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1.
Int J Disaster Risk Reduct ; 93: 103776, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2328275

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Individual and community characteristics predictive of knowledge, perception, and attitude on COVID-19, specifically on gender, have not been adequately explored. Objective: To examine the gender differences in COVID-19 knowledge, self-risk perception and public stigma among the general community and to understand other socio-demographic factors which were predictive of them. Method: A nationally representative cross-sectional multi-centric survey was conducted among adult individuals(≥18 yrs) from the community member (N = 1978) from six states and one union territory of India between August 2020 to February 2021. The participants were selected using systematic random sampling. The data were collected telephonically using pilot-tested structured questionnaires and were analyzed using STATA. Gender-segregated multivariable analysis was conducted to identify statistically significant predictors (p < 0.05) of COVID-19-related knowledge, risk perception, and public stigma in the community. Results: Study identified significant differences between males and females in their self-risk perception (22.0% & 18.2% respectively) and stigmatizing attitude (55.3% & 47.1% respectively). Highly educated males and females had higher odds of having COVID-19 knowledge (aOR: 16.83: p < 0.05) than illiterates. Highly educated women had higher odds of having self-risk perception (aOR: 2.6; p < 0.05) but lower public stigma [aOR: 0.57; p < 0.05]. Male rural residents had lower odds of having self-risk perception and knowledge [aOR: 0.55; p < 0.05 & aOR: 0.72; p < 0.05] and female rural residents had higher odds of having public stigma [aOR: 1.36; p < 0.05]. Conclusion: Our study findings suggest the importance of considering thegender differentials and their background, education status and residential status in designing effective interventions to improve knowledge and reduce risk perception and stigma in the community about COVID-19.

2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 87, 2023 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2235110

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identification of SARS-CoV-2 positive patients with rapid and cost-effective test methods is the key for isolating infected individuals, interrupting the transmission chain, and thus, containment of the CoVID-19 disease. In this regard, Rapid Antigen Test (RAT) plays an important role at point of care testing but the low sensitivity attributing towards escape of positive cases is reported as a major disadvantage of RAT which led us to evaluate a RAT kit among symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals suspected of CoVID-19. METHODS: We analyzed 329 parallel nasopharyngeal swabs for RAT (Zydus Cadila, India) at the point of collection in a hospital-based facility and RealTime RT-PCR in the laboratory. The performance parameters were analyzed by evaluating the specificity, sensitivity, Negative Predictive Value (NPV), Positive Predictive Value (PPV), and Kappa coefficient. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity were found to be 75.17% and 98.89% respectively. Positive Predictive value was 98.25% and the negative predictive value was 82.79%. The accuracy between the two techniques was found to be 88.14% with a kappa coefficient of 0.756 (SE: 0.036 and CI at 95%: 0.686 to 0.826) with a good strength of agreement (0.61-0.80) between the two testing techniques. Among the false-negative cases, 22 (59.5%) were asymptomatic having the Cycle Threshold (Ct) range 27 to 32.9 including 12 cases with a history of close contact with the known positive cases (i.e. household contact). The remaining 15 cases (40.5%) were symptomatic having low to moderate Ct values. CONCLUSION: It is observed from the results that the false negative result for symptomatic individuals is a matter of concern as it was noted in 4 cases of our study subjects who required hospitalisation later. Also the positives among asymptomatic contacts are important from epidemiological point of view for isolation and curtailing the infection from spreading in a community. These results support the fact that RAT showing sensitivity below 80% can be used for mass screening purposes with provision for additional testing in case of false negative with symptomatic individuals. Also false-negative results should be interpreted cautiously considering the epidemiological link as well as the clinical condition of the patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Sensitivity and Specificity
3.
Indian J Med Res ; 155(1): 156-164, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201766

