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1.
iScience ; 25(5): 104223, 2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783436

ABSTRACT

The effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on placental function is not well understood. Analysis of placentas from women who tested positive at delivery showed SARS-CoV-2 genomic and subgenomic RNA in 22 out of 52 placentas. Placentas from two mothers with symptomatic COVID-19 whose pregnancies resulted in adverse outcomes for the fetuses contained high levels of viral Alpha variant RNA. The RNA was localized to the trophoblasts that cover the fetal chorionic villi in direct contact with maternal blood. The intervillous spaces and villi were infiltrated with maternal macrophages and T cells. Transcriptome analysis showed an increased expression of chemokines and pathways associated with viral infection and inflammation. Infection of placental cultures with live SARS-CoV-2 and spike protein-pseudotyped lentivirus showed infection of syncytiotrophoblast and, in rare cases, endothelial cells mediated by ACE2 and Neuropilin-1. Viruses with Alpha, Beta, and Delta variant spikes infected the placental cultures at significantly greater levels.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324938

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infects less than 1% of cells in the human body, yet it can cause severe damage in a variety of organs. Thus, deciphering the non-cell autonomous effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection is imperative for understanding the cellular and molecular disruption it elicits. Neurological and cognitive defects are among the least understood symptoms of COVID-19 patients, with olfactory dysfunction being their most common sensory deficit. Here, we show that both in humans and hamsters SARS-CoV-2 infection causes widespread downregulation of olfactory receptors (OR) and of their signaling components. This non-cell autonomous effect coincides with a dramatic reorganization of the neuronal nuclear architecture, which results in dissipation of genomic OR compartments and elimination of genomic contact domains genomewide. Our data provide a novel mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 infection alters the cellular morphology and the transcriptome of cells it cannot infect, providing insight to its systemic effects in the nervous system and beyond.Funding Information: NIDCD 3R01DC018744-01S1 (SL, JO) National Institutes of Health grant, 4D Nucleome Consortium U01DA052783 (SL) Howard Hughes Medical Institute Faculty Scholar Award (SL), Zegar Family Foundation (SL).Ethics Approval Statement: The study was approved by the ethics and Institutional Review Board of Columbia University Medical Center (IRB AAAT0689, AAAS7370). LVG Golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) were treated in compliance with the rules and regulations of IACUC under protocol number PROTO202000113-20-0743.

3.
Cell ; 185(6): 1052-1064.e12, 2022 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664731

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infects less than 1% of cells in the human body, yet it can cause severe damage in a variety of organs. Thus, deciphering the non-cell-autonomous effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection is imperative for understanding the cellular and molecular disruption it elicits. Neurological and cognitive defects are among the least understood symptoms of COVID-19 patients, with olfactory dysfunction being their most common sensory deficit. Here, we show that both in humans and hamsters, SARS-CoV-2 infection causes widespread downregulation of olfactory receptors (ORs) and of their signaling components. This non-cell-autonomous effect is preceded by a dramatic reorganization of the neuronal nuclear architecture, which results in dissipation of genomic compartments harboring OR genes. Our data provide a potential mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 infection alters the cellular morphology and the transcriptome of cells it cannot infect, offering insight to its systemic effects in olfaction and beyond.


Subject(s)
Anosmia , COVID-19 , Animals , Cricetinae , Down-Regulation , Humans , Receptors, Odorant , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell
6.
Cell Metab ; 33(11): 2174-2188.e5, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446535

ABSTRACT

Individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 who also display hyperglycemia suffer from longer hospital stays, higher risk of developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and increased mortality. Nevertheless, the pathophysiological mechanism of hyperglycemia in COVID-19 remains poorly characterized. Here, we show that hyperglycemia is similarly prevalent among patients with ARDS independent of COVID-19 status. Yet among patients with ARDS and COVID-19, insulin resistance is the prevalent cause of hyperglycemia, independent of glucocorticoid treatment, which is unlike patients with ARDS but without COVID-19, where pancreatic beta cell failure predominates. A screen of glucoregulatory hormones revealed lower levels of adiponectin in patients with COVID-19. Hamsters infected with SARS-CoV-2 demonstrated a strong antiviral gene expression program in the adipose tissue and diminished expression of adiponectin. Moreover, we show that SARS-CoV-2 can infect adipocytes. Together these data suggest that SARS-CoV-2 may trigger adipose tissue dysfunction to drive insulin resistance and adverse outcomes in acute COVID-19.

