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1.
Science ; : eabn8897, 2022 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759268

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant and its resistance to neutralization by vaccinee and convalescent sera are driving a search for monoclonal antibodies with potent neutralization. To provide insight into effective neutralization, we determined cryo-EM structures and evaluated receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibodies for their ability to bind and neutralize B.1.1.529. Mutations altered 16% of the B.1.1.529 RBD surface, clustered on a RBD ridge overlapping the ACE2-binding surface and reduced binding of most antibodies. Significant inhibitory activity was retained by select monoclonal antibodies including A19-58.1, B1-182.1, COV2-2196, S2E12, A19-46.1, S309 and LY-CoV1404, which accommodated these changes and neutralized B.1.1.529. We identified combinations of antibodies with synergistic neutralization. The analysis revealed structural mechanisms for maintenance of potent neutralization against emerging variants.

2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4458, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747185

ABSTRACT

The spike (S) glycoprotein of the pandemic virus, SARS-CoV-2, is a critically important target of vaccine design and therapeutic development. A high-yield, scalable, cGMP-compliant downstream process for the stabilized, soluble, native-like S protein ectodomain is necessary to meet the extensive material requirements for ongoing research and development. As of June 2021, S proteins have exclusively been purified using difficult-to-scale, low-yield methodologies such as affinity and size-exclusion chromatography. Herein we present the first known non-affinity purification method for two S constructs, S_dF_2P and HexaPro, expressed in the mammalian cell line, CHO-DG44. A high-throughput resin screen on the Tecan Freedom EVO200 automated bioprocess workstation led to identification of ion exchange resins as viable purification steps. The chromatographic unit operations along with industry-standard methodologies for viral clearances, low pH treatment and 20 nm filtration, were assessed for feasibility. The developed process was applied to purify HexaPro from a CHO-DG44 stable pool harvest and yielded the highest yet reported amount of pure S protein. Our results demonstrate that commercially available chromatography resins are suitable for cGMP manufacturing of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein constructs. We anticipate our results will provide a blueprint for worldwide biopharmaceutical production laboratories, as well as a starting point for process intensification.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Animals , Humans , Mammals , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
3.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327132

ABSTRACT

Immunization with SARS-CoV-2 spike elicits diverse antibodies, but can any of these neutralize broadly? Here, we report the isolation and characterization of antibody WS6, from a mouse immunized with mRNA encoding the SARS-CoV-2 spike. WS6 bound diverse beta-coronavirus spikes and neutralized SARS-CoV-2 variants, SARS-CoV, and related sarbecoviruses. Epitope mapping revealed WS6 to target a region in the S2 subunit, which was conserved among SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV, and hCoV-OC43. The crystal structure at 2-angstrom resolution of WS6 with its S2 epitope revealed recognition to center on a conserved helix, which was occluded in both prefusion and post-fusion spike conformations. Structural and neutralization analyses indicated WS6 to neutralize by inhibiting fusion, post-viral attachment. Comparison of WS6 to other antibodies recently identified from convalescent donors or mice immunized with diverse spikes indicated a stem-helical supersite - centered on hydrophobic residues Phe1148, Leu1152, Tyr1155, and Phe1156 - to be a promising target for vaccine design.

4.
Science ; 373(6556)2021 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559379

ABSTRACT

The emergence of highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) that are resistant to therapeutic antibodies highlights the need for continuing discovery of broadly reactive antibodies. We identified four receptor binding domain-targeting antibodies from three early-outbreak convalescent donors with potent neutralizing activity against 23 variants, including the B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, B.1.429, B.1.526, and B.1.617 VOCs. Two antibodies are ultrapotent, with subnanomolar neutralization titers [half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) 0.3 to 11.1 nanograms per milliliter; IC80 1.5 to 34.5 nanograms per milliliter). We define the structural and functional determinants of binding for all four VOC-targeting antibodies and show that combinations of two antibodies decrease the in vitro generation of escape mutants, suggesting their potential in mitigating resistance development.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antibody Affinity , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immune Evasion , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/immunology , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/metabolism , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Protein Domains , Receptors, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
5.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-292815

