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1.
J Occup Health ; 64(1): e12313, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626927

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationship between interruption to routine medical care during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and sickness presenteeism among workers in Japan. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using data obtained from an internet monitor questionnaire was conducted. Interruption to medical care was defined based on the response "I have not been able to go to the hospital or receive treatment as scheduled." The fraction of sickness presenteeism days in the past 30 days was employed as the primary outcome. A fractional logit model was used for analysis to treat bounded data. RESULTS: Of the 27 036 participants, 17 526 (65%) were workers who did not require routine medical care, 8451 (31%) were using medical care as scheduled, and 1059 (4%) experienced interrupted medical care. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of sickness presenteeism was significantly higher among workers who experienced interrupted medical care (3.44; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.04-3.89) than those who did not require routine medical care. In terms of symptoms, the highest aOR was observed among workers with mental health symptoms (aOR: 5.59, 95% CI: 5.04-6.20). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests the importance of continuing necessary treatment during a pandemic to prevent presenteeism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Presenteeism , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
J Occup Environ Med ; 2021 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606465

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We examined the association between socioeconomic and health status, and lifestyle and sickness presenteeism among Japanese workers during the COVID-19 epidemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using an Internet-monitor survey was conducted in December, 2020 in Japan. Of 33,302 survey participants, we analyzed 27,036 participants (13,814 men and 13,222 women) who reported experience with sickness presenteeism. RESULTS: The odds ratio (OR) of sickness presenteeism associated with unmarried versus married status was 1.15. Respective figures for other variables were 1.11 for manual laboring work compared to desk work; 1.79 and 2.29 for loss of employment at the time the pandemic began and continuation of unemployment compared to maintaining employment during the pandemic; and 3.34 for a feeling of financial instability compared to stability. CONCLUSION: The issue of sickness presenteeism has become more prominent under the COVID-19 epidemic.

3.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(12): e944-e948, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595826

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the relationship between telecommuting environment and low back pain (LBP) among desk-based workers in Japan. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 3663 desk-based, telecommuting workers. LBP was assessed using a 0 to 10 numerical rating scale. The telecommuting environment was evaluated using subjective questions. Mixed-effects logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate this association. RESULTS: The results of mixed-effects logistic model revealed that not having a place or room to concentrate on work, desk not well-lit enough for work, lack of space on the desk to work, not having enough legroom, and uncomfortable temperature and humidity conditions in the workspace were significantly associated with higher odds of LBP. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that telecommuting environment is associated with the prevalence of LBP.

4.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 786400, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581147

ABSTRACT

Background: The current coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has had large impacts on society, including people practicing social distancing. This behavioral response has increased loneliness. Loneliness not only increases the risk of psychiatric disorders, but also affects occupational mental health. To avoid the negative effects of isolation, it is important to have social contact with other people, especially family members. Employment and economic instability caused by COVID-19 may have also affected family relationships. It is important to understand the association between family relationships and loneliness in workers under the pandemic. Methods: We collected usable data from 27,036 Japanese workers who completed an online survey during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants were asked how long they spend with members of their family during mealtimes or at home, and if they experienced loneliness; the latter was assessed by a single question. Other questions included whether participants lived with their spouse, or with someone in need of care. To estimate the odds ratios (ORs) of time with family associated with loneliness we used a multilevel logistic model nested in the prefecture of residence, with adjustments for age, sex, marital status, presence of a cohabitant requiring care, equivalent income, educational level, number of employees in the workplace, frequency of remote work, availability of someone for casual chat, smoking, drinking, time for leisure interests, and cumulative rates of COVID-19 in the prefecture. Results: Ten percent (2,750) of the 27,036 participants reported loneliness. The survey showed a significant negative correlation between time spent with family and loneliness (p < '0.001): participants who spent more time with family were less likely to feel loneliness. In addition, not living with a spouse and living with someone in need of care were associated with loneliness (not living with a spouse: p < 0.001; living with someone in need of care: p < 0.001). Conclusion: Loneliness under COVID-19 pandemic conditions was negatively associated with time spent with family members, with the converse result found for participants cohabiting with someone in need of care. These associations suggest the potential value of changes to working practices and interventions to combat loneliness.

