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1.
Curr Res Pharmacol Drug Discov ; 2: 100062, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556012

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an infectious disease that affects the respiratory system and is caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. It was first reported in Wuhan, China, on December 31, 2019, and has affected the entire world. This pandemic has caused serious health, economic and social problems. In this situation, the only solution to combat COVID-19 is to accelerate the development of antiviral drugs and vaccines to mitigate the virus and develop better antiviral methods and excellent diagnostic and prevention techniques. With the development of nanotechnology, nanoparticles are being introduced to control COVID-19. Graphene oxide (GO), an oxidized derivative of graphene, is currently used in the medical field to treat certain diseases such as cancer. It is characterized by very important antiviral properties that allow its use in treating certain infectious diseases. The GO antiviral mechanism is discussed by the virus inactivation and/or the host cell receptor or by the physicochemical destruction of viral species. Moreover, the very high surface/volume ratio of GO allows the fixation of biomolecules by simple absorption. This paper summarizes the different studies performed on GO's antiviral activities and discusses GO-based biosensors for virus detection and approaches for prevention.

2.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 652335, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526785

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It has a disastrous effect on mankind due to the contagious and rapid nature of its spread. Although vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 have been successfully developed, the proven, effective, and specific therapeutic molecules are yet to be identified for the treatment. The repurposing of existing drugs and recognition of new medicines are continuously in progress. Efforts are being made to single out plant-based novel therapeutic compounds. As a result, some of these biomolecules are in their testing phase. During these efforts, the whole-genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 has given the direction to explore the omics systems and approaches to overcome this unprecedented health challenge globally. Genome, proteome, and metagenome sequence analyses have helped identify virus nature, thereby assisting in understanding the molecular mechanism, structural understanding, and disease propagation. The multi-omics approaches offer various tools and strategies for identifying potential therapeutic biomolecules for COVID-19 and exploring the plants producing biomolecules that can be used as biopharmaceutical products. This review explores the available multi-omics approaches and their scope to investigate the therapeutic promises of plant-based biomolecules in treating SARS-CoV-2 infection.

3.
Curr Pharm Des ; 2022 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484937

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the novel coronavirus responsible for the current global pandemic, which first emerged in December 2019. This coronavirus has affected 217 countries worldwide, most of which have enacted non-remedial preventive measures, such as nationwide lockdowns, work from home, travel bans, and social isolation. Pharmacists, doctors, nurses, technologists, and other healthcare professionals have played pivotal roles during this pandemic. Unfortunately, confirmed drugs have not been identified for the treatment of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARSCoV2; however, favipiravir and remdesivir have been reported as promising antiviral drugs. Some vaccines have already been developed, and vaccination is ongoing globally. Various nanotechnologies are currently being developed in many countries for preventing SARS-CoV-2 spread and treating COVID-19 infections. In this article, we present an overview of the COVID-19 pandemic situation and discuss nanotechnology-based approaches and investigational therapeutics for COVID-19.

4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(42): 59570-59593, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401068

ABSTRACT

Emerging from Wuhan, China, SARS-CoV-2 is the new global threat that killed millions of people, and many are still suffering. This pandemic has not only affected people but also caused economic crisis throughout the world. Researchers have shown good progress in revealing the molecular insights of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and developing vaccines, but effective treatment against SARS-CoV-2-infected patients are yet to be found. Several vaccines are available and used in many countries, while many others are still in clinical or preclinical studies. However, this involves a long-term process, considering the safety procedures and requirements and their long-term protection capacity and in different age groups are still questionable. Therefore, at present, the drug repurposing of the existing therapeutics previously designed against other viral diseases seems to be the only practical approach to mitigate the current situation. The safety of most of these therapeutic agents has already been tested. Recent clinical reports revealed promising therapeutic efficiency of several drugs such as remdesivir, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, azithromycin, lopinavir/ritonavir, chloroquine, baricitinib, and cepharanthine. Besides, plasma therapies were used to treat patients and prevent fatal outcomes. Thus, in this article, we have summarized the epidemiological and clinical data from several clinical trials conducted since the beginning of the pandemic, emphasizing the efficiency of the known agents against SARS-CoV-2 and their harmful side effects on the human body as well as their environmental implications. This review shows a clear overview of the current pharmaceutical perspective on COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(4)2021 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305767

