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1.
4th International Conference on Computer Communication and the Internet, ICCCI 2022 ; : 179-184, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2018794

ABSTRACT

This study investigates problems related to COCOA, which is a smartphone app officially provided by Japan's Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) that is designed to notify users when they have been in close contact with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) positive persons, and thus help the government and healthcare organizations contain the spread of the virus. The information we have obtained thus far indicates that poor utilization rates of the app are due to significant program flaws, which caused the initial usage to be sluggish, as well as the failures of various health centers to adequately provide polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for COCOA notification recipients, which exacerbated sluggishness issues. Furthermore, a related survey revealed that although the government provides an integrated data system called the Health Center Real-time Information-sharing System on COVID-19 (Japanese abbreviation HER-SYS), information on fever outpatients (hospital names, locations, consultation times, presence or absence of PCR testing, etc.) corresponding to each local government is still not fully available. © 2022 IEEE.

2.
Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine ; 06:06, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2018296

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether workplace infection control measures during the COVID-19 pandemic could increase perceived organizational support (POS). METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted in Japan from December 2020 to December 2021 using a questionnaire survey. There were 18,560 respondents at follow-up;we investigated 4,971 who rated low POS at baseline. The participants were asked a single question about POS and nine about workplace infection control measures. We determined the odds ratios (ORs) of high POS at follow-up using multilevel logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The groups of 5-6 (OR = 1.29;95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.57;P = 0.014) and 7-9 workplace infection control measures (OR = 1.54;95% CI, 1.28-1.85;P < 0.001) had significantly higher ORs than the group with 0-2 measures. CONCLUSIONS: Health support for employees through workplace infection control measures can increase POS.

3.
Journal of Clinical Periodontology ; 49:225, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956765

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV- 2). Recently, some reports indicate that the severity of COVID-19 is associated with periodontal disease. SARS-CoV-2 host cell entry is mediated by viral spike protein binding to the host angiotensinconverting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and its cleavage by transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2). ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are expressed in the oral cavity including periodontal pocket epithelium, tongue and saliva glands. Therefore, we hypothesized that inhibiting these two factors may prevent SARS-CoV-2 infections. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of general ingredients in commercially available toothpaste and mouthwash on SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: We evaluated the effects of 30 toothpaste and mouthwash ingredients on the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-ACE2 interaction and TMPRSS2 protease activity using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and an in vitro enzyme activity assay, respectively. We also investigated whether the ingredients were in the presence of saliva. In addition, the binding state of each ingredient to the inhibitor-binding site of ACE2 or TMPRSS2 was evaluated by molecular docking simulation to understand the mechanisms involved. Results: Sodium tetradecene sulfonate, sodium N-lauroyl-N-methyltaurate, sodium N-lauroylsarcosinate, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and copper gluconate inhibited both spike protein-ACE2 interaction and TMPRSS2 activity. Furthermore, these ingredients also showed inhibitory effects on both spike protein-ACE2 interaction and TMPRRS2 activity in the presence of saliva. Molecular docking simulations suggested that these ingredients could bind to the inhibitor-binding site of ACE2. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that five ingredients in commercial toothpaste and mouthwash could inhibit the entry points of SARSCoV- 2 and could help to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection.

4.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-338064

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaccination is considered the most effective control measure against COVID-19. Vaccine hesitancy and equitable vaccine allocation are important challenges to disseminating developed vaccines. To promote COVID-19 vaccination coverage, the government of Japan established the workplace vaccination program. However, while it appears that the program was effective in overcoming vaccine hesitancy, the program may have hindered the equitable allocation of vaccines because it mainly focused on employees of large companies. We investigated the relationship between company size and COVID-19 vaccination completion status of employees and the impact of the workplace vaccination program on this relationship. Methods: We conducted an internet-based prospective cohort study from December 2020 (baseline) to December 2021. The data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire survey. Briefly, 27,036 workers completed the questionnaire at baseline and 18,560 at follow-up. After excluding ineligible respondents, we finally analyzed the data from 15,829 participants. At baseline, the participants were asked about the size of the company they worked for, and at follow-up they were asked about the month in which they received their second COVID-19 vaccine dose and the availability of a company-arranged vaccination opportunity. Results: In each month throughout the observation period, the odds of having received a second COVID-19 vaccine dose were significantly lower for small-company employees than for large-company employees in the sex- and age-adjusted model. This difference decreased after adjusting for socioeconomic factors, and there was no significant difference after adjusting for the availability of a company-arranged vaccination opportunity. Conclusions: The workplace vaccination program implemented in Japan to control the COVID-19 pandemic may have been effective in overcoming vaccine hesitancy in workers;however, it may have caused an inequitable allocation of vaccines between companies of different sizes. Because people who worked for small companies were less likely to be vaccinated, it will be necessary to enhance support of vaccination for this population in the event of future infectious disease outbreaks. Trial registration: Not applicable.