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: COVID-19 pandemic has triggered social stigma towards individuals affected and their families. This study describes the process undertaken for the development and validation of scales to assess stigmatizing attitudes and experiences among COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 participants from the community. Methods: COVID-19 Stigma Scale and Community COVID-19 Stigma Scale constituting 13 and six items, respectively, were developed based on review of literature and news reports, expert committee evaluation and participants' interviews through telephone for a multicentric study in India. For content validity, 61 (30 COVID-19-recovered and 31 non-COVID-19 participants from the community) were recruited. Test-retest reliability of the scales was assessed among 99 participants (41 COVID-19 recovered and 58 non-COVID-19). Participants were administered the scale at two-time points after a gap of 7-12 days. Cronbach's alpha, overall percentage agreement and kappa statistics were used to assess internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Results: Items in the scales were relevant and comprehensible. Both the scales had Cronbach's α above 0.6 indicating moderate-to-good internal consistency. Test-retest reliability assessed using kappa statistics indicated that for the COVID-19 Stigma Scale, seven items had a moderate agreement (0.4-0.6). For the Community COVID-19 Stigma Scale, four items had a moderate agreement. Interpretation & conclusions: Validity and reliability of the two stigma scales indicated that the scales were comprehensible and had moderate internal consistency. These scales could be used to assess COVID-19 stigma and help in the development of appropriate stigma reduction interventions for COVID-19 infected, and mitigation of stigmatizing attitudes in the community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Stigma , Humans , India/epidemiology , Pandemics , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2092139

ABSTRACT

Objective To assess factors associated with COVID-19 stigmatizing attitudes in the community and stigma experiences of COVID-19 recovered individuals during first wave of COVID-19 pandemic in India. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 18 districts located in 7 States in India during September 2020 to January 2021 among adults > 18 years of age selected through systematic random sampling. Data on socio demographic and COVID-19 knowledge were collected from 303 COVID-19 recovered and 1,976 non-COVID-19 infected individuals from community using a survey questionnaire. Stigma was assessed using COVID-19 Stigma Scale and Community COVID-19 Stigma Scale developed for the study. Informed consent was sought from the participants. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analysis were conducted. Results Half of the participants (51.3%) from the community reported prevalence of severe stigmatizing attitudes toward COVID-19 infected while 38.6% of COVID-19 recovered participants reported experiencing severe stigma. Participants from the community were more likely to report stigmatizing attitudes toward COVID-19 infected if they were residents of high prevalent COVID-19 zone (AOR: 1.5;CI: 1.2–1.9), staying in rural areas (AOR: 1.5;CI:1.1–1.9), belonged to the age group of 18–30 years (AOR: 1.6;CI 1.2–2.0), were male (AOR: 1.6;CI: 1.3–1.9), illiterate (AOR: 2.7;CI: 1.8–4.2), or living in Maharashtra (AOR: 7.4;CI: 4.8–11.3). COVID-19 recovered participants had higher odds of experiencing stigma if they had poor knowledge about COVID-19 transmission (AOR: 2.8;CI: 1.3–6.3), were staying for 6–15 years (AOR: 3.24;CI: 1.1–9.4) in the current place of residence or belonged to Delhi (AOR: 5.3;CI: 1.04–26.7). Conclusion Findings indicated presence of stigmatizing attitudes in the community as well as experienced stigma among COVID-19 recovered across selected study sites in India during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic. Study recommends timely dissemination of factual information to populations vulnerable to misinformation and psychosocial interventions for individuals affected by stigma.

7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 122: 497-505, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1907177

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: India had the second-highest number of COVID-19 cases globally. We evaluated the progression of the pandemic across the lockdowns and phased reopenings at the district level during the first wave (in India). METHODS: For the analysis in this study, we used more than 100 million COVID-19 test results along with other parameters available in the Indian Council of Medical Research database from March 2020 to October 2020. The districts were stratified as high, moderate, and low caseload districts and data analysis was done for each phase of lockdown. FINDINGS: Of the 110.5 million tests included in the analysis, 54.79 million tests were performed using molecular methods, 53.58 million by rapid antigen tests, and 2.13 million using the indigenous TruNat platform. The proportion of positive cases among symptomatic individuals (22.6%) was significantly higher than asymptomatic individuals (8.6%). The tests conducted and proportions of positivity were significantly higher in high caseload districts; 58% of these tests were conducted using molecular methods as opposed to only one-third in low caseload districts. INTERPRETATION: Laboratory parameters, along with other demographic information, can help us better understand the spread of the pandemic in a country. This information can be crucial to formulating and implementing public health policies in future waves of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , India/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
PLoS Med ; 18(12): e1003877, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566547

