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2.
Clin Oral Investig ; 26(5): 3965-3974, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616158

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: During the corona pandemic, dental practices temporarily closed their doors to patients except for emergency treatments. Due to the daily occupational exposure, the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission among dentists and their team is presumed to be higher than that in the general population. This study examined this issue among dental teams across Germany. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 2784 participants provided usable questionnaires and dry blood samples. Dry blood samples were used to detect IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. The questionnaires were analyzed to investigate demographic data and working conditions during the pandemic. Multivariable logistic mixed-effects models were applied. RESULTS: We observed 146 participants with positive SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies (5.2%) and 30 subjects with a borderline finding (1.1%). Seventy-four out of the 146 participants with SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies did not report a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test (50.7%), while 27 participants without SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies reported a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test (1.1%). Combining the laboratory and self-reported information, the number of participants with a SARS-CoV-2 infection was 179 (6.5%). Though after adjustment for region, mixed-effects models indicated associations of use of rubber dams (OR 1.65; 95% CI: 1.01-2.72) and the number of protective measures (OR 1.16; 95% CI: 1.01-1.34) with increased risk for positive SARS-CoV-2 status, none of those variables was significantly associated with a SARS-CoV-2 status in fully adjusted models. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission was not higher among the dental team compared to the general population. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Following hygienic regulations and infection control measures ensures the safety of the dental team and their patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Prevalence
3.
Blood ; 138(4): 299-303, 2021 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228983

ABSTRACT

Vaccination using the adenoviral vector COVID-19 vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca) has been associated with rare vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT). Affected patients test strongly positive in platelet factor 4 (PF4)/polyanion enzyme immunoassays (EIAs), and serum-induced platelet activation is maximal in the presence of PF4. We determined the frequency of anti-PF4/polyanion antibodies in healthy vaccinees and assessed whether PF4/polyanion EIA+ sera exhibit platelet-activating properties after vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (n = 138) or BNT162b2 (BioNTech/Pfizer; n = 143). In total, 19 of 281 participants tested positive for anti-PF4/polyanion antibodies postvaccination (All: 6.8% [95% confidence interval (CI), 4.4-10.3]; BNT162b2: 5.6% [95% CI, 2.9-10.7]; ChAdOx1 nCoV-19: 8.0% [95% CI, 4.5% to 13.7%]). Optical densities were mostly low (between 0.5 and 1.0 units; reference range, <0.50), and none of the PF4/polyanion EIA+ samples induced platelet activation in the presence of PF4. We conclude that positive PF4/polyanion EIAs can occur after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccination with both messenger RNA- and adenoviral vector-based vaccines, but many of these antibodies likely have minor (if any) clinical relevance. Accordingly, low-titer positive PF4/polyanion EIA results should be interpreted with caution when screening asymptomatic individuals after vaccination against COVID-19. Pathogenic platelet-activating antibodies that cause VITT do not occur commonly following vaccination.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Polyelectrolytes , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Adult , Asymptomatic Diseases , Autoantibodies/blood , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Activation , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/immunology , Seroconversion , Thrombophilia/etiology
4.
Blood ; 137(26): 3656-3659, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1215090

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is crucial in combatting the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic. The rare complication of thrombocytopenia and thrombotic complications at unusual sites after ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination is caused by platelet-activating antibodies directed against platelet factor 4 (PF4). We present a widely applicable whole-blood standard flow cytometric assay to identify the pathogenic antibodies associated with vaccine-induced immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) after ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination. This assay will enable rapid diagnosis by many laboratories. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT04370119.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Flow Cytometry/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Platelet Activation/immunology , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/diagnosis , Receptors, IgG/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects , Antibody Specificity , Autoantibodies/biosynthesis , Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Heparin/adverse effects , Heparin/immunology , Humans , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G/biosynthesis , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , P-Selectin/analysis , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/etiology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/immunology
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