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1.
Zycie Weterynaryjne ; 96(7):502-509, 2021.
Article in Polish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2111876

ABSTRACT

The second part of the review on swine coronaviruses, aims at the porcine enteric coronaviruses epidemiology, pathogenesis and prevention. They most often cause clinical infections and have a negative economic impact on swine industry, These make porcine coronaviruses of great practical significance. Currently, four porcine coronaviruses are responsible for gastrointestinal tract infections: transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TEGV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV). TGEV has caused severe diarrheal disease in pigs worldwide in the past, and its importance is now less significant. PEDV and PDCoV cause clinically indistinguishable acute gastroenteritis in all age groups of pigs. TGEV has been circulating in the pig populations for decades. PEDV, PDCoV and SADS-CoV are emerging/reemerging coronaviruses and they may present serious epidemiological problems in the pork industry. All three emerging porcine gastrointestinal coronaviruse's were first identified in China. Rapid diagnosis and compliance with the principles of strict biosecurity protocols are essential in combating and preventing these infections in pigs.

2.
Zycie Weterynaryjne ; 96(6):403-407, 2021.
Article in Polish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2073616

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoV), exhibit high mutation rates and strong tendency to recombine. These properties enable them to easy overcome the host species barrier and adapt to new hosts. It is currently known that six CoV are able to infect pigs. Four of them, belong to the genus Alphacoronavirus - transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TEGV), porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV). One of them belongs to the genus Betacoronavirus - porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus, PHEV, and the last one, to the genus Deltacoronavirus (PDCoV). PHEV was one of the first identified swine CoVs and is still widespread, causing subclinical infections in pigs in several countries. PRCV, a spike deletion mutant of TGEV, is considered as non-pathogenic. Since vaccines are available only for some porcine CoVs, prevention should focus mainly on a high level of biosecurity. In view of the diversity of CoVs and the potential risk factors associated with zoonotic emergence, updating the knowledge concerning this area is essential.

3.
Zycie Weterynaryjne ; 96(1):15-23, 2021.
Article in Polish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034286

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the betacoronavirus that causes COVID-19, has spread rapidly around the world since December 2019. It was suspected from the beginning that the primary outbreak in China, was of a zoonotic origin, but the SARS- CoV-2 animal reservoir(s) has not been definitively identified yet. So far, it has been confirmed that numerous animal species are susceptible to infection and that experimentally infected cats, shrews, hamsters and ferrets can also shed the virus. The SARS-CoV-2 was also detected in farmed mink (Neovison vison), in which it caused both, the clinical and subclinical disease, with respiratory symptoms and increased mortality. In April 2020, the first SARS-CoV-2 cases were detected in minks in the Netherlands, and to date (November 2020), further outbreaks have been confirmed in Denmark, Italy, Spain, Sweden, the United States, Greece, France and Poland. It has also been shown that the transmission of infection from humans to minks and from minks to humans may occur. The OIE is working on the inclusion of mink in the WAHIS database and encouraging the Members to provide appropriate data for this species to improve the monitoring of the epidemiological situation worldwide and prevent the establishment of a possible new reservoir for SARS-CoV-2.

4.
Zycie Weterynaryjne ; 95(7):398-405, 2020.
Article in Polish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1999285

ABSTRACT

Family Coronaviridae (coronaviruses, CoVs), comprises enveloped, positive sense RNA viruses. They are largest RNA viruses identified so far. CoVs are known for over half a century as agents causing respiratory, alimentary or systemic infections in domestic and wild birds and mammals. Feline (FcoV) and canine coronaviruses (CCoV) are common in the populations of these animals and fetine infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), infection may often be fatal. The new human coronavirus, SARS-CoV-Z, causing COVID-19 (coronavirus disease-IQ), identified in 2019 and responsible for the ongoing pandemics, has raised concerns about its zoonotic potential. Since cats and dogs live in close contact with owners it is important to establish their possible role in COVlD-19 epidemiology. There have been reports of SAHS-Covo2 positive dogs and cats in the literature and on various websites, including OIE website. However, considering that despite that millions of people are infected and the virus is still spreading worldwide, while only few cases of SARS-CoV-19 in dogs and cats have been confirmed, these companion animals do not play a role as virus reservoirs, thus are not important in COVlD-19 pandemics.

5.
Medycyna Weterynaryjna-Veterinary Medicine-Science and Practice ; 78(5):213-221, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1811831

ABSTRACT

Infections of the porcine respiratory tract are frequently multifactorial, with more than one pathogen involved. They have a significant impact on the efficiency of pig production. One example of such a mixed infection is the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). PRDC can be caused by various viral or bacterial agents. The main viral agents associated with PRDC and considered the primary pathogens are porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), swine influenza virus (SIV), and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). PRRSV, SIV, and PCV2 are known as inducers of inflammatory cytokines. Cytokines play an important role in all aspects of immune responses, but their uncontrolled release in virus-induced diseases may aggravate the course of the disease and the severity of pathological lesions. Although data regarding the kinetics of the local cytokine response in porcine lungs during mono-infection with these pathogens are abundant, their impact on each other during simultaneous infection in different combinations is not thoroughly understood. This paper aims to present the available data on interactions between SIV, PRRSV, and PCV2 in mixed infections of the porcine respiratory tract and the influence of co-infections on local cytokine profiles in the lungs.

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