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: India began COVID-19 vaccination in January 2021, initially targeting healthcare and frontline workers. The vaccination strategy was expanded in a phased manner and currently covers all individuals aged 18 years and above. India experienced a severe second wave of COVID-19 during March-June 2021. We conducted a fourth nationwide serosurvey to estimate prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the general population aged ≥6 years and healthcare workers (HCWs). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We did a cross-sectional study between 14 June and 6 July 2021 in the same 70 districts across 20 states and 1 union territory where 3 previous rounds of serosurveys were conducted. From each district, 10 clusters (villages in rural areas and wards in urban areas) were selected by the probability proportional to population size method. From each district, a minimum of 400 individuals aged ≥6 years from the general population (40 individuals from each cluster) and 100 HCWs from the district public health facilities were included. The serum samples were tested for the presence of IgG antibodies against S1-RBD and nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2 using chemiluminescence immunoassay. We estimated the weighted and test-adjusted seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, along with 95% CIs, based on the presence of antibodies to S1-RBD and/or nucleocapsid protein. Of the 28,975 individuals who participated in the survey, 2,892 (10%) were aged 6-9 years, 5,798 (20%) were aged 10-17 years, and 20,285 (70%) were aged ≥18 years; 15,160 (52.3%) participants were female, and 21,794 (75.2%) resided in rural areas. The weighted and test-adjusted prevalence of IgG antibodies against S1-RBD and/or nucleocapsid protein among the general population aged ≥6 years was 67.6% (95% CI 66.4% to 68.7%). Seroprevalence increased with age (p < 0.001) and was not different in rural and urban areas (p = 0.822). Compared to unvaccinated adults (62.3%, 95% CI 60.9% to 63.7%), seroprevalence was significantly higher among individuals who had received 1 vaccine dose (81.0%, 95% CI 79.6% to 82.3%, p < 0.001) and 2 vaccine doses (89.8%, 95% CI 88.4% to 91.1%, p < 0.001). The seroprevalence of IgG antibodies among 7,252 HCWs was 85.2% (95% CI 83.5% to 86.7%). Important limitations of the study include the survey design, which was aimed to estimate seroprevalence at the national level and not at a sub-national level, and the non-participation of 19% of eligible individuals in the survey. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly two-thirds of individuals aged ≥6 years from the general population and 85% of HCWs had antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 by June-July 2021 in India. As one-third of the population is still seronegative, it is necessary to accelerate the coverage of COVID-19 vaccination among adults and continue adherence to non-pharmaceutical interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Rural Population , Urban Population , Young Adult
9.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 5(1): e001284, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501725

ABSTRACT

We retrospectively analysed the swab samples tested for COVID-19 from 7 March 2020 to 17 August 2021 at the Indian Council of Medical Research-Regional Medical Research Centre, Bhubaneswar, Odisha. 553 763 nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from individuals suspected with COVID-19 in Odisha state. 75 190 (13.6%) samples were positive by reverse transcription-PCR. There were 5988 (8%) cases in children and young people under 18 years old. Odisha reported 996 153 COVID-19 cases which resulted in 6985 deaths in adults and 36 in children and young people under 18 years old.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Child , Humans , India/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Specimen Handling
11.
J Med Virol ; 94(3): 1201-1205, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460221