ABSTRACT

To date, the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide include viral infections, such as Ebola, influenza virus, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and recently COVID-19 disease, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Currently, we can count on a narrow range of antiviral drugs, especially older generation ones like ribavirin and interferon which are effective against viruses in vitro but can often be ineffective in patients. In addition to these, we have antiviral agents for the treatment of herpes virus, influenza virus, HIV and hepatitis virus. Recently, drugs used in the past especially against ebolavirus, such as remdesivir and favipiravir, have been considered for the treatment of COVID-19 disease. However, even if these drugs represent important tools against viral diseases, they are certainly not sufficient to defend us from the multitude of viruses present in the environment. This represents a huge problem, especially considering the unprecedented global threat due to the advancement of COVID-19, which represents a potential risk to the health and life of millions of people. The demand, therefore, for new and effective antiviral drugs is very high. This review focuses on three fundamental points: (1) presents the main threats to human health, reviewing the most widespread viral diseases in the world, thus describing the scenario caused by the disease in question each time and evaluating the specific therapeutic remedies currently available. (2) It comprehensively describes main phytochemical classes, in particular from plant foods, with proven antiviral activities, the viruses potentially treated with the described phytochemicals. (3) Consideration of the various applications of drug delivery systems in order to improve the bioavailability of these compounds or extracts. A PRISMA flow diagram was used for the inclusion of the works. Taking into consideration the recent dramatic events caused by COVID-19 pandemic, the cry of alarm that denounces critical need for new antiviral drugs is extremely strong. For these reasons, a continuous systematic exploration of plant foods and their phytochemicals is necessary for the development of new antiviral agents capable of saving lives and improving their well-being.

6.
Curr Pharm Des ; 27(33): 3502-3525, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115351

ABSTRACT

The pandemic, well-known as COVID-19, has been caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and it has distinct characteristics from other coronavirus-related epidemics. This pandemic has been ravaging the whole world for more than a year now, and no drugs or vaccines have been found to eliminate this virus from the infected people effectively; only physical measures like social distancing, hand washing and face-mask wearing have been taken to reduce its spread and very recently Veklury (remdesivir) has been permitted by the USFDA to manage the critical patients. This disease can be asymptomatic, but when it is symptomatic, it presents with respiratory problems and cold- or flu-like symptoms, which can be diagnosed with a chest CT and confirmed with RT-PCR tests. In this review, the taxonomy and structure of SARS-CoV-2 and history, transmission, epidemiology, pathology, clinical features and impacts of the COVID-19 have been discussed. A summary of possible drug targets, attempted physical and chemical measures, as well as vaccine candidates, has also been provided. How this coronavirus is different from other coronaviruses, the obstacles in managing this disease and the possibility of a second wave have also been reviewed. This review represents a wide range of information regarding COVID-19 and intends to be used as a comprehensive overview in this regard.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(30): 40431-40444, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1030736

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has affected the entire world with its infectious spread and mortality rate. The severe cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are characterized by hypoxia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. In the absence of any specific treatment, just the preventive and supportive care options are available. Therefore, much focus is given to assess the available therapeutic options not only to avoid acute respiratory failure and hypoxia but also to reduce the viral load to control the severity of the disease. The antimalarial drug hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is among the much-discussed drugs for the treatment and management of COVID-19 patients. This article reviews the therapeutic potential of HCQ in the treatment of COVID-19 based on the available in vitro and clinical evidence, current status of registered HCQ-based clinical trials investigating therapeutic options for COVID-19, and environmental implications of HCQ.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Mol Neurobiol ; 58(5): 1917-1931, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009203

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus (CoV), called novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), belongs to the Coronaviridae family which was originated from the sea market in Wuhan city in China, at the end of the year 2019. COVID-19 and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) are belonging to the same family (Coronaviridae). The current outbreak of COVID-19 creates public concern and threats all over the world and now it spreads out to more than 250 countries and territories. The researchers and scientists from all over the world are trying to find out the therapeutic strategies to abate the morbidity and mortality rate of the COVID-19 pandemic. The replication, spreading, and severity of SARS-CoV2 depend on environmental settings. Noteworthy, meteorological parameters are considered as crucial factors that affect respiratory infectious disorders, although the controversial effect of the meteorological parameter is exposed against COVID-19. Besides, COVID-19 accelerates the pathogenesis of the neurological disorders. However, the pathogenic mechanisms between COVID-19 and neurological disorders are still unclear. Hence, this review is focused on the genomics and ecology of SARS-CoV2 and elucidated the effects of climatic factors on the progression of COVID-19. This review also critically finds out the vulnerability between COVID-19 and neurological disorders based on the latest research data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Genetic Variation , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Comorbidity , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/genetics , Pandemics
9.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 563478, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-909021

