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1.
Intensive Care Med ; 48(7): 876-887, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1941491

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Epidemiologic studies have documented lower rates of active smokers compared to former or non-smokers in symptomatic patients affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We assessed the efficacy and safety of nicotine administered by a transdermal patch in critically ill patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: In this multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted in 18 intensive care units in France, we randomly assigned adult patients (non-smokers, non-vapers or who had quit smoking/vaping for at least 12 months) with proven COVID-19 pneumonia receiving invasive mechanical ventilation for up to 72 h to receive transdermal patches containing either nicotine at a daily dose of 14 mg or placebo until 48 h following successful weaning from mechanical ventilation or for a maximum of 30 days, followed by 3-week dose tapering by 3.5 mg per week. Randomization was stratified by centre, non- or former smoker status and Sequential Organ Function Assessment score (< or ≥ 7). The primary outcome was day-28 mortality. Main prespecified secondary outcomes included 60-day mortality, time to successful extubation, days alive and free from mechanical ventilation, renal replacement therapy, vasopressor support or organ failure at day 28. RESULTS: Between November 6th 2020, and April 2nd 2021, 220 patients were randomized from 18 active recruiting centers. After excluding 2 patients who withdrew consent, 218 patients (152 [70%] men) were included in the analysis: 106 patients to the nicotine group and 112 to the placebo group. Day-28 mortality did not differ between the two groups (30 [28%] of 106 patients in the nicotine group vs 31 [28%] of 112 patients in the placebo group; odds ratio 1.03 [95% confidence interval, CI 0.57-1.87]; p = 0.46). The median number of day-28 ventilator-free days was 0 (IQR 0-14) in the nicotine group and 0 (0-13) in the placebo group (with a difference estimate between the medians of 0 [95% CI -3-7]). Adverse events likely related to nicotine were rare (3%) and similar between the two groups. CONCLUSION: In patients having developed severe COVID-19 pneumonia requiring invasive mechanical ventilation, transdermal nicotine did not significantly reduce day-28 mortality. There is no indication to use nicotine in this situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Nicotine/adverse effects , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
2.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 88(7-8): 580-587, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934884

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is responsible for unprecedented numbers of acute respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). This work aimed to assess whether adding face-mask noninvasive ventilation (NIV) to high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) was associated with a reduced need for endotracheal intubation. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted from July 2020 to January 2021 in two tertiary care intensive care units (ICUs) in Paris, France. Patients admitted for laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure requiring HFNO with or without NIV were included. The primary outcome was the rate of endotracheal intubation. Secondary outcomes included day-28 mortality, day-28 respiratory support and IMV free days, ICU and hospital length-of-stay. Sensitivity analyses with both propensity score matching and overlap weighting were used. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-eight patients were included, 88 (69%) received HFNO alone and 40 (31%) received additional NIV. Additional NIV was associated with a reduced rate of endotracheal intubation in multivariate analysis (53 [60%] vs. 15 [38%], HR=0.46 [95% CI: 0.23-0.95], P=0.04). Sensitivity analyses by propensity score matching (HR=0.45 [95% CI: 0.24-0.84], P=0.01) and overlap weighting (HR=0.52 [95% CI: 0.28-0.94], P=0.03) were consistent. Day-28 mortality was 25 (28%) in the HFNO group and 8 (20%) in the NIV group (HR=0.75 [95% CI: 0.15-3.82], P=0.72). NIV was associated with higher IMV free days (20 [0-28] vs. 28 [14-28], P=0.015). All sensitivity analyses were consistent regarding secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Need for endotracheal intubation was lower in critically-ill SARS-CoV-2 patients receiving face-mask noninvasive mechanical ventilation in addition to high-flow oxygen therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal , Oxygen , Propensity Score , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9502, 2022 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886229