ABSTRACT

Biotin-labeled molecular probes, comprising specific regions of the SARS-CoV-2 spike, would be helpful in the isolation and characterization of antibodies targeting this recently emerged pathogen. To develop such probes, we designed constructs incorporating an N-terminal purification tag, a site-specific protease-cleavage site, the probe region of interest, and a C-terminal sequence targeted by biotin ligase. Probe regions included full-length spike ectodomain as well as various subregions, and we also designed mutants to eliminate recognition of the ACE2 receptor. Yields of biotin-labeled probes from transient transfection ranged from ~0.5 mg/L for the complete ectodomain to >5 mg/L for several subregions. Probes were characterized for antigenicity and ACE2 recognition, and the structure of the spike ectodomain probe was determined by cryo-electron microscopy. We also characterized antibody-binding specificities and cell-sorting capabilities of the biotinylated probes. Altogether, structure-based design coupled to efficient purification and biotinylation processes can thus enable streamlined development of SARS-CoV-2 spike-ectodomain probes. Funding: Support for this work was provided by the Intramural Research Program of the Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). Support for this work was also provided by COVID-19 Fast Grants, the Jack Ma Foundation, the Self Graduate Fellowship Program, and NIH grants DP5OD023118, R21AI143407, and R21AI144408. Some of this work was performed at the Columbia University Cryo-EM Center at the Zuckerman Institute, and some at the Simons Electron Microscopy Center (SEMC) and National Center for Cryo-EM Access and Training (NCCAT) located at the New York Structural Biology Center, supported by grants from the Simons Foundation (SF349247), NYSTAR, and the NIH National Institute of General Medical Sciences (GM103310). Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. Ethical Approval: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) for B cell sorting were obtained from a convalescent SARS-CoV-2 patient (collected 75 days post symptom onset under an IRB approved clinical trial protocol, VRC 200 - ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00067054) and a healthy control donor from the NIH blood bank pre-SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

6.
Non-conventional in English | [Unspecified Source], Grey literature | ID: grc-750489

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has emerged as a global pathogen, sparking urgent vaccine development efforts with the trimeric spike. However, the inability of antibodies like CR3022, which binds a cryptic spike epitope with nanomolar affinity, to neutralize virus, suggests a spike-based means of neutralization escape. Here, we show the SARS-CoV-2 spike to have 10% the unfolding enthalpy of a globular protein at physiological pH, where it is recognized by antibodies like CR3022, and up to 10-times more unfolding enthalpy at endosomal pH, where it sheds such antibodies, suggesting that the spike evades potentially neutralizing antibody through a pH-dependent mechanism of conformational masking. To understand the compatibility of this mechanism with ACE2-receptor interactions, we carried out binding measurements and determined cryo-EM structures of the spike recognizing up to three ACE2 molecules at both physiological and endosomal pH. In the absence of ACE2, cryo-EM analyses indicated lower pH to reduce conformational heterogeneity. Single-receptor binding domain (RBD)-up conformations dominated at pH 5.5, resolving into a locked all-down conformation at lower pH through lowering of RBD and refolding of a pH-dependent switch. Notably, the emerging Asp614Gly strain partially destabilizes the switch that locks RBD down, thereby enhancing functional interactions with ACE2 while reducing evasion by conformational masking.

7.
Cell Rep ; 37(1): 109771, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439919

ABSTRACT

Understanding mechanisms of protective antibody recognition can inform vaccine and therapeutic strategies against SARS-CoV-2. We report a monoclonal antibody, 910-30, targeting the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding site for ACE2 as a member of a public antibody response encoded by IGHV3-53/IGHV3-66 genes. Sequence and structural analyses of 910-30 and related antibodies explore how class recognition features correlate with SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. Cryo-EM structures of 910-30 bound to the SARS-CoV-2 spike trimer reveal binding interactions and its ability to disassemble spike. Despite heavy-chain sequence similarity, biophysical analyses of IGHV3-53/3-66-encoded antibodies highlight the importance of native heavy:light pairings for ACE2-binding competition and SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. We develop paired heavy:light class sequence signatures and determine antibody precursor prevalence to be ∼1 in 44,000 human B cells, consistent with public antibody identification in several convalescent COVID-19 patients. These class signatures reveal genetic, structural, and functional immune features that are helpful in accelerating antibody-based medical interventions for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/genetics , Antibodies, Monoclonal/ultrastructure , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Binding Sites , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cryoelectron Microscopy , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/chemistry , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/genetics , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/immunology , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/ultrastructure , Immunoglobulin Light Chains/chemistry , Immunoglobulin Light Chains/genetics , Immunoglobulin Light Chains/immunology , Immunoglobulin Light Chains/ultrastructure , Male , Protein Binding , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Vero Cells
8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18149, 2020 10 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387454

