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2.
Annals of Medicine and Surgery ; : 103641, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1797201

ABSTRACT

Background Gaming addiction has become a topic of increasing research interest worldwide but little research has been carried out in Pakistan. Aims The present study assessed the prevalence of gaming addiction among a Pakistani sample of adults in the general population. It also explored the effects of online gaming addiction upon sleep quality. Method A cross-sectional survey was carried out during a national lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Pakistan. Using a convenience sampling technique, an online survey comprising demographic information, the Game Addiction Scale (GAS), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was completed by 618 participants (67.5% male) aged 18–56 years (M = 24.53 years, SD = ±5.016). Results Out of 618 participants, 57.0% (n = 352) did play online games. Among gamers, 12.5% (n = 44) were classed as addicted to the gaming based on GAS scores. Compared to those not addicted to gaming, participants with gaming addiction had significantly poorer subjective sleep quality, higher sleep disturbance, lesser sleep duration, and higher daytime dysfunction. Gaming addiction was also more prevalent among males compared to females. Conclusion Gaming addiction among the Pakistani general population is significantly associated with poor sleep quality. This problem needs to be addressed at the individual and societal levels to avoid adverse long-term health impacts.

3.
J Psychiatr Res ; 150: 237-245, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768361

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations of lockdown stringency and duration with Google searches for four mental health concepts (i.e., "Anxiety," "Depression," "Suicide," "Mental Health") in nine countries (i.e., Hungary, India, Iran, Italy, Paraguay, Serbia, South Africa, Spain, Turkey) during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We retrieved national-level data for each country from Google Trends and the Global Panel Database of Pandemic Policies. In our primary analysis, we used data from all countries to estimate a set of multilevel regression models examining associations of overall lockdown stringency and lockdown duration with relative search volumes for each mental health term. We repeated the models after replacing overall lockdown stringency with each of the lockdown stringency components. RESULTS: A negative association was found between overall lockdown stringency and "Depression." Lockdown duration and the most stringent stay-at-home requirements were negatively associated with "Anxiety." Policies that recommended or required the cancelation of public events evidenced negative associations with "Depression," whereas associations between policies that required some or all levels of schooling to close and "Depression" were positive. Policies that recommended or required workplaces to close and those that enforced quarantines on non-citizens arriving from high-risk regions or closed borders entirely were negatively associated with "Suicide." CONCLUSIONS: Lockdown duration and some lockdown policies during the COVID-19 pandemic were generally associated with significantly lower, rather than higher, Google searches for selected mental health terms. These findings could be used alongside other evidence to develop future lockdown strategies that are sensitive to mental health issues during public health crises.

4.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 2022 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763234

ABSTRACT

Poliomyelitis is a crippling viral disease caused by poliovirus, a positive-stranded RNA virus that is a serotype of Enterovirus C. Pakistan remains one of the countries in the world where poliomyelitis is still prevalent, posing an obstacle to global poliomyelitis eradication. With the commencement of the COVID-19 pandemic, polio eradication campaigns have proven less feasible, resulting in an increase in polio cases across the country. Pakistan's healthcare system and socio-economic framework are incapable of dealing with two deadly viruses at the same time. As a result, effective measures for combating the destruction caused by the spread of the poliovirus are required.

6.
Data Brief ; 42: 108103, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757266

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to plague the world. Hence, there is been an effort to mitigate this virus and its effects with several means including vaccination which is one of the most effective ways of controlling the virus. However, efforts at getting people to vaccinate have met several challenges. To help with understanding the reasons underlying an individual's willingness to take COVID-19 vaccine or not, a scale called Motors of COVID-19 Vaccination Acceptance Scale (MoVac-COVID19S) was developed. To expand its usability worldwide (as it has currently been limited to only China and Taiwan), data were collected in other countries (regions) too. Therefore, this MoVac-COVID19S data is from five countries (that is, India, Ghana, Afghanistan, Taiwan, and mainland China) which cut across five regions. A total of 6053 participants across the stated countries completed the survey between January and March 2021 using a cross-sectional survey design. The different sections of the survey solicited sociodemographic information (e.g., country, age, gender, educational level, and profession) and the MoVac-COVID19S data from the participants. The data collected from this survey were analyzed using descriptive statistics, which were carried out using the IBM SPSS version 22.0.

