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1.
European Psychiatry ; 65(Supplement 1):S254, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2153862

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Despite the fact that adolescents have been at higher risk of distress during the COVID-19 pandemic, the effect of pandemic on psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) is not well described. Objective(s): The study's objective is to evaluate if PLEs are induced in young individuals aged 18-24 during the pandemic. Method(s):A total of 201 college students from Pakistan (ages 18-24) were recruited for a cross-sectional research. We investigated the incidence of PLEs in Pakistan during the pandemic, their links to socio-demographic factors, COVID-19-related characteristics, depression, anxiety, and sleep difficulties. Community Assessment of Psychic Experience's positive symptom component (CAPE), Patient Health Questionnaire, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale, and IBM SPSS 25 were used. Result(s): CAPE-Frequency and CAPE-stress were positively associated with PHQ total (p<0.0010);GAD total (p<0.001);time spent indoors due to COVID-19 (p<0.001). Psychiatric disorder other than bipolar disorder or psychosis (p<0.001 for CAPE-frequency and stress), family history of psychiatric disorders (p<0.001 for CAPE-frequency and stress), chronic medical disease (p=0.021 CAPE-frequency and p=0.026 CAPE-stress), illegal drug usage (p<0.001 for CAPE-frequency and stress) were associated with CAPE-Frequency and CAPE-stress. In linear stepwise regression analysis, the best model predicted CAPE-Frequency explained 77.4% of variance with the following variables: PHQ total (B=0.552, SE= 0.08, t=6.909, p<0.001), GAD total (p<0.001), duration at home (p<0.001), and psychiatric disorder in family (p<0.001). Conclusion(s): PLEs have been linked with anxiety and depression during the pandemic. Individuals with a mental condition, family history of psychiatric disorder, chronic medical illness, illicit drug use, and increased time spent at home experienced more PLEs and stress.

2.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(8):460-462, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2091772

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aimed to assess the outcomes experienced by patients diagnosed with mucormycosis linked with COVID-19 while they were hospitalized. Study Design: Retrospective study Place and Duration: This study was carried out at Sardar Begum Dental College from January, 2022 to June 2022. Method(s): There were 215 patients of both genders had age 18-80 years were presented in this study. Included patients had confirmed coronavirus disease with symptoms of mucormycosis. Patients were provided informed written consent for detailed demographics. Clinical and laboratory outcomes among all cases were assessed. We used SPSS 22.0 to analyze all data. Result(s): There were majority males 165 (76.7%) and 50 (23.3%) females in this study. Mean age of the patients was 45.6+/-17.53 years and had mean BMI 26.13+/-8.17 kg/m2. We found that diabetes mellitus was the most common co morbidity in 140 (65.1%) cases, followed by hypertension in 85 (39.5%) cases. Frequency of rhino orbital mucormycosis was found in 110 (51.2%) cases, sinuses in 70 (32.6%) cases and cerebral in 35 (16.3%) cases. Majority of the cases were treated by steroid. Mean hospitalization was 16.8+/-7.67 days. Frequency of died patients was 28 (13.02%) because of CKD, renal dysfunction and orbital involvement. Conclusion(s): We concluded in this study that rhino-orbital involvement, CKD and renal dysfunction were a significantly risk factors for mortality among patients of COVID-19 with mucormycosis. Copyright © 2022 Lahore Medical And Dental College. All rights reserved.

3.
European psychiatry : the journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists ; 65(Suppl 1):S254-S254, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2073904

ABSTRACT

Introduction Despite the fact that adolescents have been at higher risk of distress during the COVID-19 pandemic, the effect of pandemic on psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) is not well described. Objectives The study’s objective is to evaluate if PLEs are induced in young individuals aged 18-24 during the pandemic. Methods A total of 201 college students from Pakistan (ages 18-24) were recruited for a cross-sectional research. We investigated the incidence of PLEs in Pakistan during the pandemic, their links to socio-demographic factors, COVID-19-related characteristics, depression, anxiety, and sleep difficulties. Community Assessment of Psychic Experience’s positive symptom component (CAPE), Patient Health Questionnaire, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale, and IBM SPSS 25 were used. Results CAPE-Frequency and CAPE-stress were positively associated with PHQ total (p<0.0010);GAD total (p<0.001);time spent indoors due to COVID-19 (p<0.001). Psychiatric disorder other than bipolar disorder or psychosis (p<0.001 for CAPE-frequency and stress), family history of psychiatric disorders (p<0.001 for CAPE-frequency and stress), chronic medical disease (p=0.021 CAPE-frequency and p=0.026 CAPE-stress), illegal drug usage (p<0.001 for CAPE-frequency and stress) were associated with CAPE-Frequency and CAPE-stress. In linear stepwise regression analysis, the best model predicted CAPE-Frequency explained 77.4% of variance with the following variables: PHQ total (B=0.552, SE= 0.08, t=6.909, p<0.001), GAD total (p<0.001), duration at home (p<0.001), and psychiatric disorder in family (p<0.001). Conclusions PLEs have been linked with anxiety and depression during the pandemic. Individuals with a mental condition, family history of psychiatric disorder, chronic medical illness, illicit drug use, and increased time spent at home experienced more PLEs and stress. Disclosure No significant relationships.