ABSTRACT

In this study, we attempted to record the breakthrough cases reported through passive and voluntary reporting at various healthcare facilities from different districts of Odisha, their clinical presentation, requirement of hospitalization postinfection, and antibody titer against spike antigen. Nasopharyngeal swab and serum samples alongwith demographic, clinical presentation and requirement of hospitalization postinfection were collected from vaccinated individuals through passive and voluntary reporting to various healthcare facilities of Odisha state to detect the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus infection and quantitative estimation of antibody titers. A total of 274 samples were found to be positive after 14 days of receiving complete doses of the vaccines. More than 83.2% of the individuals were found to be symptomatic with 9.9% of those required hospitalization. The seropositivity in individuals receiving Covishield (96.7%) was significantly higher than in Covaxin (77.1%). Hospitalized patients were having less median antibody titers than individuals in home isolation. The median age for breakthrough infection among the referred cases was 47.0 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 28.0) with a significantly older age group among Covishield recipients. The median spike receptor binding domain IgG titer values for Covaxin and Covishield recipients were 213.5 AU/ml (IQR: 537.5) and 647.5 AU/ml (IQR: 1645.1), respectively. The results reported here highlight the need for systematic data capture for the breakthrough infections to monitor the emergence of any vaccine escape variants and to plan the next steps in the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) vaccine development by understanding the link between clinical protection and measured immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Humans , India/epidemiology , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Biotechniques ; 71(4): 510-515, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411518

ABSTRACT

Purity and integrity are two important criteria for any RNA extraction process to qualify the RNA for meaningful gene expression analysis. This study compares four commercially available RNA extraction kits using silica membrane and magnetic bead separation methods. The performance was evaluated in terms of both quantity (total RNA amount in µg/µl) and purity (260/280 ratio). The concentration and purity of each kit was significantly different from those of the others (p < 0.001). Although quantity obtained from Mag MAX is comparatively lower than QIAGEN, the quality is comparable as evident from real-time PCR performance. This study suggests that there are practical differences between these RNA extraction kits that should be taken into account while isolating RNA required for gene expression analysis.


Subject(s)
Magnets/chemistry , Membranes, Artificial , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Silicon Dioxide/chemistry , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
13.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 145-155, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351697

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Earlier serosurveys in India revealed seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) of 0.73% in May-June 2020 and 7.1% in August-September 2020. A third serosurvey was conducted between December 2020 and January 2021 to estimate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among the general population and healthcare workers (HCWs) in India. METHODS: The third serosurvey was conducted in the same 70 districts as the first and second serosurveys. For each district, at least 400 individuals aged ≥10 years from the general population and 100 HCWs from subdistrict-level health facilities were enrolled. Serum samples from the general population were tested for the presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against the nucleocapsid (N) and spike (S1-RBD) proteins of SARS-CoV-2, whereas serum samples from HCWs were tested for anti-S1-RBD. Weighted seroprevalence adjusted for assay characteristics was estimated. RESULTS: Of the 28,598 serum samples from the general population, 4585 (16%) had IgG antibodies against the N protein, 6647 (23.2%) had IgG antibodies against the S1-RBD protein, and 7436 (26%) had IgG antibodies against either the N protein or the S1-RBD protein. Weighted and assay-characteristic-adjusted seroprevalence against either of the antibodies was 24.1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 23.0-25.3%]. Among 7385 HCWs, the seroprevalence of anti-S1-RBD IgG antibodies was 25.6% (95% CI 23.5-27.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Nearly one in four individuals aged ≥10 years from the general population as well as HCWs in India had been exposed to SARS-CoV-2 by December 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Health Personnel , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies
14.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 35(7): e23835, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283749

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Active detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection through testing is elementary for the control of COVID-19 pandemic. The implementation of large-scale RT-PCR testing has led to a rise in the demand for testing kits whose availability is always a concern. OBJECTIVE: To find out the feasibility of pooled testing in a high-throughput platform. METHODOLOGY: Pooled testing was conducted in Roche cobas 6800 in 2 methods. Firstly, the simple two-stage testing algorithm was conducted for 1410 samples individually and then as pooled samples. Secondly, we evaluated the sensitivity of cobas 6800 for the detection of a single positive sample within a pool of negative samples. RESULTS: Implementing the five-sample Dorfman pooling to test 1410 samples, we identified 42 (2.9%) individual SARS-CoV-2-positive samples and 27 (9.5%) positive pool samples. The pooling strategy precisely identified all the positive samples. All individually negative samples were also accurately determined by pooling. There was 100% sensitivity of detecting positive samples in a pool of negative samples even up to 1:64 dilution. There was a threefold increase in total throughput in one-third of the cost per day. CONCLUSION: A high-throughput platform such as Cobas 6800 can effectively increase the testing capacity by twofold to threefold by adopting the pooled testing strategy for successful management of SARS-CoV-2 and helping in the containment of community transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
15.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e139, 2021 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269364