7.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330834

ABSTRACT

Background: Risk perceptions of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are considered important as they impact community health behaviors. The aim of this study was to determine the perceived risk of infection and death due to COVID-19 and to assess the factors associated with such risk perceptions among community members in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in Africa, Asia, and South America. Methods: : An online cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 LMICs in Africa, Asia, and South America from February to May 2021. A questionnaire was utilized to assess the perceived risk of infection and death from COVID-19 and its plausible determinants. A logistic regression model was used to identify the factors associated with such risk perceptions. Results: : A total of 1,646 responses were included in the analysis of the perceived risk of becoming infected and dying from COVID-19. Our data suggested that 36.4% of participants had a high perceived risk of COVID-19 infection, while only 22.4% had a perceived risk of dying from COVID-19. Being a woman, working in healthcare-related sectors, contracting pulmonary disease, knowing people in the immediate social environment who are or have been infected with COVID-19, as well as seeing or reading about individuals infected with COVID-19 on social media or TV were all associated with a higher perceived risk of becoming infected with COVID-19. In addition, being a woman, elderly, having heart disease and pulmonary disease, knowing people in the immediate social environment who are or have been infected with COVID-19, and seeing or reading about individuals infected with COVID-19 on social media or TV had a higher perceived risk of dying from COVID-19. Conclusions: : The perceived risk of infection and death due to COVID-19 are relatively low among respondents;this suggests the need to conduct health campaigns to disseminate knowledge and information on the ongoing pandemic.

11.
Psychology research and behavior management ; 15:581-596, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1743977

ABSTRACT

Background The COVID-19 pandemic is still ongoing and is not yet under control. Evidence regarding the impacts of COVID-19 on psychological distress has been widely reported worldwide, and one of the primary concerns regarding psychological distress is fear (ie, fear of COVID-19). Therefore, having a robust instrument for assessing fear of COVID-19 is important. The present systematic review aimed to synthesize the psychometric evidence evaluated using item response theory (IRT) on the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S). Methods Utilizing the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, four academic databases (Scopus, PubMed Central, ProQuest, and ISI Web of Knowledge) were used to search target papers. Keywords used for search were “Fear of COVID-19 Scale” and its abbreviation (ie, “FCV-19S”) and IRT-related terms. The COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist was then applied to evaluate the methodological quality of the reviewed papers. Moreover, psychometric properties using IRT methods were synthesized using a qualitative method. Results The initial search resulted in 552 papers (73 duplicates) and 479 were screened based on their titles and s. Finally, 16 papers were included for review regarding their methodological quality (via COSMIN) to synthesize the psychometric evidence for FCV-19S. The 16 papers included 21 countries with 16 language versions of FCV-19S. Conclusion All the psychometric evidence indicated that the seven items in the FCV-19S fit with the concept of fear. The FCV-19S is a strong and valid instrument for assessing fear across different languages. The seven items in the FCV-19S appear to be unidimensional in assessing fear, which indicates that all items are necessary in the FCV-19S.

12.
Risk management and healthcare policy ; 15:435-445, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1743910

ABSTRACT

Purpose The percentage of individuals who were fully vaccinated against COVID-19 was 53% worldwide, 62% in Asia, and 11% in Africa at the time of writing (February 9, 2022). In addition to administrative issues, vaccine hesitancy is an important factor contributing to the relatively low rate of vaccination. The Motors of COVID-19 Vaccination Acceptance Scale (MoVac-COVID19S) was developed to assess COVID-19 vaccination acceptance levels. However, it has only been tested among Taiwanese, mainland Chinese, and Ghanaian populations (Chen et al, 2021;Fan et al, 2021;Yeh et al, 2021). Therefore, the present study examined the construct validity and measurement invariance of the MoVac-COVID19S among individuals from five countries (ie, Taiwan, mainland China, India, Ghana, and Afghanistan). Participants and Methods A cross-sectional survey study recruited 6053 participants across five countries who completed the survey between January and March 2021. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) fit indices were used to examine factor structure and measurement invariance across the five countries. Results The fit indices of the CFA were relatively good across the countries except for the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA). Moreover, the four-factor structure (either nine or 12 items) had a better fit than the one-factor structure. However, the four-factor model using nine MoVac-COVID19S items was the only model that had measurement invariance support for both factor loadings and item intercepts across the five countries. Conclusion The present study confirmed that the MoVac-COVID19S has acceptable psychometric properties and can be used to assess an individual’s willingness to get COVID-19 vaccination.