5.
Sage Open ; 12(1):7, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1770153

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to examine the relationship between telecommuting and the regional cumulative COVID-19 incidence. This was a cross-sectional study analyzing 13,468 office workers. The participant groups, according to the level of cumulative COVID-19 incidence by prefecture, were used as the predictor variable, and telecommuting frequency and preference were used as outcomes. We employed an ordinal logistic regression analysis. In regions with a high cumulative COVID-19 incidence, the proportion of participants who telecommuted more than 2 days per week was 34.7%, which was approximately 20% higher than in other regions. Telecommuting preference was stronger in areas with higher COVID-19 influence. However, in other regions, the proportion of participants who did not want to telecommute was higher than that of those who wanted to telecommute. We found that telecommuting frequency and preference were higher in regions with high cumulative COVID-19 incidence.

6.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-330486

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study examined the relationship between job accommodations for workers with poor health and work functioning impairment during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: An internet survey was conducted in December 2020. We included 24,429 subjects for analysis. One question was used to determine whether subjects needed job accommodations from their company to continue working in their current health condition. The odds ratios (ORs) of the necessity of job accommodations for sick workers associated with work functioning impairment were estimated using multilevel logistic regression analysis. Results: The OR of work functioning impairment among sick workers not receiving job accommodations was 5.75 (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.34-6.20, p<0.001) and those receiving job accommodations was 1.88 (95% CI 1.69-2.08, p<0.001) compared to healthy workers. Conclusions: This study suggests that providing job accommodations to workers with poor health may improve their work functioning impairment.

7.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-327017

ABSTRACT

The control of human flow has led to better control of COVID-19 infections. Japan’s state of emergency, unlike other countries, is not legally binding but is rather a request for individual self-restraint;thus, factors must be identified that do not respond to self-restraint, and countermeasures considered for those factors to enhance its efficacy. We examined the relationship between sociodemographic factors and self-restraint toward going out in public during a pandemic in Japan. This cross-sectional study used data for February 18–19, 2021, obtained from an internet survey;19,560 participants aged 20–65 were included in the analysis. We identified five relevant behaviors: (1) taking a day trip;(2) eating out with five people or more;(3) gathering with friends and colleagues;(4) shopping for other than daily necessities;(5) shopping for daily necessities. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between sociodemographic factors and self-restraint for each of the behaviors. Results showed that for behaviors other than shopping for daily necessities, women, those aged 60–65, married people, highly educated people, high-income earners, desk workers and those who mainly work with interpersonal communication, and those with underlying disease reported more self-restraint. Older people had less self-restraint than younger people toward shopping for daily necessities;an underlying disease had no effect on the identified behavior. Specialized interventions for these groups that include recommendations for greater self-restraint may improve the efficacy of the implementing measures that request self-restraint.

8.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326792

ABSTRACT

The devastation caused by SARS-CoV-2 has made clear the importance of pandemic preparedness. To address future zoonotic outbreaks due to related viruses in the sarbecovirus subgenus, we identified a human monoclonal antibody, 10-40, that neutralized or bound all sarbecoviruses tested in vitro and protected against SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV in vivo. Comparative studies with other receptor-binding domain (RBD)-directed antibodies showed 10-40 to have the greatest breadth against sarbecoviruses and thus its promise as an agent for pandemic preparedness. Moreover, structural analyses on 10-40 and similar antibodies not only defined an epitope cluster in the inner face of the RBD that is well conserved among sarbecoviruses, but also uncovered a new antibody class with a common CDRH3 motif. Our analyses also suggested that elicitation of this class of antibodies may not be overly difficult, an observation that bodes well for the development of a pan-sarbecovirus vaccine.

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