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Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(3)2023 Mar 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267372


(1) Background: The high incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in vaccinated persons underscores the importance of individualized re-vaccination. PanIg antibodies that act against the S1/-receptor binding domain quantified in serum by a routine diagnostic test (ECLIA, Roche) can be used to gauge the individual ex vivo capacity of SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. However, that test is not adapted to mutations in the S1/-receptor binding domain, having accumulated in SARS-CoV-2 variants. Therefore, it might be unsuited to determine immune-reactivity against SARS-CoV-2 BA.5.1. (2) Method: To address this concern, we re-investigated sera obtained six months after second vaccinations with un-adapted mRNA vaccine Spikevax (Moderna). We related serum levels of panIg against the S1/-receptor binding domain quantified by the un-adapted ECLIA with full virus neutralization capacity against SARS-CoV-2 B.1 or SARS-CoV-2 BA5.1. (3) Results: 92% of the sera exhibited sufficient neutralization capacity against the B.1 strain. Only 20% of the sera sufficiently inhibited the BA5.1 strain. Sera inhibiting BA5.1 could not be distinguished from non-inhibiting sera by serum levels of panIg against the S1/-receptor binding domain quantified by the un-adapted ECLIA. (4) Conclusion: Quantitative serological tests for an antibody against the S1/-receptor binding domain are unsuited as vaccination companion diagnostics, unless they are regularly adapted to mutations that have accumulated in that domain.

Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917858


PURPOSE: We describe a diagnostic procedure suitable for scheduling (re-)vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) according to individual state of humoral immunization. METHODS: To clarify the relation between quantitative antibody measurements and humoral ex vivo immune responsiveness, we monitored 124 individuals before, during and six months after vaccination with Spikevax (Moderna, Cambridge, MA, USA). Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike (S1) protein receptor-binding domain (S1-AB) and against nucleocapsid antigens were measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay (Roche). Virus-neutralizing activities were determined by surrogate assays (NeutraLISA, Euroimmune; cPass, GenScript). Neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 in cell culture (full virus NT) served as an ex vivo correlate for humoral immune responsiveness. RESULTS: Vaccination responses varied considerably. Six months after the second vaccination, participants still positive for the full virus NT were safely determined by S1-AB levels ≥1000 U/mL. The full virus NT-positive fraction of participants with S1-AB levels <1000 U/mL was identified by virus-neutralizing activities >70% as determined by surrogate assays (NeutraLISA or cPas). Participants that were full virus NT-negative and presumably insufficiently protected could thus be identified by a sensitivity of >83% and a specificity of >95%. CONCLUSION: The described diagnostic strategy possibly supports individualized (re-)vaccination schedules based on simple and rapid measurement of serum-based SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels. Our data apply only to WUHAN-type SARS-CoV-2 virus and the current version of the mRNA vaccine from Moderna (Cambridge, MA, USA). Adaptation to other vaccines and more recent SARS-CoV-2 strains will require modification of cut-offs and re-evaluation of sensitivity/specificity.

Eur J Med Res ; 26(1): 107, 2021 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412355


BACKGROUND: COVID-19, the pandemic disease caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2, may take highly variable clinical courses, ranging from symptom-free and pauci-symptomatic to fatal disease. The goal of the current study was to assess the association of COVID-19 clinical courses controlled by patients' adaptive immune responses without progression to severe disease with patients' Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) genetics, AB0 blood group antigens, and the presence or absence of near-loss-of-function delta 32 deletion mutant of the C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5). PATIENT AND METHODS: An exploratory observational study including 157 adult COVID-19 convalescent patients was performed with a median follow-up of 250 days. The impact of different HLA genotypes, AB0 blood group antigens, and the CCR5 mutant CD195 were investigated for their role in the clinical course of COVID-19. In addition, this study addressed levels of severity and morbidity of COVID-19. The association of the immunogenetic background parameters were further related to patients' humoral antiviral immune response patterns by longitudinal observation. RESULTS: Univariate HLA analyses identified putatively protective HLA alleles (HLA class II DRB1*01:01 and HLA class I B*35:01, with a trend for DRB1*03:01). They were associated with reduced durations of disease instead decreased (rather than increased) total anti-S IgG levels. They had a higher virus neutralizing capacity compared to non-carriers. Conversely, analyses also identified HLA alleles (HLA class II DQB1*03:02 und HLA class I B*15:01) not associated with such benefit in the patient cohort of this study. Hierarchical testing by Cox regression analyses confirmed the significance of the protective effect of the HLA alleles identified (when assessed in composite) in terms of disease duration, whereas AB0 blood group antigen heterozygosity was found to be significantly associated with disease severity (rather than duration) in our cohort. A suggestive association of a heterozygous CCR5 delta 32 mutation status with prolonged disease duration was implied by univariate analyses but could not be confirmed by hierarchical multivariate testing. CONCLUSION: The current study shows that the presence of HLA class II DRB1*01:01 and HLA class I B*35:01 is of even stronger association with reduced disease duration in mild and moderate COVID-19 than age or any other potential risk factor assessed. Prospective studies in larger patient populations also including novel SARS-CoV-2 variants will be required to assess the impact of HLA genetics on the capacity of mounting protective vaccination responses in the future.

ABO Blood-Group System/genetics , COVID-19/etiology , HLA Antigens/genetics , Receptors, CCR5/genetics , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , HLA-DRB1 Chains/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Morbidity , Mutation , Severity of Illness Index