4.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(8):403-406, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067753

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has affected millions of individuals globally over the last three years and is spreading continuously. In view of different studies and clinical findings, patients suffering with COVID-19 frequently have deranged liver function tests (LFTs), but the clinical significance of this finding is debatable. Objective(s): The present study was aimed to estimate the prevalence, features, and clinical significance of deranged LFTs in COVID-19 infected individuals, who were hospitalized but were not critically ill. Method(s): We conducted a cross sectional from May 2021 to December 2021 at The Akbar Niazi Teaching Hospital Islamabd. A total of 250 COVID-19 patients were included in the current study. The patient's blood samples were collected to get laboratory results, which included LFTs. LFTs were performed at the time of admission and every 5 +/- 2 day throughout the stay. The outcome measure was either death or transfer of the patients to an intensive care unit. Result(s): At the time of admission, 160 patients (64%) showed deranged LFTs. Individuals with deranged LFTs experienced more severe inflammation, swelling, and organ damage than those who didn't. Patients with deranged LFTs had a greater proportion of transfer to the ICU (81 vs 17), hospital stay (17 vs 7 days), and death (17 vs 5) than those with normal LFTs. Conclusion(s): The results of the current investigation demonstrated that LFTs data might forecast the degree of illness in patients with COVID-19 infections at the time of admission and during their hospital stay. Copyright © 2022 Lahore Medical And Dental College. All rights reserved.

5.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(7):485-487, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033625

ABSTRACT

Background: Because of the recent outbreak of Covid-19, the globe is now facing a number of difficult challenges. The morbidity and mortality rate varies depending upon numerous factors. Objective: The objective of the study was to find out the mortality and morbidity rate of Covid-19 in a tertiary care hospital of Swat Methodology: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at the Department of Pathology, Swat Teaching Hospital, Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkha Pakistan for duration of one year from April 2020 to March 2021. Nasopharyngeal or Oropharyngeal swabs were taken from all the enrolled patients and sent to the national institute of health Islamabad or swat public health laboratory for the diagnosis of Covid-19. The rate of morbidity and mortality for all the enrolled patients was recorded. All the data analysis was done by using IBM SPSS version 23. Results: In the current study, totally 11609 patients were enrolled. There were 7329 (63.13%) males and 4280 (36.87%) females. The overall morbidity rate of covid-19 was 18.25% (n= 2089) whereas the overall mortality rate was13.16% (n=275) patients. Conclusion: Our study concludes that the rate of morbidity and mortality of covid-19 is high in district Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The burden of covid-19 was high in males as compared to females and the mortality rate increases with the increase in age. All the people residing in the district Swat should be vaccinated to decrease both the morbidity and mortality rate of covid-19.

6.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(3):783-786, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1885022

ABSTRACT

Background: As a result of the COVID-19 epidemic, many people's lives and livelihoods are at risk. All aspects of everyday life, including education, have been affected by the epidemic. Objective: As a result, we performed this cross-sectional study to learn more about how students from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa feel about COVID-19. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in which respondents completed an online, self-administered form to get the information. Six questions deal with socio-demographics, fourteen ask about knowledge, seven ask about attitude, and eight ask about practice. Raosoft's sample size calculator was used to calculate the final sample size. Results: Five thousand participants, comprising 2250 (45%) men and 2,750 (55%) women from all across the nation, completed this poll. Analysis of the data was done using a chi-square test. Almost all of the students 4750 (95 percent) were aware that COVID-19 is caused by a virus and that it is a respiratory illness 4600 (92 percent). During the lockout, many students continued to see their family members 2,750 (55 percent), and their family members continued to visit them at home 2950 (59 percent). The students' answers to particular questions concerning the spread of the virus differed greatly. Although (p 0.01), women had more awareness about how to avoid illness transmission from patients who had been infected with the virus. Conclusion: In the wake of the COVID-19 epidemic, the vast majorities of college students were well-prepared, had a positive outlook, and were actively practicing their knowledge and skills. Aside from demographics and gender, the KAP scores also vary by family size. During times of crisis, it's critical to keep the public informed about the need to practice preventive practices.

