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1.
Pakistan Heart Journal ; 55(3):266-273, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072513

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study describes three surges of COVID-19 hypoxemic respiratory failure and our experience with using iCPAP in patients with cardiovascular diseases at a tertiary cardiac care centre. Methodology: This observational study was conducted from March 23rd 2020 to May 31st 2021, analysis of data from the PRICE Network Registry. Data was collected for all adult patients with cardiovascular diseases admitted with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and a confirmed Results: Among 362 patients with 'severe' or 'critical' COVID-19 were hospitalized;163 (45%) in the 1st surge, 92 (25.4%) in the 2nd and 107 (29.6 %) in the 3rd surge. All-cause mortality was 118 (32.6%). iCPAP was used in 39% (141) patients, 19% (69) patients required oxygen only, 25.4% (92) were on BiPAP support and 16.6% (60) were intubated. 'iCPAP failure' occurred in 48/141 (34%) patients. iCPAP failure occurred in patients with higher APACHE II scores (16.3 +/- 5.7 v/s 21.3 +/- 6, p <= 0.001), lower ROX index on admission (5.0 +/- 2.2 vs. 10.4 +/- 5.4, p <= 0.001), lesser degree of improvement in ROX index at 48 hours (Day 3 ROX 18.7 +/- 8.9 vs. 9.9 +/- 6.3, p <= 0.001). Mortality rate on iCPAP was 44 (31.2%). Conclusion: COVID-19 outcomes in a resource-limited setting in patients having cardiovascular diseases, appear comparable to global reports. A modification of standard CPAP (iCPAP) appeared to be safe and effective. This modification of standard CPAP (iCPAP) identifies an option for resource-limited or resource-exhausted critical care units.

2.
Pakistan Journal of Zoology ; 54(4):1899-1904, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1904009

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus consists of single-stranded, enveloped and RNA virus, largest genome among all RNA viruses and has 4 proteins i.e. envelope, spike, nucleocapsid and membrane. Coronaviruses are classified into 4 genera: Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus, Gammacoronavirus and Deltacoronavirus. Betacoronavirus most probably originated from bats and the virus may have jumped to avian species and evolved as Deltacoronavirus group. The avian coronaviruses jumped among other avian species, giving rise to Gammacoronavirus from Deltacoronavirus, while Betacoronavirus may have given rise to Alphacoronavirus. It is known that SARS-CoV-2 belongs to Betacoronavirus. This most similar virus is verified in bat and Malayan Pangolin. Analysis showed that SARS-CoV-2 most probably originated by recombination of both bat and pangolin viruses. Viral protein seroconversion and viral specific nucleotide positive documented in all COVID-19 patients tested provides confirmation of a link between the presence of this virus and the disease.

3.
Pakistan Journal of Zoology ; 54(4):1899-1904, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1847887

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus consists of single-stranded, enveloped and RNA virus, largest genome among all RNA viruses and has 4 proteins i.e. envelope, spike, nucleocapsid and membrane. Coronaviruses are classified into 4 genera: Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus, Gammacoronavirus and Deltacoronavirus. Betacoronavirus most probably originated from bats and the virus may have jumped to avian species and evolved as Deltacoronavirus group. The avian coronaviruses jumped among other avian species, giving rise to Gammacoronavirus from Deltacoronavirus, while Betacoronavirus may have given rise to Alphacoronavirus. It is known that SARS-CoV-2 belongs to Betacoronavirus. This most similar virus is verified in bat and Malayan Pangolin. Analysis showed that SARS-CoV-2 most probably originated by recombination of both bat and pangolin viruses. Viral protein seroconversion and viral specific nucleotide positive documented in all COVID-19 patients tested provides confirmation of a link between the presence of this virus and the disease. Copyright 2022 by the authors.

4.
2022 zh Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, zh EA 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1846553

ABSTRACT

Our workshop aims to bring together researchers and practitioners across disciplines in HCI who share an interest in promoting well-being through tangible interaction. The workshop forms an impassioned response to the worldwide push towards more digital and remote interaction in nearly all domains of our lives in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. One question we raise is: to what extent will measures like remote interaction remain in place post-pandemic, and to what extent these changes may influence future agendas for the design of interactive products and services to support living well? We aim to ensure that the workshop serves as a space for diverse participants to share ideas and engage in cooperative discussions through hands-on activities resulting in the co-creation of a Manifesto to demonstrate the importance of embodied and sensory interaction for supporting well-being in a post-pandemic context. All the workshop materials will be published online on the workshop website and disseminated through ongoing collaboration. © 2022 Owner/Author.