7.
J Virol ; 95(23): e0125721, 2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410202

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the etiological agent of COVID-19, is characterized by a delay in type I interferon (IFN-I)-mediated antiviral defenses alongside robust cytokine production. Here, we investigate the underlying molecular basis for this imbalance and implicate virus-mediated activation of NF-κB in the absence of other canonical IFN-I-related transcription factors. Epigenetic and single-cell transcriptomic analyses show a selective NF-κB signature that was most prominent in infected cells. Disruption of NF-κB signaling through the silencing of the NF-κB transcription factor p65 or p50 resulted in loss of virus replication that was rescued upon reconstitution. These findings could be further corroborated with the use of NF-κB inhibitors, which reduced SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro. These data suggest that the robust cytokine production in response to SARS-CoV-2, despite a diminished IFN-I response, is the product of a dependency on NF-κB for viral replication. IMPORTANCE The COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant mortality and morbidity around the world. Although effective vaccines have been developed, large parts of the world remain unvaccinated while new SARS-CoV-2 variants keep emerging. Furthermore, despite extensive efforts and large-scale drug screenings, no fully effective antiviral treatment options have been discovered yet. Therefore, it is of the utmost importance to gain a better understanding of essential factors driving SARS-CoV-2 replication to be able to develop novel approaches to target SARS-CoV-2 biology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Interferon Type I/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcription Factor RelA/metabolism , Transcriptome , Virus Replication , A549 Cells , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Epigenomics , Gene Expression Regulation , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Signal Transduction , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcription Factor RelA/antagonists & inhibitors , Transcription Factor RelA/genetics , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Vero Cells
8.
Cell Metab ; 33(8): 1577-1591.e7, 2021 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240259

ABSTRACT

Recent clinical data have suggested a correlation between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and diabetes. Here, we describe the detection of SARS-CoV-2 viral antigen in pancreatic beta cells in autopsy samples from individuals with COVID-19. Single-cell RNA sequencing and immunostaining from ex vivo infections confirmed that multiple types of pancreatic islet cells were susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, eliciting a cellular stress response and the induction of chemokines. Upon SARS-CoV-2 infection, beta cells showed a lower expression of insulin and a higher expression of alpha and acinar cell markers, including glucagon and trypsin1, respectively, suggesting cellular transdifferentiation. Trajectory analysis indicated that SARS-CoV-2 induced eIF2-pathway-mediated beta cell transdifferentiation, a phenotype that could be reversed with trans-integrated stress response inhibitor (trans-ISRIB). Altogether, this study demonstrates an example of SARS-CoV-2 infection causing cell fate change, which provides further insight into the pathomechanisms of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Cell Transdifferentiation , Insulin-Secreting Cells/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Acetamides/pharmacology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , COVID-19/mortality , Cell Transdifferentiation/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cyclohexylamines/pharmacology , Cytokines/metabolism , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2/metabolism , Female , Glucagon , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Insulin/metabolism , Insulin-Secreting Cells/drug effects , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism , Insulin-Secreting Cells/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Signal Transduction , Tissue Culture Techniques , Trypsin/metabolism , Vero Cells , Young Adult
9.
Cell Stem Cell ; 28(7): 1205-1220.e7, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230788

