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1.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(7): 766-772, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895222

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiac arrhythmias, mainly atrial fibrillation (AF), is frequently reported in COVID-19 patients, more often in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients, yet causality has not been virtually explored. Moreover, non-Covid ICU patients frequently present AF, sepsis being the major trigger. We aimed to examine whether sepsis or other factors-apart from Covid-19 myocardial involvement-contribute to elicit New Onset AF (NOAF) in intubated ICU patients. METHODS: Consecutive intubated, Covid-19ARDS patients, were prospectively studied for factors triggering NOAF. Demographics, data on Covid-19 infection duration, laboratory findings (troponin as well), severity of illness and ARDS were compared between NOAF and control group (no AF) on admission. In NOAF patients, echocardiographic findings, laboratory and secondary infection data on the AF day were compared to the preceding days and/or ICU admission data. RESULTS: Among 105 patients screened, 79 were eligible; nineteen presented NOAF (24%). Baseline characteristics did not differ between the NOAF and control groups. Troponin levels were mildly elevated upon ICU admission in both groups. Left ventricular global longitudinal strain was impaired (<16.5%) in 63% vs 78% in the two groups, respectively. The right ventricle was mildly dilated, and pericardial effusion was present in 52 vs 43%, respectively. NOAF occurred on the 18 ± 4.8 days from Covid-19 symptoms' onset, and the 8.5 ± 2.1 ICUday. A septic secondary infection episode occurred in 89.5% of the patients in the NOAF group ( vs 41.6% in the control group (p < 0.001). In fact, NOAF occurred concurrently with a secondary septic episode in 84.2% of the patients. Sepsis presence was the only factor associated to NOAF occurrence (OR 16.63, p = 0.002). Noradrenaline, lactate and inflammation biomarkers gradually increased in the days before AF (all p < 0.05). Echocardiographic findings did not change on NOAF occurrence. CONCLUSION: Secondary infections seem to be major contributors for NOAF occurrence in Covid-19 patients, probably playing the role of the "second hit" in an affected myocardium from Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Cross Infection , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Sepsis , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Bacterial Infections/complications , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/complications , Cross Infection/complications , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/etiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Risk Factors , Sepsis/complications , Sepsis/epidemiology , Troponin
2.
Br J Anaesth ; 129(2): 150-153, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1894821

ABSTRACT

Computational modelling has been used to enlighten pathophysiological issues in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) using a sophisticated, integrated cardiopulmonary model. COVID-19 ARDS is a pathophysiologically distinct entity characterised by dissociation between impairment in gas exchange and respiratory system mechanics, especially in the early stages of ARDS. Weaver and colleagues used computational modelling to elucidate factors contributing to generation of patient self-inflicted lung injury, and evaluated the effects of various spontaneous respiratory efforts with different oxygenation and ventilatory support modes. Their findings indicate that mechanical forces generated in the lung parenchyma are only counterbalanced when the respiratory support mode reduces the intensity of respiratory efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Injury , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Computer Simulation , Humans , Lung , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Mechanics/physiology
4.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 94, 2022 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793938

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Before the pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), rapidly improving acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), mostly defined by early extubation, had been recognized as an increasingly prevalent subphenotype (making up 15-24% of all ARDS cases), associated with good prognosis (10% mortality in ARDSNet trials). We attempted to determine the prevalence and prognosis of rapidly improving ARDS and of persistent severe ARDS related to COVID-19. METHODS: We included consecutive patients with COVID-19 receiving invasive mechanical ventilation in three intensive care units (ICU) during the second pandemic wave in Greece. We defined rapidly improving ARDS as extubation or a partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2:FiO2) greater than 300 on the first day following intubation. We defined persistent severe ARDS as PaO2:FiO2 of equal to or less than 100 on the second day following intubation. RESULTS: A total of 280 intubated patients met criteria of ARDS with a median PaO2:FiO2 of 125.0 (interquartile range 93.0-161.0) on day of intubation, and overall ICU-mortality of 52.5% (ranging from 24.3 to 66.9% across the three participating sites). Prevalence of rapidly improving ARDS was 3.9% (11 of 280 patients); no extubation occurred on the first day following intubation. ICU-mortality of patients with rapidly improving ARDS was 54.5%. This low prevalence and high mortality rate of rapidly improving ARDS were consistent across participating sites. Prevalence of persistent severe ARDS was 12.1% and corresponding mortality was 82.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Rapidly improving ARDS was not prevalent and was not associated with good prognosis among patients with COVID-19. This is starkly different from what has been previously reported for patients with ARDS not related to COVID-19. Our results on both rapidly improving ARDS and persistent severe ARDS may contribute to our understanding of trajectory of ARDS and its association with prognosis in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Oxygen , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
5.
J Pers Med ; 12(3)2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765764