ABSTRACT

The local immune-inflammatory response elicited by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is still poorly described, as well as the extent to which its characteristics may be associated with the outcome of critical Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this prospective monocenter study, all consecutive COVID-19 critically ill patients admitted from February to December 2020 and explored by fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were included. Biological assays, including digital ELISA cytokine profiling and targeted eicosanoid metabolomic analysis, were performed on paired blood and BAL fluid (BALF). Clinical outcome was assessed through the World Health Organization 10-point Clinical Progression Scale (WHO-CPS) at the 28th day (D28) following the admission to intensive care unit. A D28-WHO-CPS value higher than 5 defined a poor outcome. Seventy-six patients were included, 45 (59%) had a poor day-28 outcome. As compared to their counterparts, patients with D28-WHO-CPS > 5 exhibited a neutrophil-predominant bronchoalveolar phenotype, with a higher BALF neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, a blunted local type I interferon response, a decompartimentalized immune-inflammatory response illustrated by lower BALF/blood ratio of concentrations of IL-6 (1.68 [0.30-4.41] vs. 9.53 [2.56-19.1]; p = 0.001), IL-10, IL-5, IL-22 and IFN-γ, and a biological profile of vascular endothelial injury illustrated by a higher blood concentration of VEGF and higher blood and/or BALF concentrations of several vasoactive eicosanoids. In critically ill COVID-19 patients, we identified bronchoalveolar and blood immune-inflammatory biomarker signature associated with poor 28-day outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Critical Illness , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e059383, 2022 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816767

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 induces venous, arterial and microvascular thrombosis, involving several pathophysiological processes. In patients with severe COVID-19 without macrovascular thrombosis, escalating into high-dose prophylactic anticoagulation (HD-PA) or therapeutic anticoagulation (TA) could be beneficial in limiting the extension of microvascular thrombosis and forestalling the evolution of lung and multiorgan microcirculatory dysfunction. In the absence of data from randomised trials, clinical practice varies widely. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a French multicentre, parallel-group, open-label, randomised controlled superiority trial to compare the efficacy and safety of three anticoagulation strategies in patients with COVID-19. Patients with oxygen-treated COVID-19 showing no pulmonary artery thrombosis on computed tomography with pulmonary angiogram will be randomised to receive either low-dose PA, HD-PA or TA for 14 days. Patients attaining the extremes of weight and those with severe renal failure will not be included. We will recruit 353 patients. Patients will be randomised on a 1:1:1 basis, and stratified by centre, use of invasive mechanical ventilation, D-dimer levels and body mass index. The primary endpoint is a hierarchical criterion at day 28 including all-cause mortality, followed by the time to clinical improvement defined as the time from randomisation to an improvement of at least two points on the ordinal clinical scale. Secondary outcomes include thrombotic and major bleeding events at day 28, individual components of the primary endpoint, number of oxygen-free, ventilator-free and vasopressor-free days at day 28, D-dimer and sepsis-induced coagulopathy score at day 7, intensive care unit and hospital stay at day 28 and day 90, and all-cause death and quality of life at day 90. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been approved by an ethical committee (Ethics Committee, Ile de France VII, Paris, France; reference 2020-A03531-38). Patients will be included after obtaining their signed informed consent. The results will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04808882.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation , Humans , Microcirculation , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
6.
Hemato ; 3(1):204-219, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1732001

ABSTRACT

In some patients, SARS-CoV-2 infection induces cytokine storm, hypercoagulability and endothelial cell activation leading to worsening of COVID-19, intubation and death. Prompt identification of patients at risk of intubation is an urgent need. Objectives. To derive a prognostic score for the risk of intubation or death in patients with COVID-19 admitted in intensive care unit (ICU), by assessing biomarkers of hypercoagulability, endothelial cell activation and inflammation and a large panel of clinical analytes. Design, Setting and Participants. A prospective, observational study enrolled 118 patients with COVID-19 admitted in the ICU. On the first day of ICU admission, all patients were assessed for biomarkers (protein C, protein S, antithrombin, D-Dimer, fibrin monomers, FVIIa, FV, FXII, FXII, FVIII, FvW antigen, fibrinogen, procoagulant phospholipid dependent clotting time, TFPI, thrombomodulin, P-selectin, heparinase, microparticles exposing TF, IL-6, complement C3a, C5a, thrombin generation, PT, aPTT, hemogram, platelet count) and clinical predictors. Main Outcomes and Measures. The clinical outcomes were intubation and mortality during hospitalization in ICU. Results: The intubation and mortality rates were 70% and 18%, respectively. The COMPASS-COVID-19-ICU score composed of P-Selectin, D-Dimer, free TFPI, TF activity, IL-6 and FXII, age and duration of hospitalization predicted the risk of intubation or death with high sensitivity and specificity (0.90 and 0.92, respectively). Conclusions and Relevance. COVID-19 is related to severe endothelial cell activation and hypercoagulability orchestrated in the context of inflammation. The COMPASS-COVID-19-ICU risk assessment model is accurate for the evaluation of the risk of mechanical ventilation and death in patients with critical COVID-19. The COMPASS-COVID-19-ICU score is feasible in tertiary hospitals and could be placed in the diagnostic procedure of personalized medical management and prompt therapeutic intervention.