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has caused unparalleled disruption of global behavior and significant loss of life. To minimize SARS-CoV-2 spread, understanding the mechanisms of infection from all possible routes of entry is essential. While aerosol transmission is thought to be the primary route of spread, viral particles have been detected in ocular fluid, suggesting that the eye may be a vulnerable point of viral entry. To this end, we confirmed SARS-CoV-2 entry factor and antigen expression in post-mortem COVID-19 patient ocular surface tissue and observed productive viral replication in cadaver samples and eye organoid cultures, most notably in limbal regions. Transcriptional analysis of ex vivo infected ocular surface cells and hESC-derived eye cultures revealed robust induction of NF-κB in infected cells as well as diminished type I/III interferon signaling. Together these data suggest that the eye can be directly infected by SARS-CoV-2 and implicate limbus as a portal for viral entry.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Human Embryonic Stem Cells , Adult , Epithelium , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 5(8): 815-829, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213929

ABSTRACT

The rapid repurposing of antivirals is particularly pressing during pandemics. However, rapid assays for assessing candidate drugs typically involve in vitro screens and cell lines that do not recapitulate human physiology at the tissue and organ levels. Here we show that a microfluidic bronchial-airway-on-a-chip lined by highly differentiated human bronchial-airway epithelium and pulmonary endothelium can model viral infection, strain-dependent virulence, cytokine production and the recruitment of circulating immune cells. In airway chips infected with influenza A, the co-administration of nafamostat with oseltamivir doubled the treatment-time window for oseltamivir. In chips infected with pseudotyped severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), clinically relevant doses of the antimalarial drug amodiaquine inhibited infection but clinical doses of hydroxychloroquine and other antiviral drugs that inhibit the entry of pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 in cell lines under static conditions did not. We also show that amodiaquine showed substantial prophylactic and therapeutic activities in hamsters challenged with native SARS-CoV-2. The human airway-on-a-chip may accelerate the identification of therapeutics and prophylactics with repurposing potential.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/drug therapy , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Cricetinae , Female , Green Fluorescent Proteins , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects
12.
Stem Cell Reports ; 16(3): 505-518, 2021 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081358

ABSTRACT

The host response to SARS-CoV-2, the etiologic agent of the COVID-19 pandemic, demonstrates significant interindividual variability. In addition to showing more disease in males, the elderly, and individuals with underlying comorbidities, SARS-CoV-2 can seemingly afflict healthy individuals with profound clinical complications. We hypothesize that, in addition to viral load and host antibody repertoire, host genetic variants influence vulnerability to infection. Here we apply human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-based models and CRISPR engineering to explore the host genetics of SARS-CoV-2. We demonstrate that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs4702), common in the population and located in the 3' UTR of the protease FURIN, influences alveolar and neuron infection by SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Thus, we provide a proof-of-principle finding that common genetic variation can have an impact on viral infection and thus contribute to clinical heterogeneity in COVID-19. Ongoing genetic studies will help to identify high-risk individuals, predict clinical complications, and facilitate the discovery of drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , 3' Untranslated Regions/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/genetics , Female , Furin/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/virology , Male , Neurons/virology , Peptide Hydrolases/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vero Cells
13.
Immunity ; 54(3): 557-570.e5, 2021 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082008

ABSTRACT

The emergence and spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in significant global morbidity, mortality, and societal disruption. A better understanding of virus-host interactions may potentiate therapeutic insights toward limiting this infection. Here we investigated the dynamics of the systemic response to SARS-CoV-2 in hamsters by histological analysis and transcriptional profiling. Infection resulted in consistently high levels of virus in the upper and lower respiratory tracts and sporadic occurrence in other distal tissues. A longitudinal cohort revealed a wave of inflammation, including a type I interferon (IFN-I) response, that was evident in all tissues regardless of viral presence but was insufficient to prevent disease progression. Bolstering the antiviral response with intranasal administration of recombinant IFN-I reduced viral disease, prevented transmission, and lowered inflammation in vivo. This study defines the systemic host response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and supports use of intranasal IFN-I as an effective means of early treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Interferon Type I/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , Biopsy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Cricetinae , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Expression Profiling , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interferon Type I/genetics , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Organ Specificity/immunology , Virulence , Virus Replication/immunology
14.
Nature ; 589(7841): 270-275, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065893