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D has known immunomodulatory activity and multiple indications exist supporting its potential use against SARS-CoV-2 infection in the setting of the current pandemic. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine the efficacy of vitamin D administered to adult patients following COVID-19 diagnosis in terms of length of hospital stay, intubation, ICU admission and mortality rates. Therefore, PubMed and Scopus databases were searched for original articles referring to the aforementioned parameters. Of the 1376 identified studies, eleven were finally included. Vitamin D supplements, and especially calcifediol, were shown to be useful in significantly reducing ICU admissions and/or mortality in four of the studies, but not in diminishing the duration of hospitalization of COVID-19 patients. Due to the large variation in vitamin D supplementation schemes no absolute conclusions can be drawn until larger randomized controlled trials are completed. However, calcifediol administered to COVID-19 patients upon diagnosis represents by far the most promising agent and should be the focus of upcoming research efforts.

6.
J Pers Med ; 12(3)2022 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700261

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nasogastric tube (NGT) placement is a daily routine in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), and misplacement of the NGT can cause serious complications. In COVID-19 ARDS patients, proning has emerged the need for frequent NGT re-evaluations. The gold standard technique, chest X-ray, is not always feasible. In the present study we report our experience with the use of ultrasonographic confirmation of NGT position. METHODS: A prospective study in 276 COVID-19 ARDS patients admitted after intubation in the ICU. Ultrasonographic evaluation was performed using longitudinal or sagittal epigastric views. Examinations were performed during the initial NGT placement and every time the patients returned to the supine position after they had been proned or whenever critical care physicians or nurses considered that reconfirmation was necessary. RESULTS: Ultrasonographic confirmation of correct NGT placement was feasible in 246/276 (89.13%) patients upon ICU admission. In 189/246 (76.8%) the tube could be visualized in the stomach (two parallel lines), in 172/246 (69.9%) the ultrasonographic whoosh test ("flash" due to air instillation through the tube, seen with ultrasonography) was evident, while in 164/246 (66.7%) both tests confirmed correct NGT placement. During ICU stay 590 ultrasonographic NGT evaluations were performed, and in 462 (78.14%) cases correct NGT placement were confirmed. In 392 cases, a chest X-ray was also ordered. The sensitivity of ultrasonographic NGT confirmation in these cases was 98.9%, specificity 57.9%, PPV 96.2%, and NPV 3.8%. The time for the full evaluation was 3.8 ± 3.4 min. CONCLUSION: Ultrasonographic confirmation of correct NGT placement is feasible in the initial placement, but also whenever needed thereafter, especially in the COVID-19 era, when changes in posture have become a daily practice in ARDS patients.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324887

ABSTRACT

Background: Cardiac arrhythmias, mainly atrial fibrillation (AF), is frequently reported in COVID-19 patients, yet causality has not been explored. Intensive Care Unit patients frequently present AF during critical illness. Sepsis is one of the main contributors of AF occurrence in ICU patients. The aim of the study was to explore if Covid-19 myocardial involvement is the only contributor for New Onset Atrial Fibrillation (NOAF) in intubated ICU patients. Methods Consecutive intubated, Covid-19ARDS patients, were prospectively studied for factors triggering NOAF. Demographics, data on Covid-19 infection duration, severity of illness and ARDS are reported. Echocardiographic findings, troponin levels and secondary infection (sepsis/septic shock) data were collected on the day of AF and compared to the preceding days’ and/or ICU admission data. Comparison was also performed between NOAF and control group (no AF) on admission. Results Among 105 patients screened, 79 were eligible;nineteen presented NOAF (24%). Baseline characteristics did not differ between the NOAF and control groups. Troponin levels were mildly elevated upon ICU admission in both groups. NOAF occurred on the 18 ± 4.8 days from Covid-19 symptoms’ onset, and the 8.5 ± 2.1 ICU day. Seventeen patients in the NOAF group (89.5%) presented a septic secondary infection vs 25 (41.6%) in the control group (p < 0.001). In sixteen NOAF patients (84.2%), AF occurred concurrently with a secondary septic episode. Noradrenaline, lactate levels and inflammation biomarkers presented a gradual increase in the days preceding the AF day (all p < 0.05). Troponin increased compared to admission (p = 0.017). AF did not resolve or re-occurred if sepsis persisted. Upon ICU admission left ventricular ejection fraction was rather normal, yet, global longitudinal strain was equally impaired (< 16.5%) in 63% vs 78% in the NOAF and control groups, respectively. The right ventricle was mildly dilated, and 36 (45.6%) patients had pericardial effusion. Echocardiographic findings did not change on NOAF occurrence. Conclusion Secondary infections seem to be major contributors for NOAF in Covid-19 patients, probably playing the role of the “second hit” in an affected myocardium from Covid-19.

