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1.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 185, 2022 06 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1894496

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whether targeting the driving pressure (∆P) when adjusting the tidal volume in mechanically ventilated patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) may decrease the risk of ventilator-induced lung injury remains a matter of research. In this study, we assessed the effect of a ∆P-guided ventilation on the mechanical power. METHODS: We prospectively included adult patients with moderate-to-severe ARDS. Positive end expiratory pressure was set by the attending physician and kept constant during the study. Tidal volume was first adjusted to target 6 ml/kg of predicted body weight (PBW-guided ventilation) and subsequently modified within a range from 4 to 10 ml/kg PBW to target a ∆P between 12 and 14 cm H2O. The respiratory rate was then re-adjusted within a range from 12 to 40 breaths/min until EtCO2 returned to its baseline value (∆P-guided ventilation). Mechanical power was computed at each step. RESULTS: Fifty-one patients were included between December 2019 and May 2021. ∆P-guided ventilation was feasible in all but one patient. The ∆P during PBW-guided ventilation was already within the target range of ∆P-guided ventilation in five (10%) patients, above in nine (18%) and below in 36 (72%). The change from PBW- to ∆P-guided ventilation was thus accompanied by an overall increase in tidal volume from 6.1 mL/kg PBW [5.9-6.2] to 7.7 ml/kg PBW [6.2-8.7], while respiratory rate was decreased from 29 breaths/min [26-32] to 21 breaths/min [16-28] (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). ∆P-guided ventilation was accompanied by a significant decrease in mechanical power from 31.5 J/min [28-35.7] to 28.8 J/min [24.6-32.6] (p < 0.001), representing a relative decrease of 7% [0-16]. With ∆P-guided ventilation, the PaO2/FiO2 ratio increased and the ventilatory ratio decreased. CONCLUSION: As compared to a conventional PBW-guided ventilation, a ∆P-guided ventilation strategy targeting a ∆P between 12 and 14 cm H2O required to change the tidal volume in 90% of the patients. Such ∆P-guided ventilation significantly reduced the mechanical power. Whether this physiological observation could be associated with clinical benefit should be assessed in clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , Body Weight , Humans , Lung , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Tidal Volume/physiology
5.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 38, 2021 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115254

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We describe a frugal approach (focusing on needs, performance, and costs) to manage a massive influx of COVID-19 patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) using the Boussignac valve protected by a filter ("Filter Frugal CPAP", FF-CPAP) in and out the ICU. METHODS: (1) A bench study measured the impact of two filters with different mechanical properties on CPAP performances, and pressures were also measured in patients. (2) Non-ICU healthcare staff working in COVID-19 intermediate care units were trained with a video tutorial posted on a massive open online course. (3) A clinical study assessed the feasibility and safety of using FF-CPAP to maintain oxygenation and manage patients out of the ICU during a massive outbreak. RESULTS: Bench assessments showed that adding a filter did not affect the effective pressure delivered to the patient. The resistive load induced by the filter variably increased the simulated patient's work of breathing (6-34%) needed to sustain the tidal volume, depending on the filter's resistance, respiratory mechanics and basal inspiratory effort. In patients, FF-CPAP achieved pressures similar to those obtained on the bench. The massive training tool provided precious information on the use of Boussignac FF-CPAP on COVID-19 patients. Then 85 COVID-19 patients with ICU admission criteria over a 1-month period were studied upon FF-CPAP initiation for AHRF. FF-CPAP significantly decreased respiratory rate and increased SpO2. Thirty-six (43%) patients presented with respiratory indications for intubation prior to FF-CPAP initiation, and 13 (36%) of them improved without intubation. Overall, 31 patients (36%) improved with FF-CPAP alone and 17 patients (20%) did not require ICU admission. Patients with a respiratory rate > 32 breaths/min upon FF-CPAP initiation had a higher cumulative probability of intubation (p < 0.001 by log-rank test). CONCLUSION: Adding a filter to the Boussignac valve does not affect the delivered pressure but may variably increase the resistive load depending on the filter used. Clinical assessment suggests that FF-CPAP is a frugal solution to provide a ventilatory support and improve oxygenation to numerous patients suffering from AHRF in the context of a massive outbreak.

6.
Ann Intensive Care ; 10(1): 151, 2020 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992558

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In COVID-19 patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the relatively preserved respiratory system compliance despite severe hypoxemia, with specific pulmonary vascular dysfunction, suggests a possible hemodynamic mechanism for VA/Q mismatch, as hypoxic vasoconstriction alteration. This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO)-almitrine combination to restore oxygenation in severe COVID-19 ARDS (C-ARDS) patients. METHODS: We conducted a monocentric preliminary pilot study in intubated patients with severe C-ARDS. Respiratory mechanics was assessed after a prone session. Then, patients received iNO (10 ppm) alone and in association with almitrine (10 µg/kg/min) during 30 min in each step. Echocardiographic and blood gases measurements were performed at baseline, during iNO alone, and iNO-almitrine combination. The primary endpoint was the variation of oxygenation (PaO2/FiO2 ratio). RESULTS: Ten severe C-ARDS patients were assessed (7 males and 3 females), with a median age of 60 [52-72] years. Combination of iNO and almitrine outperformed iNO alone for oxygenation improvement. The median of PaO2/FiO2 ratio varied from 102 [89-134] mmHg at baseline, to 124 [108-146] mmHg after iNO (p = 0.13) and 180 [132-206] mmHg after iNO and almitrine (p < 0.01). We found no correlation between the increase in oxygenation caused by iNO-almitrine combination and that caused by proning. CONCLUSION: In this pilot study of severe C-ARDS patients, iNO-almitrine combination was associated with rapid and significant improvement of oxygenation. These findings highlight the role of pulmonary vascular function in COVID-19 pathophysiology.

8.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 678, 2020 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962958

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Patients with coronavirus disease-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (C-ARDS) could have a specific physiological phenotype as compared with those affected by ARDS from other causes (NC-ARDS). OBJECTIVES: To describe the effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on respiratory mechanics in C-ARDS patients in supine and prone position, and as compared to NC-ARDS. The primary endpoint was the best PEEP defined as the smallest sum of hyperdistension and collapse. METHODS: Seventeen patients with moderate-to-severe C-ARDS were monitored by electrical impedance tomography (EIT) and evaluated during PEEP titration in supine (n = 17) and prone (n = 14) position and compared with 13 NC-ARDS patients investigated by EIT in our department before the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: As compared with NC-ARDS, C-ARDS exhibited a higher median best PEEP (defined using EIT as the smallest sum of hyperdistension and collapse, 12 [9, 12] vs. 9 [6, 9] cmH2O, p < 0.01), more collapse at low PEEP, and less hyperdistension at high PEEP. The median value of the best PEEP was similar in C-ARDS in supine and prone position: 12 [9, 12] vs. 12 [10, 15] cmH2O, p = 0.59. The response to PEEP was also similar in C-ARDS patients with higher vs. lower respiratory system compliance. CONCLUSION: An intermediate PEEP level seems appropriate in half of our C-ARDS patients. There is no solid evidence that compliance at low PEEP could predict the response to PEEP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Positive-Pressure Respiration/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/standards , Adult , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Electric Impedance/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Positive-Pressure Respiration/instrumentation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Respiratory Mechanics/physiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/instrumentation
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