ABSTRACT

Antigens displayed on self-assembling nanoparticles can stimulate strong immune responses and have been playing an increasingly prominent role in structure-based vaccines. However, the development of such immunogens is often complicated by inefficiencies in their production. To alleviate this issue, we developed a plug-and-play platform using the spontaneous isopeptide-bond formation of the SpyTag:SpyCatcher system to display trimeric antigens on self-assembling nanoparticles, including the 60-subunit Aquifex aeolicus lumazine synthase (LuS) and the 24-subunit Helicobacter pylori ferritin. LuS and ferritin coupled to SpyTag expressed well in a mammalian expression system when an N-linked glycan was added to the nanoparticle surface. The respiratory syncytial virus fusion (F) glycoprotein trimer-stabilized in the prefusion conformation and fused with SpyCatcher-could be efficiently conjugated to LuS-SpyTag or ferritin-SpyTag, enabling multivalent display of F trimers with prefusion antigenicity. Similarly, F-glycoprotein trimers from human parainfluenza virus-type 3 and spike-glycoprotein trimers from SARS-CoV-2 could be displayed on LuS nanoparticles with decent yield and antigenicity. Notably, murine vaccination with 0.08 µg of SARS-CoV-2 spike-LuS nanoparticle elicited similar neutralizing responses as 2.0 µg of spike, which was ~ 25-fold higher on a weight-per-weight basis. The versatile platform described here thus allows for multivalent plug-and-play presentation on self-assembling nanoparticles of trimeric viral antigens, with SARS-CoV-2 spike-LuS nanoparticles inducing particularly potent neutralizing responses.


Subject(s)
Antigens/immunology , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antigens/genetics , Antigens/metabolism , Aquifex , Bacteria/enzymology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Ferritins/genetics , Helicobacter pylori/metabolism , Humans , Mice , Multienzyme Complexes/genetics , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Protein Multimerization , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Surface Properties
9.
Cell Host Microbe ; 28(6): 867-879.e5, 2020 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385264

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 spike employs mobile receptor-binding domains (RBDs) to engage the human ACE2 receptor and to facilitate virus entry, which can occur through low-pH-endosomal pathways. To understand how ACE2 binding and low pH affect spike conformation, we determined cryo-electron microscopy structures-at serological and endosomal pH-delineating spike recognition of up to three ACE2 molecules. RBDs freely adopted "up" conformations required for ACE2 interaction, primarily through RBD movement combined with smaller alterations in neighboring domains. In the absence of ACE2, single-RBD-up conformations dominated at pH 5.5, resolving into a solitary all-down conformation at lower pH. Notably, a pH-dependent refolding region (residues 824-858) at the spike-interdomain interface displayed dramatic structural rearrangements and mediated RBD positioning through coordinated movements of the entire trimer apex. These structures provide a foundation for understanding prefusion-spike mechanics governing endosomal entry; we suggest that the low pH all-down conformation potentially facilitates immune evasion from RBD-up binding antibody.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Pandemics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/ultrastructure , Amino Acid Sequence/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/ultrastructure , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Binding Sites , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Endosomes/ultrastructure , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/ultrastructure , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
10.
J Biol Chem ; 297(4): 101127, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373108

