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Vlaar, Alexander P. J.; Witzenrath, Martin, van Paassen, Pieter, Heunks, Leo M. A.; Mourvillier, Bruno, de Bruin, Sanne, Lim, Endry H. T.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Tuinman, Pieter R.; Saraiva, José F. K.; Marx, Gernot, Lobo, Suzana M.; Boldo, Rodrigo, Simon-Campos, Jesus A.; Cornet, Alexander D.; Grebenyuk, Anastasia, Engelbrecht, Johannes M.; Mukansi, Murimisi, Jorens, Philippe G.; Zerbib, Robert, Rückinger, Simon, Pilz, Korinna, Guo, Renfeng, van de Beek, Diederik, Riedemann, Niels C.; Vlaar, Alexander P. J.; Witzenrath, Martin, van Paassen, Pieter, Heunks, Leo M. A.; Mourvillier, Bruno, de Bruin, Sanne, Lim, Endry H. T.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Tuinman, Pieter R.; Saraiva, José Francisco K.; Marx, Gernot, Lobo, Suzana, Boldo, Rodrigo, Simon-Campos, Jesus, Cornet, Alexander D.; Grebenyuk, Anastasia, Engelbrecht, Johannes, Mukansi, Murimisi, Jorens, Philippe G.; Zerbib, Robert, Rückinger, Simon, Pilz, Korinna, Guo, Renfeng, van de Beek, Diederik, Riedemann, Niels C.; Bulpa, Pierre, Taccone, Fabio S.; Hermans, Greet, Diltoer, Marc, Piagnerelli, Michael, De Neve, Nikolaas, Freire, Antonio T.; Pizzol, Felipe D.; Marinho, Anna Karolina, Sato, Victor H.; Arns da Cunha, Clovis, Neuville, Mathilde, Dellamonica, Jean, Annane, Djillali, Roquilly, Antoine, Diehl, Jean Luc, Schneider, Francis, Mira, Jean Paul, Lascarrou, Jean Baptiste, Desmedt, Luc, Dupuis, Claire, Schwebel, Carole, Thiéry, Guillaume, Gründling, Matthias, Berger, Marc, Welte, Tobias, Bauer, Michael, Jaschinski, Ulrich, Matschke, Klaus, Mercado-Longoria, Roberto, Gomez Quintana, Belinda, Zamudio-Lerma, Jorge Alberto, Moreno Hoyos Abril, Juan, Aleman Marquez, Angel, Pickkers, Peter, Otterspoor, Luuk, Hercilla Vásquez, Luis, Seas Ramos, Carlos Rafael, Peña Villalobos, Alejandro, Gianella Malca, Gonzalo, Chávez, Victoria, Filimonov, Victor, Kulabukhov, Vladimir, Acharya, Pinak, Timmermans, Sjoerd A. M. E. G.; Busch, Matthias H.; van Baarle, Floor L. F.; Koning, Rutger, ter Horst, Liora, Chekrouni, Nora, van Soest, Thijs M.; Slim, Marleen A.; van Vught, Lonneke A.; van Amstel, Rombout B. E.; Olie, Sabine E.; van Zeggeren, Ingeborg E.; van de Poll, Marcel C. G.; Thielert, Claus, Neukirchen, Dorothee.
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2008219

