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1.
Plastic and reconstructive surgery. Global open ; 9(10 Suppl), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2073570
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3.
J Exp Med ; 219(2)2022 02 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593236

ABSTRACT

Emerging viruses threaten global health, but few experimental models can characterize the virus and host factors necessary for within- and cross-species transmission. Here, we leverage a model whereby pet store mice or rats-which harbor natural rodent pathogens-are cohoused with laboratory mice. This "dirty" mouse model offers a platform for studying acute transmission of viruses between and within hosts via natural mechanisms. We identified numerous viruses and other microbial species that transmit to cohoused mice, including prospective new members of the Coronaviridae, Astroviridae, Picornaviridae, and Narnaviridae families, and uncovered pathogen interactions that promote or prevent virus transmission. We also evaluated transmission dynamics of murine astroviruses during transmission and spread within a new host. Finally, by cohousing our laboratory mice with the bedding of pet store rats, we identified cross-species transmission of a rat astrovirus. Overall, this model system allows for the analysis of transmission of natural rodent viruses and is a platform to further characterize barriers to zoonosis.


Subject(s)
Disease Models, Animal , Disease Susceptibility , Virus Diseases/etiology , Virus Diseases/transmission , Animal Diseases/transmission , Animal Diseases/virology , Animals , Biomarkers , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Interferons/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Microbial Interactions , Rodentia , Virus Diseases/metabolism
4.
Accid Anal Prev ; 162: 106399, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437362

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Recent research suggests that COVID-19 associated stay-at-home orders, or shelter-in-place orders, have impacted intra-and-interstate travel as well as motor vehicle crashes (crashes). We sought to further this research and to understand the impact of the stay-at-home order on crashes in the post order period in Connecticut. METHODS: We used a multiple-comparison group, interrupted time-series analysis design to compare crashes per 100 million vehicle miles traveled (VMT) per week in 2020 to the average of 2017-2019 from January 1-August 31. We stratified crash rate by severity and the number of vehicles involved. We modeled two interruption points reflecting the weeks Connecticut implemented (March 23rd, week 12) and rescinded (May 20th, week 20) its stay-at-home order. RESULTS: During the initial week of the stay-at-home order in Connecticut, there was an additional 28 single vehicle crashes compared to previous years (95% confidence interval (CI): [15.8, 36.8]). However, the increase at the order onset was not seen throughout the duration. Rescinding the stay-at-home order by and large did not result in an immediate increase in crash rates. Crash rates steadily returned to previous year averages during the post-stay-at-home period. Fatal crash rates were unaffected by the stay-at-home order and remained similar to previous year rates throughout the study duration. DISCUSSION: The initial onset of the stay-at-home order in Connecticut was associated with a sharp increase in the single vehicle crash rate but that increase was not sustained for the remainder of the stay-at-home order. Likely changes in driver characteristics during and after the order kept fatal crash rates similar to previous years.


Subject(s)
Automobile Driving , COVID-19 , Accidents, Traffic , Connecticut/epidemiology , Humans , Motor Vehicles , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Ambio ; 51(3): 531-545, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274973

ABSTRACT

As largely documented in the literature, the stark restrictions enforced worldwide in 2020 to curb the COVID-19 pandemic also curtailed the production of air pollutants to some extent. This study investigates the perception of the air pollution as assessed by individuals located in ten countries: Australia, Brazil, China, Ghana, India, Iran, Italy, Norway, South Africa and the USA. The perceptions towards air quality were evaluated by employing an online survey administered in May 2020. Participants (N = 9394) in the ten countries expressed their opinions according to a Likert-scale response. A reduction in pollutant concentration was clearly perceived, albeit to a different extent, by all populations. The survey participants located in India and Italy perceived the largest drop in the air pollution concentration; conversely, the smallest variation was perceived among Chinese and Norwegian respondents. Among all the demographic indicators considered, only gender proved to be statistically significant.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , Perception , SARS-CoV-2
6.
JAMA Cardiol ; 6(7): 745-752, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116911