7.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):113-114, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880091

ABSTRACT

Background: Soluble Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) constitutes an attractive therapeutic candidate with natural resistance to viral escape. To date, ACE2-Fcs, dimeric forms of soluble ACE2, were mostly tested as robust SARS-CoV-2 neutralizers but their potential as antiviral agents capable of Fc-effector functions is largely unknown and has not been tested for effectiveness in vivo, in any model of SARS-CoV2 infection. Methods: We used structure-guided design to select ACE2 mutations that improve SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) affinity and remove angiotensin enzymatic activity. ACE2-Fc variants were engineered into a human IgG1 or IgG3 backbone and produced in mammalian HEK293 cells. S binding was tested by ELISA and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Mutational effects were validated by X-Ray crystallography. Neutralization activities were measured against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) using an in vitro pseudovirus (PsV) assay and dynamic bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) were also quantified using established methods (1, 2). A K18-hACE2 transgenic mouse model challenged by lethal SARS-CoV-2 nLuc infection (3) was used for in vivo evaluation of prophylactic and therapeutic administration of engineered ACE2-Fcs, as monitored by dynamic BLI. Results: Our lead variant, ACE2740 LFMYQY2HA-Fc GASDALIE, increased RBD binding by ∼7-13 fold as compared to wild type, cross-neutralized SARS-CoV-2 VOCs with an IC50 range of 0.23-2.06 nM and mediated robust ADCC and ADCP in vitro. When tested in humanized K18-hACE2 mice, in either a prophylatic or a multi-dosage therapeutic setting, our lead ACE2-Fc variant provided protection from lethal SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our studies in K18-hACE2 mouse model revealed that efficient in vivo efficacy of ACE2-Fcs under prophylaxis or therapeutic settings required Fc-effector functions in addition to neutralization. Conclusion: Our data confirm the utility of engineered ACE2-Fcs as valuable SARS-CoV-2 antivirals and demonstrate that the efficient ACE2-Fc therapeutic activity required both neutralization and Fc-effector functions.

8.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):114, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1879983

ABSTRACT

Background: Both neutralizing activity and Fc-mediated effector functions of antibodies are believed to contribute to protection against SARS-CoV-2. However, it is unclear if antibody effector functions alone could protect against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: We isolated CV3-13 from a convalescent individual with potent Fc-mediated effector functions. Neutralization capacity of this antibody was measured by both a pseudovirus neutralization assay and an authentic virus microneutralization assay. We mutated the Fc-portion of CV3-13 to enhance (GASDALIE) or reduce (LALA) its capacity to mediate antibody dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Structural analysis of CV3-13 was done by cryo-EM to characterize its epitope and its angle of approach. Finally, CV3-13 and CV3-13 GASDALIE were used in vivo in a K18-hACE2 transgenic mouse model challenged with SARS-CoV-2-nLuc to see if they altered viral replication and/or contributed to protection against SARS-CoV-2. Results: While CV3-13 did not neutralize SARS-CoV-2, it demonstrated nanomolar affinity towards the SARS-CoV-2 Spike and mediated strong ADCC. The cryo-EM structure of CV3-13 in complex with the SARS-CoV-2 Spike revealed that the antibody bound to a novel NTD epitope that partially overlapped with a frequently mutated NTD supersite in SARS-CoV-2 variants. Interestingly, this angle of approach was not observed for previously described NTD-directed antibodies. While CV3-13 did not alter the replication dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in a K18-hACE2 transgenic mouse model, a Fc-enhanced CV3-13 significantly delayed neuroinvasion and death in prophylactic settings. Conclusion: CV3-13 represents a new class of non-neutralizing NTD-directed mAbs that can mediate Fc-effector functions both in vitro and in vivo. While effector functions alone did not protect K18-hACE2 mice from SARS-CoV-2-nLuc challenge, our data indicate that along with neutralization, additional antibody properties including Fc-mediated effector functions contribute to limiting viral spread and aid in fighting SARS-CoV-2 infection.