ABSTRACT

The study aims to estimate and compare the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) seroprevalence, the fraction of asymptomatic or subclinical infections in the population, determine the demographic risk factors and analyse the antibody development at different time points among adults in Bhubaneswar city, India. This was a serial three-round cross-sectional, community-based study where participants were selected from the residents of Bhubaneswar city using multi-stage random sampling. Blood samples were collected during household visits along with demographic and clinical data from every participant. Total anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody present in serum was assessed using the electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay platform. Temporal comparisons of the community seroprevalence were performed against the detected number of cumulative cases, active cases, recoveries and deaths. A total of 3693 participants were enrolled in this study with a cumulative non-response rate of 18.33% in all the three rounds. The gender-weighted seroprevalence for the city in the first round was 1.55% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-2.58), second round was 5.27% (95% CI 4.13-6.59) and in the third round was 49.04% (95% CI 46.39-51.68). In the first round, the seroprevalence was found to be highest in the elderly population, whereas the seroprevalence for the second and third phases was highest in the age group of 30-39 years. Seroprevalence showed an increasing trend over the three time periods, with the highest seropositivity rates among individuals sampled between 16 and 18 September 2020. By the third round, 93.93% of those who had previously been tested positive by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction had seroconversion and 46.57% of those who had been tested negative also showed seroconversion. Infection to case ratio during first round was 27.05, for second round and third round it was 5.62 and 17.91, respectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/blood , Cities/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroepidemiologic Studies
16.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234829

ABSTRACT

The number of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) cases is increasing in India. This study looks upon the geographic distribution of the virus clades and variants circulating in different parts of India between January and August 2020. The NPS/OPS from representative positive cases from different states and union territories in India were collected every month through the VRDLs in the country and analyzed using next-generation sequencing. Epidemiological analysis of the 689 SARS-CoV-2 clinical samples revealed GH and GR to be the predominant clades circulating in different states in India. The northern part of India largely reported the 'GH' clade, whereas the southern part reported the 'GR', with a few exceptions. These sequences also revealed the presence of single independent mutations-E484Q and N440K-from Maharashtra (first observed in March 2020) and Southern Indian States (first observed in May 2020), respectively. Furthermore, this study indicates that the SARS-CoV-2 variant (VOC, VUI, variant of high consequence and double mutant) was not observed during the early phase of virus transmission (January-August). This increased number of variations observed within a short timeframe across the globe suggests virus evolution, which can be a step towards enhanced host adaptation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Phylogeography/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , COVID-19/genetics , Female , Genome, Viral/genetics , Genomics/methods , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation/genetics , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10551, 2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233720

ABSTRACT

This was a population based cross-sectional study carried out to estimate and compare the seroprevalence, hidden prevalence and determine the demographic risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection among adults in the three largest cities of Odisha, India, and ascertain the association with the progression of the epidemic. The survey carried out in August 2020 in the three largest cities of the state of Odisha, India. Blood samples were collected from the residents using random sampling methods and tested for anti- SARS CoV-2 antibodies using an automated CLIA platform. A total of 4146 participants from the 3 cities of Bhubaneswar (BBS), Berhampur (BAM) and Rourkela (RKL) participated. The female to male participation ratio was 5.9:10 across the three cities. The gender weighted seroprevalence across the three cities was 20.78% (95% CI 19.56-22.05%). While females reported a higher seroprevalence (22.8%) as compared to males (18.8%), there was no significant difference in seroprevalence across age groups. A majority of the seropositive participants were asymptomatic (90.49%). The case to infection ratio on the date of serosurvey was 1:6.6 in BBS, 1:61 in BAM and 1:29.8 in RKL. The study found a high seroprevalence against COVID-19 in urban Odisha as well as high numbers of asymptomatic infections. The epidemic curves had a correlation with the seroprevalence.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Epidemics , Female , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroepidemiologic Studies
18.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2529-2533, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217383

