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1.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2160188

ABSTRACT

The high effectiveness of the third dose of BNT162b2 in healthy adolescents against Omicron BA.1 has been reported in some studies, but immune responses conferring this protection are not yet elucidated. In this analysis, our study (NCT04800133) aims to evaluate the humoral and cellular responses against wild-type and Omicron (BA.1, BA.2 and/or BA.5) SARS-CoV-2 before and after a third dose of BNT162b2 in healthy adolescents. At 5 months after 2 doses, S IgG, S IgG Fc receptor-binding, and neutralising antibody responses waned significantly, yet neutralising antibodies remained detectable in all tested adolescents and S IgG avidity increased from 1 month after 2 doses. The antibody responses and S-specific IFN-γ+ and IL-2+ CD8+ T cell responses were significantly boosted in healthy adolescents after a homologous third dose of BNT162b2. Compared to adults, humoral responses for the third dose were non-inferior or superior in adolescents. The S-specific IFN-γ+ and IL-2+ CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in adolescents and adults were comparable or non-inferior. Interestingly, after 3 doses, adolescents had preserved S IgG, S IgG avidity, S IgG FcγRIIIa-binding, against Omicron BA.2, as well as preserved cellular responses against BA.1 S and moderate neutralisation levels against BA.1, BA.2 and BA.5. Sera from 100 and 96% of adolescents tested at 1 and 5 months after two doses could also neutralise BA.1. Our study found high antibody and T cell responses, including potent cross-variant reactivity, after three doses of BNT162b2 vaccine in adolescents in its current formulation, suggesting that current vaccines can be protective against symptomatic Omicron disease.

2.
Am J Public Health ; 113(1):96-104, 2023.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2162732

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To assess the effectiveness of vaccine-induced immunity against new infections, all-cause emergency department (ED) and hospital visits, and mortality in Indiana. Methods. Combining statewide testing and immunization data with patient medical records, we matched individuals who received at least 1 dose of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines with individuals with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection on index date, age, gender, race/ethnicity, zip code, and clinical diagnoses. We compared the cumulative incidence of infection, all-cause ED visits, hospitalizations, and mortality. Results. We matched 267 847 pairs of individuals. Six months after the index date, the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was significantly higher in vaccine recipients (6.7%) than the previously infected (2.9%). All-cause mortality in the vaccinated, however, was 37% lower than that of the previously infected. The rates of all-cause ED visits and hospitalizations were 24% and 37% lower in the vaccinated than in the previously infected. Conclusions. The significantly lower rates of all-cause ED visits, hospitalizations, and mortality in the vaccinated highlight the real-world benefits of vaccination. The data raise questions about the wisdom of reliance on natural immunity when safe and effective vaccines are available. (Am J Public Health. 2023;113(1):96-104. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.307112).

3.
Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics ; 104, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2104388

ABSTRACT

Background and purpose: The aim of this nationwide study was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cerebrovascular disease hospitalization rates, out-of-pocket rates, and in-hospital case fatality rates.Methods: All hospitalizations for cerebrovascular disease from 1599 hospitals from 2019 to 2020 were selected using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, in the Hospital Quality Monitoring System (HQMS). We defined 2019 as the pre-pandemic group and 2020 as the post-pandemic group. Multivariate an-alyses were done to assess the association between the pandemic and patient outcomes and out-of-pocket rate with odds ratios (OR) and 95% CIs presented.Results: In total, 9 640 788 patients with the cerebrovascular disease were recruited (mean age was 65.7 [SE.0.004] years, and 55.7% were male), and data is available for 5145358 patients in 2019 (pre-epidemic) and 4495430 patients in 2020(post-pandemic), indicating a 12.6% decrease. Out-of-pocket rate increase of 9.3% (2020 vs 2019: 34.1%% vs 31.2% [absolute difference, 2.9% {95% CI, 1.3% to 4.5%}, odd ratio {OR}, 1.1{95% CI, 1.0 to 1.1}]. The epidemic has led to an 18.0% increase in in-hospital mortality (2020 vs 2019: 1.1%% vs 0.9% [absolute difference, 0.2% {95% CI, 0.1% to 0.2%}, odd ratio {OR}, 1.1{95% CI, 1.1 to 1.2}]. The epidemic has led to significantly increased in-hospital mortality for patients with stroke but had no significant impact on other cerebrovascular diseases.Conclusions: During the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown, patients hospitalized for stroke fell by 12.6%, and there were substantial increases in out-of-pocket rates (9.3%) and in-hospital case fatality rates (18.0%).