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 spike is the primary target of virus-neutralizing antibodies and critical to the development of effective vaccines against COVID-19. Here, we demonstrate that the prefusion-stabilized two-proline "S2P" spike-widely employed for laboratory work and clinical studies-unfolds when stored at 4 °C, physiological pH, as observed by electron microscopy (EM) and differential scanning calorimetry, but that its trimeric, native-like conformation can be reacquired by low pH treatment. When stored for approximately 1 week, this unfolding does not significantly alter antigenic characteristics; however, longer storage diminishes antibody binding, and month-old spike elicits virtually no neutralization in mice despite inducing high ELISA-binding titers. Cryo-EM structures reveal the folded fraction of spike to decrease with aging; however, its structure remains largely similar, although with varying mobility of the receptor-binding domain. Thus, the SARS-CoV-2 spike is susceptible to unfolding, which affects immunogenicity, highlighting the need to monitor its integrity.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Female , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Protein Unfolding , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Time Factors
11.
Science ; 373(6556)2021 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295159

ABSTRACT

The emergence of highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) that are resistant to therapeutic antibodies highlights the need for continuing discovery of broadly reactive antibodies. We identified four receptor binding domain-targeting antibodies from three early-outbreak convalescent donors with potent neutralizing activity against 23 variants, including the B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, B.1.429, B.1.526, and B.1.617 VOCs. Two antibodies are ultrapotent, with subnanomolar neutralization titers [half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) 0.3 to 11.1 nanograms per milliliter; IC80 1.5 to 34.5 nanograms per milliliter). We define the structural and functional determinants of binding for all four VOC-targeting antibodies and show that combinations of two antibodies decrease the in vitro generation of escape mutants, suggesting their potential in mitigating resistance development.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antibody Affinity , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immune Evasion , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/immunology , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/metabolism , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Protein Domains , Receptors, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
12.
Nature ; 595(7866): 278-282, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258586

ABSTRACT

Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 has caused millions of deaths worldwide. Although a number of vaccines have been deployed, the continual evolution of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the virus has challenged their efficacy. In particular, the emerging variants B.1.1.7, B.1.351 and P.1 (first detected in the UK, South Africa and Brazil, respectively) have compromised the efficacy of sera from patients who have recovered from COVID-19 and immunotherapies that have received emergency use authorization1-3. One potential alternative to avert viral escape is the use of camelid VHHs (variable heavy chain domains of heavy chain antibody (also known as nanobodies)), which can recognize epitopes that are often inaccessible to conventional antibodies4. Here, we isolate anti-RBD nanobodies from llamas and from mice that we engineered to produce VHHs cloned from alpacas, dromedaries and Bactrian camels. We identified two groups of highly neutralizing nanobodies. Group 1 circumvents antigenic drift by recognizing an RBD region that is highly conserved in coronaviruses but rarely targeted by human antibodies. Group 2 is almost exclusively focused to the RBD-ACE2 interface and does not neutralize SARS-CoV-2 variants that carry E484K or N501Y substitutions. However, nanobodies in group 2 retain full neutralization activity against these variants when expressed as homotrimers, and-to our knowledge-rival the most potent antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 that have been produced to date. These findings suggest that multivalent nanobodies overcome SARS-CoV-2 mutations through two separate mechanisms: enhanced avidity for the ACE2-binding domain and recognition of conserved epitopes that are largely inaccessible to human antibodies. Therefore, although new SARS-CoV-2 mutants will continue to emerge, nanobodies represent promising tools to prevent COVID-19 mortality when vaccines are compromised.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Camelids, New World/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Domain Antibodies/chemistry , Single-Domain Antibodies/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Camelids, New World/genetics , Female , Gene Editing , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Single-Domain Antibodies/genetics , Single-Domain Antibodies/isolation & purification , Somatic Hypermutation, Immunoglobulin/genetics
13.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(2)2021 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045354

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic highlights an urgent need for vaccines that confer protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection. One approach to an effective COVID-19 vaccine may be through the display of SARS-CoV-2 spikes on the surface of virus-like particles, in a manner structurally mimicking spikes on a native virus. Here we report the development of Newcastle disease virus-like particles (NDVLPs) displaying the prefusion-stabilized SARS-CoV-2 spike ectodomain (S2P). Immunoassays with SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies revealed the antigenicity of S2P-NDVLP to be generally similar to that of soluble S2P, and negative-stain electron microscopy showed S2P on the NDVLP surface to be displayed with a morphology corresponding to its prefusion conformation. Mice immunized with S2P-NDVLP showed substantial neutralization titers (geometric mean ID50 = 386) two weeks after prime immunization, significantly higher than those elicited by a molar equivalent amount of soluble S2P (geometric mean ID50 = 17). Neutralizing titers at Week 5, two weeks after a boost immunization with S2P-NDVLP doses ranging from 2.0 to 250 µg, extended from 2125 to 4552, and these generally showed a higher ratio of neutralization versus ELISA than observed with soluble S2P. Overall, S2P-NDVLP appears to be a promising COVID-19 vaccine candidate capable of eliciting substantial neutralizing activity.