5.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12308, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589270

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between perceived organizational support (POS) and COVID-19 vaccination intention as well as the influence of the implementation of workplace infection prevention measures. METHODS: We analyzed data from an Internet survey of workers aged 20-65 years conducted in December 2020, during a period of widespread COVID-19 infection in Japan. RESULTS: Of the 23 846 participants in this survey, 1958 (8%) reported very high POS. In the group with very high POS, 836 (43%) workers wanted the COVID-19 vaccination; in contrast 1382 (36%) workers in the group with very low POS wanted the vaccination. POS was associated with COVID-19 vaccination intention (odds ratio [OR] = 1.11). The OR decreased after additional adjustment for the number of workplace infection control measures (OR = 1.06). In the analysis with POS as a categorical variable, very high POS was associated with COVID-19 vaccination intention (reference: very low POS) (OR = 1.34). The OR decreased after additional adjustment for the number of workplace infection control measures (OR = 1.17). High POS was associated with COVID-19 vaccination intention (OR = 1.17) but not with vaccination intention after additional adjustment for the number of workplace infection control measures (OR = 1.05). CONCLUSIONS: High POS during the COVID-19 pandemic increased employees' vaccination intention. The relationship between POS and vaccination intention was strongly influenced by implementation of workplace infection prevention measures. Implementing appropriate workplace infection prevention measures in the event of an emerging infectious disease outbreak may influence the vaccination behavior of employees, which may contribute to the acquisition of herd immunity in the community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Intention , Organizational Culture , Vaccination , Workplace , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/psychology , Workplace/organization & administration , Workplace/psychology , Young Adult
6.
Preprint | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-297065

ABSTRACT

Introduction This study examined the association between increased alcohol consumption and telecommuting, comparing employees who expressed a preference for telecommuting and those who did not. Methods We conducted an internet monitor survey. Responses from 20,395 of the 33,302 participants were included in the final sample. Participants were asked about their desire for and frequency of telecommuting, and about changes in alcohol consumption under the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. Results Participants who telecommuted despite preferring not to do so reported significantly increased alcohol consumption, as revealed by a multivariate analysis (OR=1.62, 95% CI 1.25-2.12). Participants who expressed a preference for telecommuting showed no such increase. Conclusions Under the COVID-19 pandemic, telecommuting that involves a mismatch with employee preference for way of working may be a new risk factor for problematic drinking.

7.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; : 10105395211064437, 2021 Dec 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571671

ABSTRACT

Although multilayered strategies including preventive behaviors should be adopted to mitigate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission, evidence on the effectiveness of preventive behaviors against COVID-19 remains limited. This Internet-based prospective cohort study collected baseline data in November 2020 and follow-up data in February 2021, during the third wave of the epidemic in Japan. Among the 19 941 included participants, the percentages reporting that they always used a face mask, practiced hand washing/disinfection, gargling, and ensuring proper room ventilation were 85.4%, 36.0%, 51.1%, and 44.6%, respectively. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that less frequently practicing hand washing/disinfection (odds ratio [OR] = 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10-1.32), gargling (OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.10-1.30), and ensuring proper room ventilation (OR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.26-1.52) were significantly associated with self-reported COVID-19-like illness (CLI). These results suggest that personal preventive behaviors may be effective in reducing CLI, even when universal masking is practiced.

8.
J Occup Environ Med ; 2021 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566094

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the association between attending work while experiencing fever or cold symptoms and workers' socioeconomic background and company characteristics during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was performed. Of a total of 33,302 participants, 3676 workers who experienced fever or cold symptoms after April 2020 were included. The odds ratios (ORs) of attending work while sick associated with workers' socioeconomic background and company characteristics were evaluated using a multilevel logistic model. RESULTS: The OR of attending work while sick associated with a lack of policy prohibiting workers from working when ill was 2.75 (95% CI: 2.28 to 3.20, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that clear company policies on work and illness can be effective for preventing employees from attending work while sick.

