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1.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(2): 203-211, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686119

ABSTRACT

Little is known about how racism and bias may be communicated in the medical record. This study used machine learning to analyze electronic health records (EHRs) from an urban academic medical center and to investigate whether providers' use of negative patient descriptors varied by patient race or ethnicity. We analyzed a sample of 40,113 history and physical notes (January 2019-October 2020) from 18,459 patients for sentences containing a negative descriptor (for example, resistant or noncompliant) of the patient or the patient's behavior. We used mixed effects logistic regression to determine the odds of finding at least one negative descriptor as a function of the patient's race or ethnicity, controlling for sociodemographic and health characteristics. Compared with White patients, Black patients had 2.54 times the odds of having at least one negative descriptor in the history and physical notes. Our findings raise concerns about stigmatizing language in the EHR and its potential to exacerbate racial and ethnic health care disparities.


Subject(s)
Racism , Electronic Health Records , Healthcare Disparities , Humans
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2138464, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1567894

ABSTRACT

Importance: Persons experiencing homelessness (PEH) are at higher risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe illness due to COVID-19 because of a limited ability to physically distance and a higher burden of underlying health conditions. Objective: To describe and assess a hotel-based protective housing intervention to reduce incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among PEH in Chicago, Illinois, with increased risk of severe illness due to COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study analyzed PEH who were provided protective housing in individual hotel rooms in downtown Chicago during the COVID-19 pandemic from April 2 through September 3, 2020. Participants were PEH at increased risk for severe COVID-19, defined as (1) aged at least 60 years regardless of health conditions, (2) aged at least 55 years with any underlying health condition posing increased risk, or (3) aged less than 55 years with any underlying health condition posing substantially increased risk (eg, HIV/AIDS). Exposures: Participants were housed in individual hotel rooms to reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection; on-site health care workers provided daily symptom monitoring, regular SARS-CoV-2 testing, and care for chronic health conditions. Additional on-site services included treatment of mental health and substance use disorders and social services. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome measured was SARS-CoV-2 incidence, with SARS-Cov2 infection defined as a positive upper respiratory specimen using any polymerase chain reaction diagnostic assay authorized for emergency use by the Food and Drug Administration. Secondary outcomes were blood pressure control, glycemic control as measured by hemoglobin A1c, and housing placements at departure. Results: Of 259 participants from 16 homeless shelters in Chicago, 104 (40.2%) were aged at least 65 years, 190 (73.4%) were male, 185 (71.4%) were non-Hispanic Black, and 49 (18.9%) were non-Hispanic White. There was an observed reduction in SARS-CoV-2 incidence during the study period among the protective housing cohort (54.7 per 1000 people [95% CI, 22.4-87.1 per 1000 people]) compared with citywide rates for PEH residing in shelters (137.1 per 1000 people [95% CI, 125.1-149.1 per 1000 people]; P = .001). There was also an adjusted change in systolic blood pressure at a rate of -5.7 mm Hg (95% CI, -9.3 to -2.1 mm Hg) and hemoglobin A1c at a rate of -1.4% (95% CI, -2.4% to -0.4%) compared with baseline. More than half of participants (51% [n = 132]) departed from the intervention to housing of some kind (eg, supportive housing). Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that protective housing was associated with a reduction in SARS-CoV-2 infection among high-risk PEH during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Chicago. These findings suggest that with appropriate wraparound supports (ie, multisector services to address complex needs), such housing interventions may reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, improve noncommunicable disease control, and provide a pathway to permanent housing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Homeless Persons , Housing , Noncommunicable Diseases , Program Evaluation , Adult , Aged , Blood Pressure , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Chicago , Chronic Disease , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Problems
3.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(11): 1784-1791, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496547

ABSTRACT

Racial health inequities exemplified during the COVID-19 crisis have awakened a sense of urgency among public health and policy experts to examine contributing factors. One potential factor includes the socioeconomic disadvantage of racially segregated neighborhoods. This study quantified associations of neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage in Chicago, Illinois, as measured by the Area Deprivation Index (ADI), with racial disparities in COVID-19 positivity. A retrospective cohort included 16,684 patients tested for COVID-19 at an academic medical center and five community-based testing sites during Chicago's "first wave" (March 12, 2020-June 25, 2020). Patients living in Black majority neighborhoods had two times higher odds of COVID-19 positivity relative to those in White majority neighborhoods. The ADI accounted for 20 percent of the racial disparity; however, COVID-19 positivity remained substantially higher at every decile of the ADI in Black relative to White neighborhoods. The remaining disparities (80 percent) suggest a large, cumulative effect of other structural disadvantages in urban communities of color.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chicago/epidemiology , Humans , Residence Characteristics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
4.
Psychol Trauma ; 2021 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442731