14.
Cell Rep ; 33(4): 108322, 2020 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-888426

ABSTRACT

Biotin-labeled molecular probes, comprising specific regions of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike, would be helpful in the isolation and characterization of antibodies targeting this recently emerged pathogen. Here, we design constructs incorporating an N-terminal purification tag, a site-specific protease-cleavage site, the probe region of interest, and a C-terminal sequence targeted by biotin ligase. Probe regions include full-length spike ectodomain as well as various subregions, and we also design mutants that eliminate recognition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. Yields of biotin-labeled probes from transient transfection range from ∼0.5 mg/L for the complete ectodomain to >5 mg/L for several subregions. Probes are characterized for antigenicity and ACE2 recognition, and the structure of the spike ectodomain probe is determined by cryoelectron microscopy. We also characterize antibody-binding specificities and cell-sorting capabilities of the biotinylated probes. Altogether, structure-based design coupled to efficient purification and biotinylation processes can thus enable streamlined development of SARS-CoV-2 spike ectodomain probes.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Molecular Probes/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibody Specificity/immunology , Binding Sites, Antibody/immunology , Biotinylation , COVID-19 , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism
15.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Aug 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-666088

ABSTRACT

Antigens displayed on self-assembling nanoparticles can stimulate strong immune responses and have been playing an increasingly prominent role in structure-based vaccines. However, the development of such immunogens is often complicated by inefficiencies in their production. To alleviate this issue, we developed a plug-and-play platform using the spontaneous isopeptide-bond formation of the SpyTag:SpyCatcher system to display trimeric antigens on self-assembling nanoparticles, including the 60-subunit Aquifex aeolicus lumazine synthase (LuS) and the 24-subunit Helicobacter pylori ferritin. LuS and ferritin coupled to SpyTag expressed well in a mammalian expression system when an N-linked glycan was added to the nanoparticle surface. The respiratory syncytial virus fusion (F) glycoprotein trimer - stabilized in the prefusion conformation and fused with SpyCatcher - could be efficiently conjugated to LuS-SpyTag or ferritin-SpyTag, enabling multivalent display of F trimers with prefusion antigenicity. Similarly, F-glycoprotein trimers from human parainfluenza virus-type 3 and spike-glycoprotein trimers from SARS-CoV-2 could be displayed on LuS nanoparticles with decent yield and antigenicity. Notably, murine vaccination with the SARS-CoV-2 spike-LuS nanoparticles elicited ~25-fold higher neutralizing responses, weight-per-weight relative to spike alone. The versatile platform described here thus allows for multivalent plug-and-play presentation on self-assembling nanoparticles of trimeric viral antigens, with SARS-CoV-2 spike-LuS nanoparticles inducing particularly potent neutralizing responses.

16.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-637504

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 spike employs mobile receptor-binding domains (RBDs) to engage the ACE2 receptor and to facilitate virus entry. Antibodies can engage RBD but some, such as CR3022, fail to inhibit entry despite nanomolar spike affinity. Here we show the SARS-CoV-2 spike to have low unfolding enthalpy at serological pH and up to 10-times more unfolding enthalpy at endosomal pH, where we observe significantly reduced CR3022 affinity. Cryo-EM structures -at serological and endosomal pH- delineated spike recognition of up to three ACE2 molecules, revealing RBD to freely adopt the 'up' conformation. In the absence of ACE2, single-RBD-up conformations dominated at pH 5.5, resolving into a locked all-down conformation at lower pH. Notably, a pH-dependent refolding region (residues 824-858) at the spike-interdomain interface displayed dramatic structural rearrangements and mediated RBD positioning and spike shedding of antibodies like CR3022. An endosomal mechanism involving spike-conformational change can thus facilitate immune evasion from RBD-'up'-recognizing antibody.

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