9.
Arch Public Health ; 79(1): 222, 2021 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562298

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To prevent the spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), it is important to avoid 3Cs (closed spaces, crowded places, and close-contact settings). However, the risk of contact with an unspecified number of people is inevitable while commuting to and from work. In this study, we investigated the relationship between commuting, and the risk of COVID-19 and COVID-19-induced anxiety. METHODS: An internet-based questionnaire survey was conducted to obtain a dataset from 27,036 respondents. One-way commuting time was evaluated using a five-case method. The commuting distance was estimated using zip codes of the home and workplace. Logistic regression analysis was performed with the following outcomes: COVID-19 risk, close contact, infection anxiety, and infection anxiety due to commuting. Commuting distance and commuting time were analyzed separately in the model. We excluded participants with incalculable commuting distance, commuting distance exceeding 300 km, commuting distance of 0 km, or who telecommuted at least once a week. RESULTS: The total number of participants included in the analysis was 14,038. The adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of using public transportation for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection were 4.17 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.51-6.93) (commuting time) and 5.18 (95% CI: 3.06-8.78) (commuting distance). The aOR of COVID-19 diagnosis decreased significantly with increasing commuting distance. The aORs of using public transportation to infection anxiety were 1.44 (95% CI: 1.31-1.59) (commuting time) and 1.45 (95% CI: 1.32-1.60) (commuting distance). The longer the commuting time, the more the aOR increased. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 risk, close contact, and infection anxiety were all associated with the use of public transportation during commuting. Both commuting distance and time were associated with infection anxiety due to commuting, and the strength of the association increased with increase in commuting time distance. Since transportation by commuting is associated with COVID-19 risk and anxiety, we recommend the use of telecommuting and other means of work.

10.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12302, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560883

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Many companies in Japan have been increasingly interested in "health and productivity management (H&PM)." In terms of H&PM, we hypothesized that companies can enhance their employees' perceived workplace health support (PWHS) by supporting workers' lively working and healthy living. This could then improve their health-related quality of life (HRQOL) by increasing PWHS. Consequently, this study explored the relationship between PWHS and HRQOL. METHODS: In December 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic, we conducted an Internet-based nationwide health survey of Japanese workers (CORoNaWork study). A database of 27 036 participants was created. The intensity of PWHS was measured using a four-point Likert scale. We used multilevel ordered logistic regression to analyze the relationship between PWHS intensity and the four domains of the Centers for Disease Control's HRQOL-4 (self-rated health, number of poor physical health days, number of poor mental health days, and activity limitation days during the past 30 days). RESULTS: In the sex- and age-adjusted and multivariate models, the intensity of PWHS significantly affected self-rated health and the three domains of unhealthy days (physical, mental, and activity limitation). There was also a trend toward worse HRQOL scores as the PWHS decreased. CONCLUSIONS: We found that the higher the PWHS of Japanese workers, the higher their self-rated health and the fewer their unhealthy days. Companies need to assess workers' PWHS and HRQOL and promote H&PM. H&PM is also necessary to maintain and promote the health of workers during the COVID-19 pandemic.

11.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 2021 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556861

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During a pandemic, non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) play an important role in protecting oneself and others from infection. There are large regional differences in COVID-19 infection rates in Japan. We hypothesized that the local infection incidence may affect adherence to individual NPIs. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted online among full-time workers in Japan in December 2020. The questionnaire asked the respondents to identify their habits regarding seven common NPIs (wearing masks, washing hands after the bathroom, disinfecting hands when entering indoors, gargling when returning home, ventilating the room, disinfecting or washing hands after touching frequently touched surfaces, carrying alcohol sanitizers when outdoors). RESULTS: A total of 27 036 participants were analyzed. Compared with the region with the lowest infection rate, five of the seven NPIs showed statistically significant trends across regional infection levels, the two exceptions being wearing masks and washing hands after the bathroom. Multivariate adjustment did not change these trends. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that NPIs were more prevalent in regions with higher incidence rates of COVID-19 in Japanese workers. The findings suggest that the implementation of NPIs was influenced not only by personal attributes but also by contextual effects of the local infection level.

12.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-296383

ABSTRACT

Objectives This study examined the relationship between the status of infection control efforts against COVID-19 in the workplace and workers’ mental health using a large-scale Internet-based study. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on an Internet monitoring survey conducted during the third wave of the COVID-19 epidemic in Japan. Of the 33,302 people who participated in the survey, 27,036 were included in the analyses. Participants answered whether or not each of 10 different infection control measures were in place at their workplace (e.g. wearing masks at all times during working hours). A Kessler 6 (K6) score of ≥13 was defined as mild psychological distress. The odds ratios (ORs) of psychological distress associated with infection control measures at the workplace were estimated using a multilevel logistic model nested in the prefectures of residence. Results The OR of subjects working at facilities with 4 or 5 infection control measures for psychological distress was 1.19 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-1.34, p=0.010), that in facilities with 2 or 3 infection control measures was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.25-1.64, p<0.001), and that in facilities with 1 or no infection control measures was 1.87 (95% CI: 1.63-2.14, p<0.001) compared to subjects whose workplaces had ≥6 infection control measures. Conclusion Our findings suggest that proactive COVID-19 infection control measures can influence the mental health of workers.