ABSTRACT

There are very few studies in search of an alternate and convenient diagnostic tool which can substitute nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) specimen for detection of SARS-CoV-2. In the study we analyzed, the comparison and agreement between the feasibility of using the saliva in comparison to NPS for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2. A total number of 74 patients were enrolled for this study. We analyzed and compared the NPS and saliva specimen collected within 48 h after the symptom onset. We carried out real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, gene sequencing for the detection and determination SARS-CoV-2 specific genes. Phylogenetic tree was constructed to establish the isolation of viral RNA from saliva. We used the Bland-Altman model to identify the agreement between two specimens. This study showed a lower cycle threshold (CT ) mean value for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 ORF1 gene (mean, 27.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 25.62 to 28.52) in saliva methods than that of NPS (mean 28.24; 95% CI, 26.62 to 29.85) specimen although the difference is statistically nonsignificant (p > .05). Bland-Altman analysis produced relatively smaller bias and high agreement between these two clinical specimens. Phylogenetic analysis with the RdRp and S gene confirmed the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the saliva samples. Saliva represented a promising tool in COVID-19 diagnosis and the collection method would reduce the exposure risk of frontline health workers which is one of the major concerns in primary healthcare settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genes, Viral/genetics , Humans , India/epidemiology , Nasopharynx , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Specimen Handling
19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 104: 491-500, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1074770

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has affected the whole world, including Odisha, a state in eastern India. Many people have migrated to the state from different countries as well as other states during this SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The aim of this study was to analyse the receptor-binding domain (RBD) sequence of the spike protein from isolates collected from throat swab samples of COVID-19-positive patients and further to assess the RBD affinity for angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) of different species, including humans. METHODS: Whole-genome sequencing for 35 clinical SARS-CoV-2 isolates from COVID-19-positive patients was performed by ARTIC amplicon-based sequencing. Sequence analysis and phylogenetic analysis were performed for the spike region and the RBD region of all isolates. The interaction between the RBD and ACE2 of five different species was also analysed. RESULTS: The spike region of 32 isolates showed one or multiple alterations in nucleotide bases in comparison with the Wuhan reference strain. One of the identified mutations, at position 1204 (Ref A, RMRC 22 C), in the RBD coding region of the spike protein showed stronger binding affinity for human ACE2. Furthermore, RBDs of all the Indian isolates showed binding affinity for ACE2 of different species. CONCLUSION: As mutant RBD showed stronger interaction with human ACE2, it could potentially result in higher infectivity. The binding affinity of the RBDs for ACE2 of all five species studied suggests that the virus can infect a wide variety of animals, which could also act as natural reservoir for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/analysis , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sequence Analysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Whole Genome Sequencing , Animals , Binding Sites , Humans , India/epidemiology , Mutation , Phylogeny , Protein Binding , Protein Domains
20.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 594928, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972819

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus, has emerged as a global pandemic worldwide. In this study, we used ARTIC primers-based amplicon sequencing to profile 225 SARS-CoV-2 genomes from India. Phylogenetic analysis of 202 high-quality assemblies identified the presence of all the five reported clades 19A, 19B, 20A, 20B, and 20C in the population. The analyses revealed Europe and Southeast Asia as two major routes for introduction of the disease in India followed by local transmission. Interestingly, the19B clade was found to be more prevalent in our sequenced genomes (17%) compared to other genomes reported so far from India. Haplotype network analysis showed evolution of 19A and 19B clades in parallel from predominantly Gujarat state in India, suggesting it to be one of the major routes of disease transmission in India during the months of March and April, whereas 20B and 20C appeared to evolve from 20A. At the same time, 20A and 20B clades depicted prevalence of four common mutations 241 C > T in 5' UTR, P4715L, F942F along with D614G in the Spike protein. D614G mutation has been reported to increase virus shedding and infectivity. Our molecular modeling and docking analysis identified that D614G mutation resulted in enhanced affinity of Spike S1-S2 hinge region with TMPRSS2 protease, possibly the reason for increased shedding of S1 domain in G614 as compared to D614. Moreover, we also observed an increased concordance of G614 mutation with the viral load, as evident from decreased Ct value of Spike and the ORF1ab gene.

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