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Biomedical Research and Therapy ; 7(7):3890-3897, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-802893

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, a zoonotic virus, emerged in China causes Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) Senior citizens and people with co-infections, genetic diseases, immune-compromised states, and cardiovascular diseases are at higher risk There is no approved vaccine or drug available to treat COVID-19, although a few antivirals, interferon, and other drugs have reduced viral load in infected patients However, these drugs have not been significantly effective in European countries More than 40 different strains of SARS-CoV-2 have been detected in various parts of the world;they might have adapted themselves to the environmental conditions and have become resistant to therapeutic strategies Many developed and developing countries are facing shortages of surgical masks and other protection tools So far, the strategies developed by Chinese authorities have efficiently mitigated the SARS-CoV-2 transmission and limited mortality rate to less than 4%, with more than 78,000 people recovered from COVID-19 This review article highlights the pandemic conditions in different parts of the world, as well as possible reasons behind minimal COVID-19 infections and the high mortality rates It will discuss information about China's strategies to cope with SARS-CoV-2 which can help other countries to mitigate viral spread and infection

2.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1259-1268, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-342833

ABSTRACT

Quantitative real time PCR (RT-PCR) is widely used as the gold standard for clinical detection of SARS-CoV-2. However, due to the low viral load specimens and the limitations of RT-PCR, significant numbers of false negative reports are inevitable, which results in failure to timely diagnose, cut off transmission, and assess discharge criteria. To improve this situation, an optimized droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) was used for detection of SARS-CoV-2, which showed that the limit of detection of ddPCR is significantly lower than that of RT-PCR. We further explored the feasibility of ddPCR to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA from 77 patients, and compared with RT-PCR in terms of the diagnostic accuracy based on the results of follow-up survey. 26 patients of COVID-19 with negative RT-PCR reports were reported as positive by ddPCR. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, negative likelihood ratio (NLR) and accuracy were improved from 40% (95% CI: 27-55%), 100% (95% CI: 54-100%), 100%, 16% (95% CI: 13-19%), 0.6 (95% CI: 0.48-0.75) and 47% (95% CI: 33-60%) for RT-PCR to 94% (95% CI: 83-99%), 100% (95% CI: 48-100%), 100%, 63% (95% CI: 36-83%), 0.06 (95% CI: 0.02-0.18), and 95% (95% CI: 84-99%) for ddPCR, respectively. Moreover, 6/14 (42.9%) convalescents were detected as positive by ddPCR at 5-12 days post discharge. Overall, ddPCR shows superiority for clinical diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 to reduce the false negative reports, which could be a powerful complement to the RT-PCR.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , False Negative Reactions , Humans , Limit of Detection , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Viral Load/methods
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