8.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295436

ABSTRACT

Aim To estimate the incidence of in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in COVID-19 patients, as well as to compare the incidence and outcomes of IHCA in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) versus non-ICU patients with COVID-19. Methods We systematically reviewed the PubMed, Scopus and clinicaltrials.gov databases to identify relevant studies. Results Eleven studies were included in our study. The pooled prevalence/incidence, pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI) were calculated, as appropriate. The quality of the included studies was assessed using appropriate tools. The pooled incidence of IHCA in COVID-19 patients was 7% [95% CI: 4 – 11%;P < 0.0001] and 44% [95% CI: 30 – 58%;P < 0.0001] achieved ROSC. Of those that survived, 58% [95% CI: 42 – 74%;P < 0.0001] had a good neurological outcome (Cerebral Performance Category 1 or 2) and the mortality at the last follow-up was 59% [95% CI: 37 – 81%;P < 0.0001]. A statistically significant higher percentage of ROSC [OR (95% CI): 5.088 (2.852, 9.079);P < 0.0001] was found among ICU patients versus those in the general wards. Conclusion The incidence of IHCA amongst hospitalized COVID-19 patients is 7%, with 44% of them achieving ROSC. Patients in the ICU were more likely to achieve ROSC than those in the general wards, however the mortality did not differ. What this paper adds Section 1: What is already known on this subject Mortality in COVID-19 patients ranges between 20% and 40%. it has been reported that patients with COVID-19 have a high incidence of IHCA and higher mortality. This paper aimed to calculate the proportion of COVID-19 patients who experience IHCA and their outcome, as well as compare the outcome of IHCA between ICU and non-ICU patients. Section 2: What this study adds Approximately 7% of hospitalized COVID-19 patients suffer from IHCA and 44% of those achieve ROSC. The rate of ROSC was higher in ICU patients, but the rate of mortality did not differe between ICU and non-ICU patients.

11.
J Crit Care ; 65: 259-260, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307026

ABSTRACT

Neuromuscular Blockade Agents (NMBA) are used in the management of moderate and severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) patients. They have never been reported to present Central Nervous System adverse reactions. Shortage of cis-atracurium during the pandemic, led to the use of rocuronium. We report three patients with Covid-19 ARDS, who presented bilateral dilated, non-reactive pupils, after continuous rocuronium infusion. Brain CT findings were unremarkable and transcranial doppler tracings did not suggest brain edema or hemorrhage. NMBA's discontinuation led to reversal of the pupillary dilation. We believe that impairment of Blood-Brain-Barrier, due to Covid-19, led rocuronium access into the Central Nervous System, leading to this adverse effect. Clinicians should be aware of this adverse reaction when managing patients with Covid-19 ARDS warranting NMBA use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neuromuscular Blockade , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents/adverse effects , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Rocuronium , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Emerg Med ; 60(6): 764-771, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1070535

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of video laryngoscopes by novice physicians may improve first-pass success rates compared with direct laryngoscopy. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess whether time to intubation, number of laryngoscopy attempts, and first-pass success rate during laryngoscopy with the video laryngoscope or conventional Macintosh laryngoscope are affected by personal protective equipment (PPE) donning. METHODS: Seventy inexperienced physicians were randomly assigned to video laryngoscope or Macintosh groups and were instructed to perform intubation with both devices on a manikin, using PPE or a standard uniform. The primary outcomes were insertion time, number of laryngoscopy attempts, and first-pass success rates for each device with or without donning PPE. RESULTS: In the Macintosh group, significantly less time was needed for the first successful intubation without PPE vs. with PPE (12.17 ± 3.69 s vs. 24.07 ± 5.09 s, respectively; p < 0.0001). On the other hand, such difference was not observed in the video laryngoscope group (14.99 ± 3.01 s vs. 14.01 ± 3.35 s, respectively; p = 0.07). With PPE, the first-pass success rate was significantly higher in the video laryngoscope group [41 (58.6%) vs. 66 (94.3%), p < 0.001]. The use of the video laryngoscope resulted in a significant decrease in insertion time compared with the Macintosh blade (14.01 ± 3.35 s vs. 24.07 ± 5.09 s, respectively; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: First-pass success and insertion time with the video laryngoscope were not affected by PPE donning. However, both were negatively affected with the Macintosh laryngoscope.


Subject(s)
Laryngoscopes , Physicians , Equipment Design , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Laryngoscopy , Manikins , Personal Protective Equipment , Video Recording
20.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(2): 300-301, 2020 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-660932
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