ABSTRACT

Importance: The major North American professional sports leagues were among the first to return to full-scale sport activity during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Given the unknown incidence of adverse cardiac sequelae after COVID-19 infection in athletes, these leagues implemented a conservative return-to-play (RTP) cardiac testing program aligned with American College of Cardiology recommendations for all athletes testing positive for COVID-19. Objective: To assess the prevalence of detectable inflammatory heart disease in professional athletes with prior COVID-19 infection, using current RTP screening recommendations. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study reviewed RTP cardiac testing performed between May and October 2020 on professional athletes who had tested positive for COVID-19. The professional sports leagues (Major League Soccer, Major League Baseball, National Hockey League, National Football League, and the men's and women's National Basketball Association) implemented mandatory cardiac screening requirements for all players who had tested positive for COVID-19 prior to resumption of team-organized sports activities. Exposures: Troponin testing, electrocardiography (ECG), and resting echocardiography were performed after a positive COVID-19 test result. Interleague, deidentified cardiac data were pooled for collective analysis. Those with abnormal screening test results were referred for additional testing, including cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and/or stress echocardiography. Main Outcomes and Measures: The prevalence of abnormal RTP test results potentially representing COVID-19-associated cardiac injury, and results and outcomes of additional testing generated by the initial screening process. Results: The study included 789 professional athletes (mean [SD] age, 25 [3] years; 777 men [98.5%]). A total of 460 athletes (58.3%) had prior symptomatic COVID-19 illness, and 329 (41.7%) were asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic (minimally symptomatic). Testing was performed a mean (SD) of 19 (17) days (range, 3-156 days) after a positive test result. Abnormal screening results were identified in 30 athletes (3.8%; troponin, 6 athletes [0.8%]; ECG, 10 athletes [1.3%]; echocardiography, 20 athletes [2.5%]), necessitating additional testing; 5 athletes (0.6%) ultimately had cardiac magnetic resonance imaging findings suggesting inflammatory heart disease (myocarditis, 3; pericarditis, 2) that resulted in restriction from play. No adverse cardiac events occurred in athletes who underwent cardiac screening and resumed professional sport participation. Conclusions and Relevance: This study provides large-scale data assessing the prevalence of relevant COVID-19-associated cardiac pathology with implementation of current RTP screening recommendations. While long-term follow-up is ongoing, few cases of inflammatory heart disease have been detected, and a safe return to professional sports activity has thus far been achieved.


Subject(s)
Athletes/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods , Adult , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Return to Sport , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
Data Brief ; 33: 106459, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023537

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has heavily impacted the global community. To curb the viral transmission, travel restrictions have been enforced across the world. The dataset documents the mobility disruptions and the modal shifts that have occurred as a consequence of the restrictive measures implemented in ten countries: Australia, Brazil, China, Ghana, India, Iran, Italy, Norway, South Africa and the United States. An online questionnaire was distributed during the period from the 11st to the 31st of May 2020, with a total of 9 394 respondents. The first part of the survey has characterized the frequency of use of all transport modes before and during the enforcement of the restrictions, while the second part of the survey has dealt with perceived risks of contracting COVID-19 from different transport modes and perceived effectiveness of travel mitigation measures. Overall, the dataset (stored in a repository publicly available) can be conveniently used to quantify and understand the modal shifts and people's cognitive behavior towards travel due to COVID-19. The collected responses can be further analysed by considering other demographic and socioeconomic covariates.

8.
Inj Prev ; 27(1): 3-9, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894885

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Understanding how the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted our health and safety is imperative. This study sought to examine the impact of COVID-19's stay-at-home order on daily vehicle miles travelled (VMT) and MVCs in Connecticut. METHODS: Using an interrupted time series design, we analysed daily VMT and MVCs stratified by crash severity and number of vehicles involved from 1 January to 30 April 2017, 2018, 2019 and 2020. MVC data were collected from the Connecticut Crash Data Repository; daily VMT estimates were obtained from StreetLight Insight's database. We used segmented Poisson regression models, controlling for daily temperature and daily precipitation. RESULTS: The mean daily VMT significantly decreased 43% in the post stay-at-home period in 2020. While the mean daily counts of crashes decreased in 2020 after the stay-at-home order was enacted, several types of crash rates increased after accounting for the VMT reductions. Single vehicle crash rates significantly increased 2.29 times, and specifically single vehicle fatal crash rates significantly increased 4.10 times when comparing the pre-stay-at-home and post-stay-at-home periods. DISCUSSION: Despite a decrease in the number of MVCs and VMT, the crash rate of single vehicles increased post stay-at-home order enactment in Connecticut after accounting for reductions in VMT.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Automobile Driving/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Motor Vehicles/statistics & numerical data , Connecticut/epidemiology , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Transportation/statistics & numerical data , Travel/statistics & numerical data
9.
Data Brief ; 32: 106169, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-712342

ABSTRACT

The dataset deals with the air quality perceived by citizens before and during the enforcement of COVID-19 restrictions in ten countries around the world: Australia, Brazil, China, Ghana, India, Iran, Italy, Norway, South Africa and the United States. An online survey conveniently translated into Chinese, English, Italian, Norwegian, Persian, Portuguese collected information regarding the perceived quality of air pollution according to a Likert scale. The questionnaire was distributed between 11-05-2020 and 31-05-2020 and 9 394 respondents took part. Both the survey and the dataset (stored in a Microsoft Excel Worksheet) are available in a public repository. The collected data offer the people's subjective perspectives related to the objective improvement in air quality occurred during the COVID-19 restrictions. Furthermore, the dataset can be used for research studies involving the reduction in air pollution as experienced, to a different extent, by populations of all the ten countries.

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