ABSTRACT

Summary Background Vilobelimab, an anti-C5a monoclonal antibody, was shown to be safe in a phase 2 trial of invasively mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19. Here, we aimed to determine whether vilobelimab in addition to standard of care improves survival outcomes in this patient population. Methods This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre phase 3 trial was performed at 46 hospitals in the Netherlands, Germany, France, Belgium, Russia, Brazil, Peru, Mexico, and South Africa. Participants aged 18 years or older who were receiving invasive mechanical ventilation, but not more than 48 h after intubation at time of first infusion, had a PaO2/FiO2 ratio of 60–200 mm Hg, and a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection with any variant in the past 14 days were eligible for this study. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive standard of care and vilobelimab at a dose of 800 mg intravenously for a maximum of six doses (days 1, 2, 4, 8, 15, and 22) or standard of care and a matching placebo using permuted block randomisation. Treatment was not continued after hospital discharge. Participants, caregivers, and assessors were masked to group assignment. The primary outcome was defined as all-cause mortality at 28 days in the full analysis set (defined as all randomly assigned participants regardless of whether a patient started treatment, excluding patients randomly assigned in error) and measured using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Safety analyses included all patients who had received at least one infusion of either vilobelimab or placebo. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04333420. Findings From Oct 1, 2020, to Oct 4, 2021, we included 368 patients in the ITT analysis (full analysis set;177 in the vilobelimab group and 191 in the placebo group). One patient in the vilobelimab group was excluded from the primary analysis due to random assignment in error without treatment. At least one dose of study treatment was given to 364 (99%) patients (safety analysis set). 54 patients (31%) of 177 in the vilobelimab group and 77 patients (40%) of 191 in the placebo group died in the first 28 days. The all-cause mortality rate at 28 days was 32% (95% CI 25–39) in the vilobelimab group and 42% (35–49) in the placebo group (hazard ratio 0·73, 95% CI 0·50–1·06;p=0·094). In the predefined analysis without site-stratification, vilobelimab significantly reduced all-cause mortality at 28 days (HR 0·67, 95% CI 0·48–0·96;p=0·027). The most common TEAEs were acute kidney injury (35 [20%] of 175 in the vilobelimab group vs 40 [21%] of 189 in the placebo), pneumonia (38 [22%] vs 26 [14%]), and septic shock (24 [14%] vs 31 [16%]). Serious treatment-emergent adverse events were reported in 103 (59%) of 175 patients in the vilobelimab group versus 120 (63%) of 189 in the placebo group. Interpretation In addition to standard of care, vilobelimab improves survival of invasive mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 and leads to a significant decrease in mortality. Vilobelimab could be considered as an additional therapy for patients in this setting and further research is needed on the role of vilobelimab and C5a in other acute respiratory distress syndrome-causing viral infections. Funding InflaRx and the German Federal Government.

2.
Respir Care ; 2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964278

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Given the long ventilation times of patients with COVID-19 that can cause atrophy and contractile weakness of respiratory muscle fibers, assessment of changes at the bedside would be interesting. As such, the aim of this study was to determine the evolution of respiratory muscle thickness assessed by ultrasound. METHODS: Adult (> 18 y old) patients admitted to the ICU who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and were ventilated for < 24 h were consecutively included. The first ultrasound examination (diaphragm, rectus abdominis, and lateral abdominal wall muscles) was performed within 24 h of intubation and regarded as baseline measurement. After that, each following day an additional examination was performed, for a maximum of 8 examinations per subject. RESULTS: In total, 30 subjects were included, of which 11 showed ≥ 10% decrease in diaphragm thickness from baseline; 10 showed < 10% change, and 9 showed ≥ 10% increase from baseline. Symptom duration before intubation was highest in the decrease group (12 [11-14] d, P = .03). Total time ventilated within the first week was lowest in the increase group (156 [129-172] h, P = .03). Average initial diaphragm thickness was 1.4 (1.1-1.6) mm and did not differ from final average thickness (1.3 [1.1-1.5] mm, P = .54). The rectus abdominis did not show statistically significant changes, whereas lateral abdominal wall thickness decreased from 14 [10-16] mm at baseline to 11 [9-13] mm on the last day of mechanical ventilation (P = .08). Mixed-effect linear regression demonstrated an association of atrophy and neuromuscular-blocking agent (NMBA) use (P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: In ventilated subjects with COVID-19, overall no change in diaphragm thickness was observed. Subjects with decreased or unchanged thickness had a longer ventilation time than those with increased thickness. NMBA use was associated with decreased thickness. Rectus muscle thickness did not change over time, whereas lateral abdominal muscle thickness decreased but this change was not statistically significant.

3.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 157, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875020

