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Clin Nucl Med ; 48(1): 8-17, 2023 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087929


ABSTRACT: Invented and first approved for clinical use in Australia 36 years ago, Technegas is the technology that enabled ventilation scintigraphy with 99m Tc-labeled carbon nanoparticles ( 99m Tc-CNP). The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has considered this technology for more than 30 years but only now is getting close to approving it. Meanwhile, more than 4.4 million patients benefited from this technology in 64 countries worldwide. The primary application of 99m Tc-CNP ventilation imaging is the diagnostic evaluation for suspicion of pulmonary embolism using ventilation-perfusion quotient (V/Q) imaging. Because of 99m Tc-CNP's long pulmonary residence, tomographic imaging emerged as the preferred V/Q methodology. The FDA-approved ventilation imaging agents are primarily suitable for planar imaging, which is less sensitive. After the FDA approval of Technegas, the US practice will likely shift to tomographic V/Q. The 99m Tc-CNP use is of particular interest in the COVID-19 pandemic because it offers an option of a dry radioaerosol that takes approximately only 3 to 5 tidal breaths, allowing the shortest exposure to and contact with possibly infected patients. Indeed, countries where 99m Tc-CNP was approved for clinical use continued using it throughout the COVID-19 pandemic without known negative viral transmission consequences. Conversely, the ventilation imaging was halted in most US facilities from the beginning of the pandemic. This review is intended to familiarize the US clinical nuclear medicine community with the basic science of 99m Tc-CNP ventilation imaging and its clinical applications, including common artifacts and interpretation criteria for tomographic V/Q imaging for pulmonary embolism.

COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Humans , Carbon , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung , Pandemics , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Ventilation , Radionuclide Imaging , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Technetium , Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio , Nanostructures
Clin Nucl Med ; 45(7): 531-533, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-543334


Some patients undergoing routine SPECT/CT and PET/CT examinations during the COVID-19 pandemic may incidentally reveal findings of COVID-19-associated pneumonia (C-19AP) on localizing CT. It is critical for nuclear medicine physicians to develop diagnostic skills for timely recognition of typical findings of C-19AP on a localizing CT. Furthermore, it is our responsibility to know the optimal practices for safely isolating and managing such patients while protecting the staff, other patients at the facility, family and/or friend accompanying the patients, and the public in general from risky exposure to COVID-19 sources. We offer several steps following an encounter suspicious of C-19AP.

Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Management , Humans , Incidental Findings , Pandemics , Pneumonia/etiology , Pneumonia/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography Computed Tomography/standards , Spine/diagnostic imaging
Clin Nucl Med ; 46(7): 571-574, 2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-154961


ABSTRACT: The novel coronavirus 2 pandemic is causing widespread disruption in everyday life necessitating urgent and radical adaptations in operating procedures at nuclear medicine facilities. The potential for causing severe illness, COVID-19, calls for strict observance of preventive measures aimed to mitigate the spread of the virus. The threat of COVID-19 is particularly serious as there is no vaccine and no specific antiviral therapy. Further complications are introduced by shortages of personal protective equipment for healthcare workers who have direct contact with patients and effective testing to identify infected patients, raising the need for delaying some testing and therapies. Certain vulnerable segments of the general population have been identified (advanced age and certain comorbidities), which should heighten further their preventive efforts. Therefore, this guidance is intended to be operationalized depending on a facility's specific needs and local disease prevalence.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Nuclear Medicine , Pandemics/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Societies, Medical , Health Personnel , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , United States