13.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295643

ABSTRACT

Objective This study examined the relationship between interruption to routine medical care during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and sickness presenteeism in Japan. Methods An internet monitor questionnaire was conducted. Data from 27,036 people were analyzed. Interruption to medical care was defined based on the response “I have not been able to go to the hospital or receive treatment as scheduled.” The number of sickness presenteeism days in the past 30 days was employed as the primary outcome. A zero-inflated negative binomial model was used for analysis. Results The incidence rate ratio was significantly higher among workers who experienced interrupted medical care (2.26;95% confidence interval: 2.03–2.52) than those who did not require routine medical care. Conclusions This study suggests the importance of continuing necessary treatment during a pandemic to prevent presenteeism.

14.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295529

ABSTRACT

The 2020/2021 seasonal influenza vaccination was carried out under unique situations during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Examining the factors affecting vaccine inoculation in a pandemic situation may provide valuable insights. The purpose of the current study was to investigate how the COVID-19 pandemic affected the 2020/2021 seasonal influenza vaccine intake. A cross-sectional study was conducted on workers aged 20–65 years on December 22–25, 2020, using data from an Internet survey. We set the presence or absence of 2020/2021 seasonal influenza vaccination as the dependent variable, and each aspect of sociodemographic factors, including gender, age, marital status, education, annual household income, and underlying disease, as independent variables. We performed a multilevel logistic regression analysis nested by residence. In total, 26,637 respondents (13,600 men, 13,037 women) participated, and a total of 11,404 individuals (42.8%) received the 2020/2021 influenza vaccine. Significantly more women than men were vaccinated, and the vaccination rate was higher among younger adults, married people, highly educated people, high-income earners, and those with underlying disease. The current results suggested that the relationship between seasonal influenza vaccination behavior and sociodemographic factors differed from the results reported in previous studies in terms of age. These findings suggest that, during the COVID-19 pandemic, young people may have become more aware of the risk of contracting influenza and of the effectiveness of the influenza vaccine. In addition, information interventions may have had a positive effect.

15.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295528

ABSTRACT

Background Restricting the movement of the public to gathering places and limiting close physical contact are effective measures against COVID-19 infection. In Japan, states of emergency have been declared in specific prefectures to reduce public movement and control COVID-19 transmission. We investigated how familiarity with the COVID-19 infection affected self-restraint related to outing behaviors during state of emergency declarations in Japan. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted among workers aged 20–65 years using data from an internet survey. The baseline survey was conducted on December 22–25, 2020, and a follow-up survey was on February 18–19, 2021. There were 19,941 participants who completed both surveys and were included in the final analysis. We set self-restraint regarding outing behaviors after the second state of emergency was declared in January 2021 as the dependent variable, and levels of familiarity with COVID-19 infection as independent variables. Odds ratios were estimated using multilevel logistic analyses. Results Significant differences by familiarity with COVID-19 infection were identified: compared with people without a history of COVID-19 or close contact with cases of confirmed COVID-19, and those whose acquaintances had not been diagnosed with COVID-19, people with a history of COVID-19 did not refrain from most outing behaviors. People with an acquaintance diagnosed with COVID-19 were significantly more likely to refrain from most outing behaviors. There was no significant difference in any outing behavior for people with a history of close contact only. Conclusions To maximize the effect of emergency declarations, health authorities should disseminate information for each person in the target population, taking into account potential differences related to the familiarity with the infection.

16.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295432

ABSTRACT

Background We examined the association between socioeconomic and health status, and lifestyle and sickness presenteeism among Japanese workers during the COVID-19 epidemic. Methods A cross-sectional study using an Internet-monitor survey was conducted in December, 2020 in Japan. Of 33,302 survey participants, we analyzed 27,036 participants (13,814 men and 13,222 women ) who reported experience with sickness presenteeism. Results The odds ratio ( OR ) of sickness presenteeism associated with unmarried versus married status was 1.15. Respective figures for other variables were 1.11 for manual laboring work compared to desk work;1.79 and 2.29 for loss of employment at the time the pandemic began and continuation of unemployment compared to maintaining employment during the pandemic;and 3.34 for a feeling of financial instability compared to stability. Conclusion The issue of sickness presenteeism has become more prominent under the COVID-19 epidemic .