9.
Frontiers in Environmental Science ; 10:13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1855341

ABSTRACT

Transportation demand management is a successful complement to urban infrastructure. The emergence of shared mobility strategies such as car sharing offers sustainable mobility in urban areas. Car sharing has launched in different cities worldwide to mitigate severe transportation problems such as traffic congestion, air pollution, and traffic safety. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the intentions and preferences of travelers toward car sharing services in Djibouti, Africa. The data was collected through an online stated preference (SP) survey. The SP survey included the awareness of car sharing services, attributes related to transport modes, and demographic characteristics. A total of 600 respondents were received. In this study, we employed the multinomial logit (MNL) model to travel mode choice modeling and compared the results with the AdaBoost algorithm. The MNL model results showed that generic attributes such as travel time, travel cost, maintenance charges, and membership fees were found significant. In addition, several demographic characteristics like gender, education, and income were also found significant. The modeling and prediction performances of the MNL model and AdaBoost algorithm were compared using multi-class predictive errors. According to the goodness-of-fit results, the AdaBoost algorithm achieved overall higher prediction accuracy than the MNL model. This study could be helpful to transport planners and policymakers for the implementation of car-sharing services in urban areas.

10.
BJPsych International ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1741969

ABSTRACT

Healthcare workers have faced an unprecedented workload in overstretched health facilities during the COVID-19 pandemic, and we describe various initiatives to support them. Psychological, financial and peer support, accommodation and meal services, proper personal protective equipment, applause and gratitude in the community, spiritual and religious life, child care and volunteering were identified. The potential effects of the COVID-19 pandemic - permanent stress, burnout and other mental health problems among healthcare professionals - can be expected to grow. Continued monitoring is essential to bolster resilience among healthcare workers and prevent the possible consequences for their mental health. Copyright © The Author(s), 2022. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of the Royal College of Psychiatrists.

11.
Advancements in Life Sciences ; 8(4):368-373, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1711056

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) has appeared as a deadly pandemic affecting most of the countries across the world. The disease has caught humanity unprepared;therefore, there has been a lack of awareness about the causes, and transmission and mortality rates. It has also affected the overall socioeconomics from individual to worldwide levels. COVID-19 is an unprecedented and first-time challenge for Pakistan and a lockdown imposed by the Government of Pakistan has further devastated the economy of the country. This online survey was conducted to know the effects of the Covid-19 pandemic on the social life and economic status of the people of Pakistan. In this article, we mainly focused on teachers and students from different Universities of Pakistan for data generation because they can provide better information due to the use of modern technologies as a source of information. Methods: An online questionnaire survey covering 11 parameters including age, gender, employment status, mortality rate, education, marital status and, information about the pathogen responsible for the disease was filled by 1260 individuals from Pakistan. Results: The results obtained show that 56.6% of the responders were males,43.4% were females, 59.9% were unmarried, 37.7% were graduate students and, 48.7% unemployed. Most of the responders (55.6%) said that COVID-19 negatively affected the jobs of the people. We found (93%) of the responders with good knowledge about COVID-19. Conclusion: We conclude from the results that most of the responders were males, educated and they knew the pathogenic effect of the COVID-19 virus on humans. These results also show that the disease has drastically affected the economy and social life of the people of Pakistan.

12.
Circulation ; 144(SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1629419

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Myocardial injury is associated with poor outcomes in COVID-19 positive patients. We have limited data about gender-based differences, in terms of outcomes in COVID-19 associated myocardial injury, especially from low to middle income country. Hypothesis: Myocardial injury in COVID-19 positive patients has the same impact on outcomes in either gender. Methods: We prospectively collected data of patients admitted with COVID 19 (nasopharyngeal PCR positive) and myocardial injury (hsTrop I>99th percentile) at Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH), Karachi, Pakistan from 26 Feburary'2020 to 26 November'2020. Both genders were compared in terms of presentation, complications, and mortality. Calculations were done separately for each variable between two groups keeping the significant criteria of p-value less than or equal to 0.05. Result: Among 171 patients fulfilling inclusion criteria, 28.07% (n=48) were female and 72% (n=123) were male. Baseline demographics demonstrated that hypertension was significantly high among females as compared to male patients (87.5% Female vs 65% Male, p=0.004). During the hospital stay, the need for supplemental oxygen, Noninvasive ventilation, and mechanical ventilation was significantly higher in males compared to females. A statistically non-significant trend towards increased mortality was noted in males. Conclusion: Our study signifies that COVID-19 associated myocardial injury in males is associated with worse hospital course as compare to females. The length of hospital stay, complications such as ARDS, and requirement of invasive and non-invasive ventilatory support were higher in males as compared to females. Further studies evaluating the cause of disparate hospital course based on gender are warranted.