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence indicates the potential benefits of restricted fluid management in critically ill patients. Evidence lacks on the optimal fluid management strategy for invasively ventilated COVID-19 patients. We hypothesized that the cumulative fluid balance would affect the successful liberation of invasive ventilation in COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: We analyzed data from the multicenter observational 'PRactice of VENTilation in COVID-19 patients' study. Patients with confirmed COVID-19 and ARDS who required invasive ventilation during the first 3 months of the international outbreak (March 1, 2020, to June 2020) across 22 hospitals in the Netherlands were included. The primary outcome was successful liberation of invasive ventilation, modeled as a function of day 3 cumulative fluid balance using Cox proportional hazards models, using the crude and the adjusted association. Sensitivity analyses without missing data and modeling ARDS severity were performed. RESULTS: Among 650 patients, three groups were identified. Patients in the higher, intermediate, and lower groups had a median cumulative fluid balance of 1.98 L (1.27-7.72 L), 0.78 L (0.26-1.27 L), and - 0.35 L (- 6.52-0.26 L), respectively. Higher day 3 cumulative fluid balance was significantly associated with a lower probability of successful ventilation liberation (adjusted hazard ratio 0.86, 95% CI 0.77-0.95, P = 0.0047). Sensitivity analyses showed similar results. CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of invasively ventilated patients with COVID-19 and ARDS, a higher cumulative fluid balance was associated with a longer ventilation duration, indicating that restricted fluid management in these patients may be beneficial. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT04346342 ); Date of registration: April 15, 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Humans , Respiration , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Water-Electrolyte Balance
4.
Trials ; 23(1): 158, 2022 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690887

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a disruptive increase in the number of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). ARDS is a severe, life-threatening medical condition characterized by widespread inflammation and vascular leak in the lungs. Although there is no proven therapy to reduce pulmonary vascular leak in ARDS, recent studies demonstrated that the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib reinforces the endothelial barrier and prevents vascular leak in inflammatory conditions, while leaving the immune response intact. METHODS: This is a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial of intravenous (IV) imatinib mesylate in 90 mechanically ventilated subjects with COVID-19-induced ARDS. Subjects are 18 years or older, admitted to the ICU for mechanical ventilation, meeting the Berlin criteria for moderate-severe ARDS with a positive polymerase chain reaction test for SARS-CoV2. Participants will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either imatinib (as mesylate) 200 mg bis in die (b.i.d.) or placebo IV infusion for 7 days, or until ICU discharge or death. The primary study outcome is the change in Extravascular Lung Water Index (EVLWi) between day 1 and day 4. Secondary outcome parameters include changes in oxygenation and ventilation parameters, duration of invasive mechanical ventilation, number of ventilator-free days during the 28-day study period, length of ICU stay, and mortality during 28 days after randomization. Additional secondary parameters include safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics. DISCUSSION: The current study aims to investigate the efficacy and safety of IV imatinib in mechanically ventilated subjects with COVID-19-related ARDS. We hypothesize that imatinib decreases pulmonary edema, as measured by extravascular lung water using a PiCCO catheter. The reduction in pulmonary edema may reverse hypoxemic respiratory failure and hasten recovery. As pulmonary edema is an important contributor to ARDS, we further hypothesize that imatinib reduces disease severity, reflected by a reduction in 28-day mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation, and ICU length of stay. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version and date: V3.1, 16 April 2021. Recruitment started on 09 March 2021. Estimated recruitment period of approximately 40 weeks. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04794088 . Registered on 11 March 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Imatinib Mesylate/adverse effects , Multicenter Studies as Topic , RNA, Viral , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
5.
Crit Care Med ; 50(5): 750-759, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440663

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of extended lung ultrasonographic assessment, including evaluation of dynamic air bronchograms and color Doppler imaging to differentiate pneumonia and atelectasis in patients with consolidation on chest radiograph. Compare this approach to the Simplified Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score, Lung Ultrasound Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score, and the Bedside Lung Ultrasound in Emergency protocol. DESIGN: Prospective diagnostic accuracy study. SETTING: Adult ICU applying selective digestive decontamination. PATIENTS: Adult patients that underwent a chest radiograph for any indication at any time during admission. Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, coronavirus disease 2019, severe thoracic trauma, and infectious isolation measures were excluded. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Lung ultrasound was performed within 24 hours of chest radiograph. Consolidated tissue was assessed for presence of dynamic air bronchograms and with color Doppler imaging for presence of flow. Clinical data were recorded after ultrasonographic assessment. The primary outcome was diagnostic accuracy of dynamic air bronchogram and color Doppler imaging alone and within a decision tree to differentiate pneumonia from atelectasis. Of 120 patients included, 51 (42.5%) were diagnosed with pneumonia. The dynamic air bronchogram had a 45% (95% CI, 31-60%) sensitivity and 99% (95% CI, 92-100%) specificity. Color Doppler imaging had a 90% (95% CI, 79-97%) sensitivity and 68% (95% CI, 56-79%) specificity. The combined decision tree had an 86% (95% CI, 74-94%) sensitivity and an 86% (95% CI, 75-93%) specificity. The Bedside Lung Ultrasound in Emergency protocol had a 100% (95% CI, 93-100%) sensitivity and 0% (95% CI, 0-5%) specificity, while the Simplified Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score and Lung Ultrasound Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score had a 41% (95% CI, 28-56%) sensitivity, 84% (95% CI, 73-92%) specificity and 68% (95% CI, 54-81%) sensitivity, 81% (95% CI, 70-90%) specificity, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill patients with pulmonary consolidation on chest radiograph, an extended lung ultrasound protocol is an accurate and directly bedside available tool to differentiate pneumonia from atelectasis. It outperforms standard lung ultrasound and clinical scores.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Pulmonary Atelectasis , Adult , Critical Illness , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Atelectasis/diagnostic imaging , Sensitivity and Specificity , Ultrasonography/methods
9.
Intensive Care Med Exp ; 9(1): 1, 2021 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045593