14.
Dusunen Adam ; 34(4):394-395, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1726966

ABSTRACT

Mobile phone interventions have proven to be useful in developing countries in various contexts, such as crisis intervention, medication issues, and reporting domestic violence, and this trend gained further momentum with the onset of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic (2). Many developing countries centralized triage dedicated to domains such as domestic violence, mental health crisis, physical health issues, and child abuse. [...]it would be of great value if the same team or other labs pointed out the importance of the need in a more comprehensive form in terms of geographic and cultural context in the near future with further research.

16.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718375

ABSTRACT

Norovirus, an enteric virus primarily responsible for gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide, is currently causing outbreaks around the United Kingdom during the COVID-19 pandemic. With an already exhausted health care system, the significant burden norovirus can have on the National Health Service, including economic and social burdens, is immense and cannot be tolerated. Primary challenges and priorities to be focused on due to the increase in norovirus outbreaks include a further depletion of health care services, increase cases in schools, nurseries, and care facilities, underreporting of the cases, and no effective vaccine being available. Therefore, it is essential to increase awareness about norovirus and its transmission in public, take necessary precautions, and increase reporting of cases. This article discusses the impact norovirus has during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the challenges, and recommendations to achieve control before it reaches epidemic levels.

17.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 792925, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709006

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), which first appeared in Wuhan, China, and was later declared a pandemic, has caused significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Numerous efforts have been made worldwide to understand the disease's physical manifestation. However, less emphasis has been placed on the pandemic's mental health challenges for healthcare workers (HCWs) who played a critical role in fighting the disease. Existing literature shows the detrimental psychological impact and increased incidence of depression and anxiety among HCWs. It is expected that the mental health crisis will become a serious issue affecting HCWs, with long-term negative consequences following COVID. Physicians and nurses already represent the highest risk groups of suicide among the general population, and suicide can be regarded as an occupational hazard in the healthcare industry. Increased workload, burnout and fatigue, multifaceted challenges women HCWs, and increased substance abuse are contributing factors to suicide ideation. In this article, we identify the risk factors of suicide among HCWs, discuss mental health challenges exacerbated by the pandemic and its impact on suicide ideation.

18.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-8, 2022 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700210

ABSTRACT

The present study's aim is to find the prevalence of two of the common indicators of mental health - depression and anxiety - and any correlation with socio-demographic indicators in the Pakistani population during the lockdown from 5 May to 25 July 2020. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using an online questionnaire sent to volunteer participants. A total of 1047 participants over 18 were recruited through convenience sampling. The survey targeted depression and anxiety levels, which were measured using a 14 item self-reporting Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Out of the total sample population (N=354), 39.9% suffered from depression and 57.7% from anxiety. Binary logistical regressions indicated significant predictive associations of gender (OR=1.410), education (OR=9.311), residence (OR=0.370), household income (OR=0.579), previous psychiatric problems (OR=1.671), and previous psychiatric medication (OR=2.641). These were the key factors e associated with a significant increase in depression. Increases in anxiety levels were significantly linked to gender (OR=2.427), residence (OR=0.619), previous psychiatric problems (OR=1.166), and previous psychiatric medication (OR=7.330). These results suggest depression and anxiety were prevalent among the Pakistani population during the lockdown. Along with other measures to contain the spread of COVID-19, citizens' mental health needs the Pakistani government's urgent attention as well as that of mental health experts. Further large-scale, such as healthcare practitioners, should be undertaken to identify other mental health indicators that need to be monitored.

20.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328350

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Social distancing and wearing a face mask are highly recommended to mitigate the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the success of these strategies relies on individuals’ adherence and public compliance. This study was conducted to assess the level of belief in social distancing and face mask practices in communities in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and to identify their possible determinants.   Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in ten LMICs countries in Asia, Africa, and South America from February to May 2021. A questionnaire was used to assess the belief, practice, and their plausible determinants. Identification of the associated determinants was performed using a logistic regression model.   Results: Our data revealed that only 62.6% and 66.9% of the participants had good beliefs in social distancing and good face mask practices, respectively. Residing in the Americas, having a healthcare-related job, knowing people in immediate social environment who are or have been infected and exposure to information of COVID-19 cases on social media or TV were factors significantly associated with good belief in social distancing. Residing country, gender, monthly household income, type of job and exposure to information of COVID-19 cases were significantly associated with face mask wearing practice.  Conclusion: The proportion of participants having good beliefs in social distancing and good face mask practices is relatively low (<75%). Hence, sustained health campaigns regarding social distancing benefits and face mask-wearing practices during COVID-19 are critical in LMICs.

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