13.
Bioscience Research ; 18:47-58, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1619216

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) declared Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection as a global pandemic in March 2020 causing COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease-19). Till date, more than 173 million people have been infected worldwide, whereas more than 3.7 million deaths have already been reported caused by COVID-19. Protein-to-protein (PPI) interaction plays an important role in the cellular process of SARS-CoV-2 virus infection in the human body. Although the recent emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has prompted a push for deeper understanding of SARS-CoV-2 and development of effective treatment. However, understanding SARS-CoV-2 is even more critical. It was previously discovered that the proteome of the virus was known, and thus it was possible to derive some of the protein structures by experimentation and others by model-based prediction approaches. The results are later verified by experiments. Considerable research attention has been directed toward DEE deploy features extraction algorithm, amino acid composition AAC and pseudo amino acid composition PseAAC algorithms. We have proposed AdaBoost classification models and compared them with other two machine learning classifiers, such as K-Nearest Neighbor and Random Forest. This paper is not intended to be a comprehensive evaluation of AdaBoost, K-Nearest Neighbor, and Random Forest, rather we have used these models to create an ensemble classifier with excellent performance metrics such as accuracy, precision, specificity, recall, and F1 score. Based on the ensemble model, 1326 total human target proteins are predicted to be potential SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins.

14.
BJPsych Advances ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1571948

ABSTRACT

The substantial strain that women are facing during the COVID-19 pandemic can affect their menstrual cycle and further impair their quality of life. In low- and middle-income countries, this strain is exacerbated by: cultural taboos and poor education related to menstruation;'period poverty';unavailability of menstrual hygiene products;and poor hygiene facilities. We suggest actions that governments, healthcare professionals and individuals can take to address these factors and minimise the psychological impact of COVID-19 on women's physical and mental health. © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of the Royal College of Psychiatrists.

15.
Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal ; 71(4):1489-1495, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1515767

ABSTRACT

In under two decades, the world has encountered three flare-ups of fatal Coronaviruses, including the ongoing pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. COVID-19 represented a crisis of worldwide concerns, and cases have been accounted for more than 200 nations/districts that came about in wellbeing, lives, and monetary misfortunes. China's financial development is anticipated to tumble to 5.6% this year, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) anticipated that arrangement venture and expense strategies to execute $3.3 trillion and contributes further $4.5 trillion. IMF conjectures develop from 3.7% of worldwide total national output (GDP) in 2019 to 9.9% in 2020. Gross domestic product proportion anticipated from 3.0% in 2019 to become 10.7% in 2020, the US proportion expected to increment from 5.8-15.7%. There is a desperate requirement for local and universal co-activity to stretch out hands to forestall further spreading of COVID-19. The IMF has reacted to the COVID emergency with exceptional speed and greatness of financial aid. This paper shows the response of the world against COVID-19. How the countries are helping each other to control the spread and discovering the cure of this virus. Asia has survived usefully and also defending the second wave of virus, but on the other hand, the Europe is the most infected region with the highest rate of death. Why Asia is near to win this fight with a stable economy, but the Europe is not, instead of this the economy is going to be crashed. These questions raises to the Economy, Behavior and Policies, of respective Countries. © 2021, Army Medical College. All rights reserved.

16.
Journal of Ayub Medical College ; 33(3):507-512, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1490015

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease-19 has a wide range of clinical presentations and varied outcomes. It is a new disease and researchers are trying to explore its clinical presentation and outcome to know more about the course of the disease. The objective of the present study was to determine the clinical and laboratory characteristics of Coronavirus disease-19 associated with severity of the disease.

17.
Heart ; 107(Suppl 2):A53-A54, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1463021

ABSTRACT

60 Figure 1Referring diagnosis[Figure omitted. See PDF]Abstract 60 Figure 2Procedures[Figure omitted. See PDF]Abstract 60 Figure 3Discharges[Figure omitted. See PDF]ConclusionsThe opening of a second cath lab in our tertiary centre helped to improve patient flow, reduce waiting times for procedures, reduce admission lengths and reduce cost to the hospital. These are all important factors as our health service struggles to come to terms with the economic and organisational impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.