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lung ultrasound can adequately monitor disease severity in pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. We hypothesize lung ultrasound can adequately monitor COVID-19 pneumonia in critically ill patients. METHODS: Adult patients with COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to the intensive care unit of two academic hospitals who underwent a 12-zone lung ultrasound and a chest CT examination were included. Baseline characteristics, and outcomes including composite endpoint death or ICU stay > 30 days were recorded. Lung ultrasound and CT images were quantified as a lung ultrasound score involvement index (LUSI) and CT severity involvement index (CTSI). Primary outcome was the correlation, agreement, and concordance between LUSI and CTSI. Secondary outcome was the association of LUSI and CTSI with the composite endpoints. RESULTS: We included 55 ultrasound examinations in 34 patients, which were 88% were male, with a mean age of 63 years and mean P/F ratio of 151. The correlation between LUSI and CTSI was strong (r = 0.795), with an overall 15% bias, and limits of agreement ranging - 40 to 9.7. Concordance between changes in sequentially measured LUSI and CTSI was 81%. In the univariate model, high involvement on LUSI and CTSI were associated with a composite endpoint. In the multivariate model, LUSI was the only remaining independent predictor. CONCLUSIONS: Lung ultrasound can be used as an alternative for chest CT in monitoring COVID-19 pneumonia in critically ill patients as it can quantify pulmonary involvement, register changes over the course of the disease, and predict death or ICU stay > 30 days. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NTR, NL8584. Registered 01 May 2020-retrospectively registered, https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/8584.

10.
ERJ Open Res ; 6(4)2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-952035

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Over 2 million people worldwide have been infected with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2). Lung ultrasound has been proposed to diagnose and monitor it, despite the fact that little is known about the ultrasound appearance due to the novelty of the illness. The aim of this manuscript is to characterise the lung ultrasonographic appearance of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, with particular emphasis on its relationship with the time course of the illness and clinical parameters. METHODS: Adult patients from the intensive care unit of two academic hospitals who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 were included. Images were analysed using internationally recognised techniques which included assessment of the pleura, number of B-lines, pathology in the PLAPS (posterolateral alveolar and/or pleural syndrome) point, bedside lung ultrasound in emergency profiles, and the lung ultrasound score. The primary outcomes were frequencies, percentages and differences in lung ultrasound findings overall and between short (≤14 days) and long (>14 days) durations of symptoms and their correlation with clinical parameters. RESULTS: In this pilot observational study, 61 patients were included with 76 examinations available for analysis. 26% of patients had no anterior lung abnormalities, while the most prevalent pathological ultrasound findings were thickening of the pleura (42%), ≥3 B-lines per view (38%) and presence of PLAPS (74%). Patients with "long" duration of symptoms presented more frequently with a thickened and irregular pleura (32 (21%) versus 11 (9%)), C-profile (18 (47%) versus 8 (25%)) and pleural effusion (14 (19%) versus 3 (5%)), compared to patients with short duration of symptoms. Lung ultrasound findings did not correlate with arterial oxygen tension/inspiratory oxygen fraction ratio, fluid balance or dynamic compliance. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 results in significant, but not specific, ultrasound changes, with decreased lung sliding, thickening of the pleura and a B-profile being the most commonly observed. With time, a thickened and irregular pleura, C-profile and pleural effusion become more common findings. When screening patients, a comprehensive ultrasound protocol might be necessary.

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