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: News media has recently been replete with stories of anti-Asian rhetoric and racism related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Empirical literature, however, has yet to systematically analyze and document these experiences and their impact. Our study aimed to examine this phenomenon by analyzing news media coverage published between December 31, 2019-June 30, 2020 on COVID-related anti-Asian incidents. METHOD: We utilized a phenomenological approach to conduct qualitative content analysis of 84 media articles reporting on coronavirus related anti-Asian incidents. We also present the emerging psychological framework of race-based stress and trauma to conceptualize the psychological impact of these race-based incidents reported in the media. RESULTS: Qualitative analysis revealed five primary themes: (a) pathologizing cultural practices; (b) alien in one's own land; (c) invalidation of interethnic differences; (d) ascription of diseased status; and (e) duality of frontline hero and virus carrier. We provide examples for each of these themes. CONCLUSION: These themes document stigmatizing narratives and demonstrate the phenomenology of race-based stress and trauma experienced by Asian individuals during the COVID era. We present potential implications for mental health of Asian individuals during and following the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as recommendations for future research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2122260, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1391521

ABSTRACT

Importance: Domestic violence (DV) has become a growing public health concern during the COVID-19 pandemic because individuals may be sheltering in place with abusers and facing mounting economic and health-related stresses. Objective: To analyze associations of the 2020 COVID-19 stay-at-home (SH) order with DV police reporting and resource availability, including differences by community area racial/ethnic composition. Design, Setting, and Participants: This longitudinal cohort study assessed DV police reports (January-June 2020) obtained from the Chicago, Illinois, Police Department and DV resource availability (March and August 2020) obtained from the NowPow community resource database, both for 77 community areas in Chicago. Data were analyzed July through December 2020. Exposures: The COVID-19 SH order effective March 21, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Monthly rates of DV police reports and DV resource availability per 100 000 persons. Results: Of 77 community areas in Chicago, 28 (36.4%) were majority Black, 19 (24.7%) majority Hispanic/Latinx, 18 (23.4%) majority White, and 12 (15.6%) a different or no majority race/ethnicity, representing an estimated population of 2 718 555 individuals. For each community area, the SH order was associated with a decrease in the rate of DV police reports by 21.8 (95% CI, -30.48 to -13.07) crimes per 100 000 persons per month relative to the same months in 2019. Compared with White majority community areas, Black majority areas had a decrease in the rate of DV police reports by 40.8 (95% CI, -62.93 to -18.75) crimes per 100 000 persons per month relative to the same months in 2019. The SH order was also associated with a decrease in DV resource availability at a rate of 5.1 (95% CI, -7.55 to -2.67) resources per 100 000 persons, with the largest decreases for mental health (-4.3 [95% CI, -5.97 to -2.66] resources per 100 000 persons) and personal safety (-2.4 [95% CI, -4.40 to -0.41] resources per 100 000 persons). The Black majority south side of Chicago had a larger decrease in resource availability (-6.7 [95% CI, -12.92 to -0.46] resources per 100 000 persons) than the White majority north side. Conclusions and Relevance: In this longitudinal cohort study, the rate of DV police reports decreased after the SH order was implemented in Chicago. This decrease was largely observed in Black majority communities, whereas there was no significant change in White majority communities. These findings may reflect decreased DV incidence but may also reflect an exacerbation of underreporting. In addition, DV resource availability decreased disproportionately on the predominantly Black south side of Chicago.


Subject(s)
Domestic Violence/statistics & numerical data , Police/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chicago/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Domestic Violence/ethnology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(7): 1951-1957, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061194

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social isolation is a known predictor of mortality that disproportionately affects vulnerable populations in the USA. Although experts began to recognize it as a public health crisis prior to 2020, the novel coronavirus pandemic has accelerated recognition of social isolation as a serious threat to health and well-being. OBJECTIVE: Examine patient experiences with screening and assistance for social isolation in primary care settings, and whether patient experiences with these activities are associated with the severity of reported social isolation. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey conducted in 2018. PARTICIPANTS: Adults (N = 251) were recruited from 3 primary care clinics in Boston, Chicago, and San Francisco. MAIN MEASURES: A modified version of the Berkman-Syme Social Network Index (SNI), endorsed by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; items to assess for prior experiences with screening and assistance for social isolation. KEY RESULTS: In the sample population, 12.4% reported the highest levels of social isolation (SNI = 0/1), compared to 36.7%, 34.7%, and 16.3% (SNI = 2-4, respectively). Most patients had not been asked about social isolation in a healthcare setting (87.3%), despite reporting no discomfort with social isolation screening (93.9%). Neither discomfort with nor participation in prior screening for social isolation was associated with social isolation levels. Desire for assistance with social isolation (3.2%) was associated with a higher level of social isolation (AOR = 6.0, 95% CI, 1.3-28.8), as well as poor or fair health status (AOR = 9.1; 95% CI, 1.3-64.1). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, few patients reported being screened previously for social isolation in a primary care setting, despite low levels of discomfort with screening. Providers should consider broadening social isolation screening and referral practices in healthcare settings, especially among sicker and more isolated patients who express higher levels of interest in assistance with social isolation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Isolation , Adult , Chicago , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Patient Outcome Assessment , Primary Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , San Francisco
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