8.
Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie - FMC ; 1(8, Supplement 1):A156, 2021.
Article in French | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1520910

ABSTRACT

Introduction Le traitement du syndrome d’hypersensibilité médicamenteuse ou drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) est difficile. En cas d’atteinte viscérale, une corticothérapie systémique est le plus souvent proposée en première intention malgré l’absence d’essai clinique. En l’absence de réponse, le traitement de deuxième ligne n’est pas codifié. Récemment, le benralizumab un anticorps monoclonal ciblant le récepteur de l’interleukine 5 a été utilisé pour traiter deux patients avec une infection sévère à COVID-19 ayant un DRESS résistant à une corticothérapie à forte dose. Nous rapportons le cas d’un patient infecté par le COVID-19 atteint d’un DRESS avec engagement du pronostic vital traité par benralizumab. Matériel et méthodes Un patient de 43 ans, sans antécédent, hospitalisé pour un syndrome de détresse respiratoire aigu lié à une infection à COVID-19 a présenté un DRESS sévère associant une hyperéosinophilie (6660/mm3), de la fièvre, une polyadénopathie, un exanthème maculopapuleux avec œdème du visage, une insuffisance rénale aiguë, une hépatite et une pneumopathie à éosinophiles. Les médicaments les plus imputables étaient la ciprofloxacine et le céfépime. Le traitement initial de ce DRESS sévère a comporté une corticothérapie locale et systémique. Une aggravation hémodynamique a motivé un traitement par immunoglobulines intraveineuses. Devant une atteinte pluriviscérale associée à une majoration du taux d’éosinophiles (10 000/mm3) et des critères biologiques de syndrome d’activation macrophagique avec engagement du pronostic vital, une injection de benralizumab 30mg en sous-cutanée a été réalisée après concertation multidisciplinaire. Résultats (si adapté) : l’évolution a été très rapidement favorable avec une chute du nombre d’éosinophiles sanguins en 48 heures et une amélioration globale des dysfonctions d’organes et des lésions cutanées. Une deuxième injection de benralizumab a été réalisée quatre semaines plus tard en raison de la réascension modérée des éosinophiles à la décroissance de la corticothérapie générale, sans récidive. Discussion La physiopathologie du DRESS est complexe, elle met en jeu des réponses lymphocytaires T spécifiques et souvent des réactivations virales. Aucune réplication des virus fréquemment rencontrés dans le DRESS (HSV1, HSV2, VZV, CMV, EBV et HHV6) n’a été trouvée chez notre patient. Mais, la mise en évidence d’une réplication du SARS-CoV 2 à distance de l’infection initiale (plus de 60 jours après la 1re PCR SARS-CoV2 positive) pourrait suggérer un rôle potentiel inducteur du SARS-CoV2 dans le DRESS. Le rôle précis des éosinophiles dans la physiopathologie du DRESS n’est pas élucidé, mais l’efficacité et la bonne tolérance du benralizumab chez notre patient plaide en faveur de l’intérêt d’une thérapie anti-IL5 récepteur chez les patients atteints de DRESS sévère corticorésistant ou avec besoin d’une alternative aux corticoïdes systémiques.

9.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(2): 188-198, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384370

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection have several risk factors for ventilator-associated lower respiratory tract infections (VA-LRTI), the reported incidence of hospital-acquired infections is low. We aimed to determine the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, as compared to influenza pneumonia or no viral infection, and the incidence of VA-LRTI. METHODS: Multicenter retrospective European cohort performed in 36 ICUs. All adult patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation > 48 h were eligible if they had: SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, influenza pneumonia, or no viral infection at ICU admission. VA-LRTI, including ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), were diagnosed using clinical, radiological and quantitative microbiological criteria. All VA-LRTI were prospectively identified, and chest-X rays were analyzed by at least two physicians. Cumulative incidence of first episodes of VA-LRTI was estimated using the Kalbfleisch and Prentice method, and compared using Fine-and Gray models. RESULTS: 1576 patients were included (568 in SARS-CoV-2, 482 in influenza, and 526 in no viral infection groups). VA-LRTI incidence was significantly higher in SARS-CoV-2 patients (287, 50.5%), as compared to influenza patients (146, 30.3%, adjusted sub hazard ratio (sHR) 1.60 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26 to 2.04)) or patients with no viral infection (133, 25.3%, adjusted sHR 1.7 (95% CI 1.2 to 2.39)). Gram-negative bacilli were responsible for a large proportion (82% to 89.7%) of VA-LRTI, mainly Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp., and Klebsiella spp. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of VA-LRTI is significantly higher in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, as compared to patients with influenza pneumonia, or no viral infection after statistical adjustment, but residual confounding may still play a role in the effect estimates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Respiratory Tract Infections , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Europe , Female , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Ventilators, Mechanical
11.
Blood ; 136(Supplement 1):5-6, 2020.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1339021