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, a novel coronavirus (CoV) was found at the seafood market of Hubei province in Wuhan, China, and this virus was officially named coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) by World Health Organization (WHO). COVID-19 is mainly characterized by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV2) and creates public health concerns as well as significant threats to the economy around the world. Unfortunately, the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is unclear and there is no effective treatment of this newly life-threatening and devastating virus. Therefore, it is crucial to search for alternative methods that alleviate or inhibit the spread of COVID-19. In this review, we try to find out the etiology, epidemiology, symptoms as well as transmissions of this novel virus. We also summarize therapeutic interventions and suggest antiviral treatments, immune-enhancing candidates, general supplements, and CoV specific treatments that control replication and reproduction of SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).

10.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 582025, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890344

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of the COVID-2019 (coronavirus disease 2019) due to the infectious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has realized the requirement of alternative therapeutics to mitigate and alleviate this lethal infection. These alternative therapies are effective when they are started at the initial stage of the infection. Some drugs that were used in previous other related infections SARS-CoV-2003 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)-2012 could be potentially active against currently emerging SARS-CoV-2. This fact imparts some rationale of current interventions, in the absence of any specific therapeutics for SARS-CoV-2. It is imperative to focus on the available antimicrobial and adjunct therapies during the current emergency state and overcome the challenges associated with the absence of robust controlled studies. There is no established set of drugs to manage SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. However, closely following patients' conditions and responding with the dosage guidelines of available drugs may significantly impact our ability to slow down the infection. Of note, it depends upon the condition of the patients and associated comorbid; therefore, the health workers need to choose the drug combinations judiciously until COVID-19 specific drug or vaccine is developed with the collective scientific rigor. In this article, we reviewed the available antimicrobial drug, supportive therapies, and probable high importance vaccines for the COVID-19 treatment.

11.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 8: 616, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-686482

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related epidemic was first observed in Wuhan, China. In 2020, owing to the highly infectious and deadly nature of the virus, this widespread novel coronavirus disease 2019 (nCOVID-19) became a worldwide pandemic. Studies have revealed that various environmental factors including temperature, humidity, and air pollution may also affect the transmission pattern of COVID-19. Unfortunately, still, there is no specific drug that has been validated in large-scale studies to treat patients with confirmed nCOVID-19. However, remdesivir, an inhibitor of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), has appeared as an auspicious antiviral drug. Currently, a large-scale study on remdesivir (i.e., 200 mg on first day, then 100 mg once/day) is ongoing to evaluate its clinical efficacy to treat nCOVID-19. Good antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 was not observed with the use of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r). Nonetheless, the combination of umifenovir and LPV/r was found to have better antiviral activity. Furthermore, a combination of hydroxychloroquine (i.e., 200 mg 3 times/day) and azithromycin (i.e., 500 mg on first day, then 250 mg/day from day 2-5) also exhibited good activity. Currently, there are also ongoing studies to evaluate the efficacy of teicoplanin and monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Thus, in this article, we have analyzed the genetic diversity and molecular pathogenesis of nCOVID-19. We also present possible therapeutic options for nCOVID-19 patients.

12.
Life Sci ; 257: 118075, 2020 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640901

ABSTRACT

The novel corona virus disease has shaken the entire world with its deadly effects and rapid transmission rates, posing a significant challenge to the healthcare authorities to develop suitable therapeutic solution to save lives on earth. The review aims to grab the attention of the researchers all over the globe, towards the role of ACE2 in COVID-19 disease. ACE2 serves as a molecular target for the SARS-CoV-2, to enter the target cell, by interacting with the viral glycoprotein spikes. However, the complexity began when numerous studies identified the protective response of ACE2 in abbreviating the harmful effects of vasoconstrictor, anti-inflammatory peptide, angiotensin 2, by mediating its conversion to angiotensin-(1-7), which exercised antagonistic actions to angiotensin 2. Furthermore, certain investigations revealed greater resistance among children as compared to the geriatrics, towards COVID-19 infection, despite the elevated expression of ACE2 in pediatric population. Based upon such evidences, the review demonstrated possible therapeutic interventions, targeting both the protective and deleterious effects of ACE2 in COVID-19 disease, primarily inhibiting ACE2-virus interactions or administering soluble ACE2. Thus, the authors aim to provide an opportunity for the researchers to consider RAAS system to be a significant element in development of suitable treatment regime for COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Female , Geriatrics , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pandemics , Pediatrics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Virus Internalization
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