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need to create novel models using human disease-relevant cells to study severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) biology and to facilitate drug screening. Here, as SARS-CoV-2 primarily infects the respiratory tract, we developed a lung organoid model using human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC-LOs). The hPSC-LOs (particularly alveolar type-II-like cells) are permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and showed robust induction of chemokines following SARS-CoV-2 infection, similar to what is seen in patients with COVID-19. Nearly 25% of these patients also have gastrointestinal manifestations, which are associated with worse COVID-19 outcomes1. We therefore also generated complementary hPSC-derived colonic organoids (hPSC-COs) to explore the response of colonic cells to SARS-CoV-2 infection. We found that multiple colonic cell types, especially enterocytes, express ACE2 and are permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Using hPSC-LOs, we performed a high-throughput screen of drugs approved by the FDA (US Food and Drug Administration) and identified entry inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2, including imatinib, mycophenolic acid and quinacrine dihydrochloride. Treatment at physiologically relevant levels of these drugs significantly inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection of both hPSC-LOs and hPSC-COs. Together, these data demonstrate that hPSC-LOs and hPSC-COs infected by SARS-CoV-2 can serve as disease models to study SARS-CoV-2 infection and provide a valuable resource for drug screening to identify candidate COVID-19 therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Colon/cytology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Lung/cytology , Organoids/drug effects , Organoids/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Colon/drug effects , Colon/virology , Drug Approval , Female , Heterografts/drug effects , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Lung/drug effects , Lung/virology , Male , Mice , Organoids/cytology , Organoids/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration , Viral Tropism , Virus Internalization/drug effects
15.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1648

ABSTRACT

Viruses are efficient metabolic engineers that actively rewire host metabolic pathways to support their lifecycle. Charting SARS-CoV-2 induced metabolic changes

16.
Immunity ; 53(3): 672-684.e11, 2020 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-797268

ABSTRACT

Autoinflammatory disease can result from monogenic errors of immunity. We describe a patient with early-onset multi-organ immune dysregulation resulting from a mosaic, gain-of-function mutation (S703I) in JAK1, encoding a kinase essential for signaling downstream of >25 cytokines. By custom single-cell RNA sequencing, we examine mosaicism with single-cell resolution. We find that JAK1 transcription was predominantly restricted to a single allele across different cells, introducing the concept of a mutational "transcriptotype" that differs from the genotype. Functionally, the mutation increases JAK1 activity and transactivates partnering JAKs, independent of its catalytic domain. S703I JAK1 is not only hypermorphic for cytokine signaling but also neomorphic, as it enables signaling cascades not canonically mediated by JAK1. Given these results, the patient was treated with tofacitinib, a JAK inhibitor, leading to the rapid resolution of clinical disease. These findings offer a platform for personalized medicine with the concurrent discovery of fundamental biological principles.


Subject(s)
Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases/genetics , Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases/pathology , Janus Kinase 1/genetics , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/genetics , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Adolescent , COVID-19/mortality , Catalytic Domain/genetics , Cell Line , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Gain of Function Mutation/genetics , Genotype , HEK293 Cells , Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases/drug therapy , Humans , Janus Kinase 1/antagonists & inhibitors , Mosaicism , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Precision Medicine/methods , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Signal Transduction/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy
17.
Cell ; 181(5): 1036-1045.e9, 2020 05 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-72372

ABSTRACT

Viral pandemics, such as the one caused by SARS-CoV-2, pose an imminent threat to humanity. Because of its recent emergence, there is a paucity of information regarding viral behavior and host response following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here we offer an in-depth analysis of the transcriptional response to SARS-CoV-2 compared with other respiratory viruses. Cell and animal models of SARS-CoV-2 infection, in addition to transcriptional and serum profiling of COVID-19 patients, consistently revealed a unique and inappropriate inflammatory response. This response is defined by low levels of type I and III interferons juxtaposed to elevated chemokines and high expression of IL-6. We propose that reduced innate antiviral defenses coupled with exuberant inflammatory cytokine production are the defining and driving features of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , RNA Viruses/immunology , Animals , COVID-19 , Cells, Cultured , Chemokines/genetics , Chemokines/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation/virology , Interferons/genetics , Interferons/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , RNA Viruses/classification , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcription, Genetic
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