18.
Encephale ; 48(1): 78-82, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433189

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Sociocultural factors in the aftermath of any pandemic can play a role in increasing suicidal behavior like suicidal ideation, suicidal attempts, or suicide. The authors discuss the risk and predisposing factors for suicidal ideation among mental health patients in four developing countries (Bangladesh, Colombia, India and Pakistan), this aims to grasp the heterogeneity of these motivators and to elaborate specific interventions regarding suicide in the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar through March, 2021 for articles using a combination of the keywords and generic terms for suicide, suicide ideation, COVID-19, developing countries, low-middle-income countries, Sociocultural factors, Suicidal behavior, predisposing factors and predictive factors, for articles in English language only, and without publication time restriction. RESULTS: This narrative review summarizes the sociocultural risk and predisposing factors for suicidal behavior in developing countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings reveal those factors such as fear of being infected, growing economic pressure, lack of resources due to lockdown are mostly responsible in the four countries for the current increase in suicides. There are a few cultural differences that are specified in the narrative. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic is a public health challenge, in which prevention and intervention of suicidal behavior have been suboptimal, especially in low-middle-income countries. Based on literature results, we provide practical suggestions (e.g., reducing infodemic, specialized helplines, improving mental health services availability) in order to tackle main challenges of suicide prevention, such as lack of adequate manpower, fragile health system and poverty.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicidal Ideation , Communicable Disease Control , Developing Countries , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Bioscience Research ; 18(2):1608-1613, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1411152

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) outbreak represents a thankfully rare yet extremely salient incident that had an adverse effect on individuals, families, and societies throughout the world. COVID-19 has the highest infectivity and spreading rate as compared to other human coronaviruses. SARS-CoV-2 was recognized as the disease causative agent that initially targets humans' respiratory system that may lead to multi-organ failure and death. To date, COVID-19 spread to 220 countries/regions of the world, including Pakistan. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of COVID-19 among the general population in District Mardan of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan. A total of 4199 suspected individuals (2898 were males, and 1301 were females) were screened through RT-PCR. The age of suspected individuals was ranging from 10-90 years, and the average age was found 42 +/- 20.8 years. Among all suspected individuals, 753 were SARS-CoV-2 positive and diagnosed with COVID-19. Among the positive individuals, 500 (66%) were males, and 253 (34%) were females. The overall prevalence was found at 17.93%. Most of the SARS-CoV-2 positive individuals were belonging to age -group 31 to 40 (n=182), followed by age-group 21 to 30 (n=166). The prevalence of COVID-19 in the Mardan district is very high and needs WHO recommended SOPs to control the spread of COVID-19.

20.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 33(3):507-512, 2021.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1391273

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-19 has a wide range of clinical presentations and varied outcomes. It is a new disease and researchers are trying to explore its clinical presentation and outcome to know more about the course of the disease. The objective of the present study was to determine the clinical and laboratory characteristics of Coronavirus disease-19 associated with severity of the disease. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Rehman Medical Institute, Peshawar from April to August 2020. All patients presented to the hospital and were diagnosed as COVID-19 were enrolled in this study. Disease characteristics and clinical outcomes were noted in both mild and severe cases. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on the disease severity and a comparison was made between these groups in terms of demographics, lab parameters and outcomes. Data were analysed by using SPSS version 24. RESULTS: Out of 227 patients, 80.2% (n=182) were males while 19.8% (n=45) were females. The mean age of the patients was 54.44±14.35 yrs. 61.2% (n=139) had co-morbidities with diabetes being the most common. 26.9% (n=61) had severe disease and 18.1% (n=41) died.20.7% (n=47) had lymphopenia, 48.45% (n=110) had leucocytosis and thrombocytopenia was seen in 11.89% (n=27). CRP, D-dimers, ferritin and LDH were raised in 83.25% (n=189), 80.17% (n=182), 81.05% (n=184), 77.09% (n=175) of the patients respectively. Comparing our designated patient groups revealed that old age, comorbidities, leucocytosis, lymphopenia, raised inflammatory markers were associated with severe disease and that mortality was high in the severe disease group. CONCLUSION: Middle-aged males with comorbidities were the most affected subset of patients. Disease severity was associated with old age, comorbidities and certain lab abnormalities. The outcome was poor in case of severe disease. However, no gender correlation was found with disease severity.

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