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) characterized by acute pneumonia which may progress to respiratory failure and life-threatening complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multisystem organ failure with fatal outcome. COVID-19 should be regarded as a systemic disease involving multiple systems. COVID-19 is associated with excessive inflammation, platelet activation, endothelial dysfunction, blood coagulation activation and fibrin formation. The development of a screening algorithm for the evaluation of endothelial and blood coagulation activation is an urgent need for the optimisation of the management of the patients with severe COVID-19. To this aim biomarkers of endothelial cell activation and hypercoagulability have central placeAim: The prospective observational monocentric cohort study ROADMAP-COVID-19 study aimed to evaluate the biomarkers of hypercoagulability and endothelial cell activation which they could be used in the development of a screening algorithm in patients with COVID-19Methods: The ROADMAP-COVID-19 study enrolled 90 consecutive patients hospitalized at Tenon University Hospital (AP-HP, Paris) between March 18th and April 30th, 2020 with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to the ICU with clinically deteriorated severe COVID-19 (ICU- group). Patients were assessed upon the first day to the ICU admission. The control group consisted 30 healthy individuals (C-group). All patients and controls were evaluated for, clotting times (PT and aPTT), fibrinogen, D-Dimers, antithrombin (AT), protein C (PC) and protein S (Ps) activity, clotting factors V (FV), VIII (FVIII) and XII (FXII), high molecular weight kininogen (HK), von Willebrand factor (FvW), thrombin generation assay (TG) using TF 20 pM-PPP-Reagent® (Thrombogram-Thrombinoscope from Stago), fibrin monomers (FM), free TFPI and TF activity, thrombomodulin activity (TM), TF expressing microparticles (the ratio TF/TFPI was also calculated) and Heparanase. The IL-6 levels were also measured. All patients hospitalized in conventional medical department or in ICU routinely received thromboprophylaxis with body weight adapted enoxaparin. The ratio of the mean values of each studied biomarker in the ICU and the C-group was calculated. Biomarkers were classified in four clusters (Decrease, Stable, Slight Increase, Moderate Increase and High Increase).Results :The ICU-group consisted of 102 patients;87% of these patients were admitted to the ICU directly from the emergency department. Males were 76 out of 102 patients. Age ranged from 30 to 93 years in the W-group. The changes of the biomarkers in patients with COVID-19 admitted at the ICU as compared to healthy individuals with are shown in Table 1. The ICU patients with COVID-19 were characterized by marked increase of IL-6 followed by increase of heparanase and D-dimers. The PPL-ct showed the most important decrease. Patients showed a significant decrease in FXII levels which was associated with a moderate increase of kininogen levels. The levels of the natural coagulation inhibitors as well as the clotting times (PT and aPTT) did not significantly modify in patients as compared to the controls. The rate of the propagation phase of thrombin generation (MRI) and the Peak of thrombin were significantly decrease and the lag-time was prolonged reflecting the antithrombotic effect of treatment with LMWH. Heparanse, free TFPI, and TM showed moderate or high increase. The decreased Ratio of TF/TFPI indicated that the free TFPI release dominated over the release of soluble TF activity.Conclusion: Patients with severe COVID-19 requiring ICU admission showed inhaled inflammatory reaction, hyperocoagulability and endothelial cell activation whereas platelet activation appeared to be secondary. Among the studied biomarkers the PPL-ct D-dimers and heparanase followed by TFPI, FvW, FM and TM levels appear to be mandatory for hypercoagulability of cellular origin. Interestingly patients with severe OVID-19 showed consumption of FXII indicating intrinsic clotting pathway activation and high levels of HK which also indicates endothelial cell activation. The clinical relevance of these biomarkers for early detection of hypercoagulability of cellular origin in patients with COVID-19 is being evaluated in prospective study.