17.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295226

ABSTRACT

Objective Many companies in Japan have been increasingly interested in “health and productivity management (H&PM).” In terms of H&PM, we supposed that companies can enhance their employees’ perceived workplace health support (PWHS) by providing support for workers’ lively working and healthy living. This could then improve health-related QOL (HRQOL) by increasing PWHS. This study explored the relationship between PWHS and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods During the COVID-19 pandemic in December 2020, we conducted an Internet-based nationwide health survey of Japanese workers (CORoNaWork study). A database of 27,036 participants was created. The question regarding the intensity of PWHS was measured using a four-point Likert scale. We used a linear mixed model (LMM) to analyze the relationship between the intensity of PWHS and the four domains of CDC HRQOL-4 (self-rated health, number of poor physical health days, number of poor mental-health days, and activity limitation days during the past 30 days). Results In the sex- and age-adjusted and multivariate models, the intensity of PWHS had a main effect on self-rated health and the three domains of unhealthy days (physical, mental, activity limitation). There was also a trend toward worse HRQOL scores as the PWHS decreased. Conclusions This study aimed to document the relationship between PWHS and HRQOL. We found that the higher the PWHS of Japanese workers, the higher their self-rated health and the lower their unhealthy days. Companies need to assess workers’ PWHS and HRQOL and promote H&PM. H&PM is also necessary to maintain and promote the health of workers during the COVID-19 pandemic.

18.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294166

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to examine the relationship between telecommuting and the regional cumulative COVID-19 incidence. This was a cross-sectional study analyzing 13,468 office workers. The participant groups, according to the level of cumulative COVID-19 incidence by prefecture, were used as the predictor variable, and telecommuting frequency and preference were used as outcomes. We employed an ordinal logistic regression analysis. In regions with a high cumulative COVID-19 incidence, the proportion of participants who telecommuted more than two days per week was 34.7%, which was approximately 20% higher than in other regions. Telecommuting preference was stronger in areas with higher COVID-19 influence. However, in other regions, the proportion of participants who did not want to telecommute was higher than that of those who wanted to telecommute. We found that telecommuting frequency and preference were higher in regions with high cumulative COVID-19 incidence.

19.
Ind Health ; 2021 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523651

ABSTRACT

To prevent the spread of infection, it is necessary for each individual to adopt infection prevention behavior. We investigated the effect of infection control measures implemented in the workplace on personal infection prevention behavior. We conducted a self-administered questionnaire survey through the Internet from December 22 to 25, 2020, during which period coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was spreading. Among respondents aged 20 to 65 years (n=27,036), 21,915 workers were included in the analysis. The results showed that as the number of infection control measures in the workplace increased, implementation of infection prevention behavior by individuals also significantly increased. However, the relationship differed depending on the type of personal infection prevention behavior. Specifically, infection control measures against COVID-19 in the workplace may affect personal infection prevention behavior. Implementation of infection control measures in the workplace increases awareness of the importance of individual infection prevention behavior and its implementation by all individuals. These findings may be applicable not only to COVID-19 measures but also to responses to other emerging infections and seasonal influenza.

20.
Front Public Health ; 9: 722071, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497171

ABSTRACT

Purpose: There is limited information about the association between workplace psychosocial factors and general worker mental health status during the COVID-19 pandemic. In the present study, we examined how anxiety about being infected by COVID-19 in the workplace affected the association between job demands and psychological distress (PD). Method: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in December 2020. The final analyzed sample was 27,036. The dependent variable of PD was assessed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6). Job demands were assessed using the Job Content Questionnaire. Feelings of anxiety were assessed by participants' responses to the following question: "Do you feel anxiety about being infected by COVID-19 in the workplace?" We used a two-level regression adjusting for prefectural level: each individual-level variable at level 1 was nested into each prefecture at level 2, stratified by presence of anxiety. Results: A total of 50.5% of participants felt anxious about being infected by COVID-19 in the workplace. The interaction between anxiety and job demands was significant. Job demands were positively associated with PD. In the stratified analysis, the associations were stronger among employees who experienced anxiety about COVID-19 infection in the workplace than among those who did not. Conclusion: The association between job demands and PD may be strengthened by anxiety about COVID-19 infection in the workplace.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Workplace
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