4.
The International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences ; XLIII-B4-2022:195-202, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1876035

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 epidemic has posed a grave threat to human life. The stay-at-home quarantine is an effective method of minimizing physical contact and the risk of COVID-19 transmission. However, the supply of living materials (such as meat, vegetables, grain, and oil) has become a great challenge as residents' activities have been restricted. In this paper, we present a spatial analysis framework for the supply of living materials during COVID-19 outbreak by coupling an infectious disease model with geographic information system (GIS). First, a virus spreading spatial simulation model is developed by combining cellular automata (CA) and Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered-Death (SEIRD) to estimate COVID-19's spreading under various scenarios. Second, the demand and supply of living materials in the impacted residents are calculated. Finally, the imbalance of the supply and demand of the living materials is assessed. We conduct experiments in Shenzhen. The experimental results show that localities with supply-demand mismatches are primarily concentrated in the southwest of Bao'an District, the southern of Longhua District, and Longgang District. Additionally, the spatial distribution of the mismatch level between supply and demand for living materials in Shenzhen exhibits a significant agglomeration effect, manifested as "low-low" and "high-high" agglomeration. The spatial agglomeration effect of material mismatch has increased with the spread of the epidemic. These results support the prevention and control of the COVID-19 spreading.

5.
Disease Surveillance ; 37(1):7-11, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1789480

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the risk of public health emergencies, both the indigenous ones and the imported ones, which might occur in the mainland of China in January 2022.

6.
Forest Chemicals Review ; 2021(July-August):1849-1857, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1717557

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the shutting down of schools and offices, and he enforcement of home quarantine and other measures have led to an increase in digital online reading, which has boosted digital publishing. However, several studies have reported that more “screen exposure” time might lead to higher rates of abnormal psychological problems in preschool children's mood, conduct, attention, peer interaction and other aspects. In China, as a response to this perceived risk and reduce screen exposure among preschool children, families, society and the publishing industry have concentrated promoting printed picture books in these ways: parent-child reading of picture books in the family;storytelling, performance and other promotional activities in public and private libraries;and audible platforms promoted by the publishing industry and We-media. © 2021 Kriedt Enterprises Ltd. All right reserved.

7.
Acta Medica Mediterranea ; 38(1):395-403, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1699243

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To examine the clinical characteristics of patients with severe and critical coronavirus disease and analyze the risk factors for progression to critical disease and adverse outcomes. Methods: Seventy-four clinical markers were analyzed. Patients were followed up until the clinical endpoint (survival or death). Subgroup analyses of severe/critical patients and survivors/deaths examined the risk factors for disease progression and patient outcomes. Results: Median patient age was 65.5 (54.0-73.0) years;64.5% were male. Thirty-two (51.6%) patients had comorbid hypertension;60 (96.8%), fever;and 5 (8.1%), diarrhea. Median lymphocyte count was significantly lower than the reference range (P<0.05);inflammatory marker levels exceeded normal ranges. The probability of comorbid diabetes was higher in the critical group than in the severe group (35.5% vs. 9.7%;P=0.031). There were 50 survivors and 12 deaths. The critical group's mortality rate was 38.7%. Intra-subgroup comparisons of severe/critical and survivor/death groups indicated patients with multiple comorbidities and elevated total white blood cell count had higher risks of progressing to critical disease (odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval (CI)], 2.3 [1.2-4.7], P=0.016;1.2 [1.0-1.4], P=0.017). A high SOFA score, lactic acid elevation, and a D-dimer level >2 ug/mL were risk factors for poor prognosis (OR [95% CI], 2.2 [1.0-4.8], P=0.047;3.9 [1.4-11.0], P=0.008;10.0 [1.2-84.2], P=0.033). Conclusion: Patients with multiple comorbidities and elevated total white blood cell count should be monitored closely. A high SOFA score, elevated lactate levels, and a D-dimer level of >2 ug/mL should also be considered as risk factors. © 2022 A. CARBONE Editore. All rights reserved.

8.
China CDC Weekly ; 2(6):83-86, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1445121
10.
Medical Decision Making ; 41(4):E69-E71, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1250424
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