13.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 9, 2021 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1029162

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for high morbidity and mortality worldwide, mostly due to the exacerbated inflammatory response observed in critically ill patients. However, little is known about the kinetics of the systemic immune response and its association with survival in SARS-CoV-2+ patients admitted in ICU. We aimed to compare the immuno-inflammatory features according to organ failure severity and in-ICU mortality. METHODS: Six-week multicentre study (N = 3) including SARS-CoV-2+ patients admitted in ICU. Analysis of plasma biomarkers at days 0 and 3-4 according to organ failure worsening (increase in SOFA score) and 60-day mortality. RESULTS: 101 patients were included. Patients had severe respiratory diseases with PaO2/FiO2 of 155 [111-251] mmHg), SAPS II of 37 [31-45] and SOFA score of 4 [3-7]. Eighty-three patients (83%) required endotracheal intubation/mechanical ventilation and among them, 64% were treated with prone position. IL-1ß was barely detectable. Baseline IL-6 levels positively correlated with organ failure severity. Baseline IL-6 and CRP levels were significantly higher in patients in the worsening group than in the non-worsening group (278 [70-622] vs. 71 [29-153] pg/mL, P < 0.01; and 178 [100-295] vs. 100 [37-213] mg/L, P < 0.05, respectively). Baseline IL-6 and CRP levels were significantly higher in non-survivors compared to survivors but fibrinogen levels and lymphocyte counts were not different between groups. After adjustment on SOFA score and time from symptom onset to first dosage, IL-6 and CRP remained significantly associated with mortality. IL-6 changes between Day 0 and Day 3-4 were not different according to the outcome. A contrario, kinetics of CRP and lymphocyte count were different between survivors and non-survivors. CONCLUSIONS: In SARS-CoV-2+ patients admitted in ICU, a systemic pro-inflammatory signature was associated with clinical worsening and 60-day mortality.

14.
Infection ; 49(3): 559-562, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002184

ABSTRACT

Severe 2019 novel coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) with pneumonia is associated with high rates of admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Bacterial coinfection has been reported to be rare. We aimed at describing the rate of bacterial coinfection in critically ill adult patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. All the patients with laboratory-confirmed severe COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to the ICU of Tenon University-teaching hospital, from February 22 to May 7th, 2020 were included. Respiratory tract specimens were obtained within the first 48 h of ICU admission. During the study period, 101 patients were referred to the ICU for COVID-19 with severe pneumonia. Most patients (n = 83; 82.2%) were intubated and mechanically ventilated on ICU admission. Overall, 20 (19.8%) respiratory tract specimens obtained within the first 48 h. Staphylococcus aureus was the main pathogen identified, accounting for almost half of the early-onset bacterial etiologies. We found a high prevalence of early-onset bacterial coinfection during severe COVID-19 pneumonia, with a high proportion of S. aureus. Our data support the current WHO guidelines for the management of severe COVID-19 patients, in whom antibiotic therapy directed to respiratory pathogens is recommended.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/drug therapy , Critical Illness , Female , Hospitals, University , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification
16.
Thromb Haemost ; 120(12): 1680-1690, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-786732

ABSTRACT

The prospective observational cohort study COMPASS-COVID-19 aimed to develop a risk assessment model for early identification of hospitalized COVID-19 patients at risk for worsening disease. Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (n = 430) hospitalized between March 18 and April 21, 2020 were divided in derivation (n = 310) and validation (n = 120) cohorts. Two groups became evident: (1) good prognosis group (G-group) with patients hospitalized at the conventional COVID-19 ward and (2) Worsening disease group (W-group) with patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) from the emergency departments. The study end point was disease worsening (acute respiratory failure, shock, myocardial dysfunction, bacterial or viral coinfections, and acute kidney injury) requiring ICU admission. All patients were routinely evaluated for full blood count, prothrombin time, fibrinogen, D-dimers, antithrombin (AT), and protein C activity. Data from the first hospitalization day at the conventional ward or the ICU were analyzed. Cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities were routinely registered. Obesity, hypertension, diabetes and male gender, increased fibrinogen and D-dimers, thrombocytopenia, AT deficiency, lymphopenia, and an International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) score for compensated disseminated intravascular coagulation score (cDIC-ISTH) ≥5 were significant risk factors for worsening disease. The COMPASS-COVID-19 score was derived from multivariate analyses and includes obesity, gender, hemoglobin, lymphocyte, and the cDIC-ISTH score (including platelet count, prothrombin time, D-dimers, AT, and protein C levels). The score has a very good discriminating capacity to stratify patients at high and low risk for worsening disease, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value of 0.77, a sensitivity of 81%, and a specificity of 60%. Application of the COMPASS-COVID-19 score at the validation cohort showed 96% sensitivity. The COMPASS-COVID-19 score is an accurate clinical decision-making tool for an easy identification of COVID-19 patients being at high risk for disease worsening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Female , France/epidemiology , Greece/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Young Adult
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