higher antibody titer following the first dose than the rest of the population; the same was true for those working in COVID-19 clinics, even without history of previous infection.

9.
Virology ; 556: 79-86, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065650

ABSTRACT

Infection with SARS-COV-2 may result in severe pneumonia potentially leading to mechanical ventilation and intensive care treatment. The aim of the present study was to analyze the immune responses in critically ill coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) patients requiring mechanical ventilation and assess their potential use as markers of clinical progression and outcome. Confirmed COVID-19 patients were grouped into those requiring mechanical ventilation (intubated) and non-intubated. Immune phenotyping was performed and cytokine levels were determined. A novel ratio of CD8+:B cells was significantly lower in intubated versus non-intubated (p = 0.015) and intubated non-survivors (NSV) versus survivors (SV) (p = 0.015). The same ratio correlated with outcome, CRP, IL-6 levels and neutrophil count. Receiving operating curve (ROC) analysis for prediction of requirement of mechanical ventilation by the CD8+:B cells ratio revealed an AUC of 0.747 and a p = 0.007. The ratio of CD8+:B cells may serve as a useful prognostic marker for disease severity and outcome.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/pathology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/immunology , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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