5.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine ; 15(2):53-55, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1760919
7.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326864

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 omicron variant in late November, 2021 and its rapid spread to different countries, warns the health authorities to take initiative to work on containing its spread. The omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant is unusual from the other variants of concerns reported earlier as it harbors many novel mutations in its genome particularly with >30 mutations in the spike glycoprotein alone. The current study investigated the variation in binding mechanism which it carries compared to the wild type. The study also explored the interaction profile of spike-omicron with human ACE2 receptor. The structure of omicron spike glycoprotein was determined though homology modeling. The interaction analysis was performed through docking using HADDOCK followed by binding affinity calculation. Finally, the comparison of interactions were performed among spike-ACE2 complex of wild type, delta and omicron variants. The interaction analysis has revealed the involvement of highly charged and polar residues (H505, Arg498, Ser446, Arg493, and Tyr501) in the interactions. The important novel interactions in the spike-ACE2-omicron complex was observed as S494:H34, S496:D38, R498:Y41, Y501:K353, and H505:R393 and R493:D38. Moreover, the binding affinity of spike-ACE2-omicron complex (-17.6Kcal/mol) is much higher than wild type-ACE2 (-13.2Kcal/mol) and delta-ACE2 complex (-13.3Kcal/mol). These results indicate that the involvement of polar and charged residues in the interactions with ACE2 may have an impact on increased transmissibility of omicron variant.

8.
O'Toole, A.; Hill, V.; Pybus, O. G.; Watts, A.; Bogoch, II, Khan, K.; Messina, J. P.; consortium, Covid- Genomics UK, Network for Genomic Surveillance in South, Africa, Brazil, U. K. Cadde Genomic Network, Tegally, H.; Lessells, R. R.; Giandhari, J.; Pillay, S.; Tumedi, K. A.; Nyepetsi, G.; Kebabonye, M.; Matsheka, M.; Mine, M.; Tokajian, S.; Hassan, H.; Salloum, T.; Merhi, G.; Koweyes, J.; Geoghegan, J. L.; de Ligt, J.; Ren, X.; Storey, M.; Freed, N. E.; Pattabiraman, C.; Prasad, P.; Desai, A. S.; Vasanthapuram, R.; Schulz, T. F.; Steinbruck, L.; Stadler, T.; Swiss Viollier Sequencing, Consortium, Parisi, A.; Bianco, A.; Garcia de Viedma, D.; Buenestado-Serrano, S.; Borges, V.; Isidro, J.; Duarte, S.; Gomes, J. P.; Zuckerman, N. S.; Mandelboim, M.; Mor, O.; Seemann, T.; Arnott, A.; Draper, J.; Gall, M.; Rawlinson, W.; Deveson, I.; Schlebusch, S.; McMahon, J.; Leong, L.; Lim, C. K.; Chironna, M.; Loconsole, D.; Bal, A.; Josset, L.; Holmes, E.; St George, K.; Lasek-Nesselquist, E.; Sikkema, R. S.; Oude Munnink, B.; Koopmans, M.; Brytting, M.; Sudha Rani, V.; Pavani, S.; Smura, T.; Heim, A.; Kurkela, S.; Umair, M.; Salman, M.; Bartolini, B.; Rueca, M.; Drosten, C.; Wolff, T.; Silander, O.; Eggink, D.; Reusken, C.; Vennema, H.; Park, A.; Carrington, C.; Sahadeo, N.; Carr, M.; Gonzalez, G.; Diego, Search Alliance San, National Virus Reference, Laboratory, Seq, Covid Spain, Danish Covid-19 Genome, Consortium, Communicable Diseases Genomic, Network, Dutch National, Sars-CoV-surveillance program, Division of Emerging Infectious, Diseases, de Oliveira, T.; Faria, N.; Rambaut, A.; Kraemer, M. U. G..
Wellcome Open Research ; 6:121, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450989

ABSTRACT

Late in 2020, two genetically-distinct clusters of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with mutations of biological concern were reported, one in the United Kingdom and one in South Africa. Using a combination of data from routine surveillance, genomic sequencing and international travel we track the international dispersal of lineages B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 (variant 501Y-V2). We account for potential biases in genomic surveillance efforts by including passenger volumes from location of where the lineage was first reported, London and South Africa respectively. Using the software tool grinch (global report investigating novel coronavirus haplotypes), we track the international spread of lineages of concern with automated daily reports, Further, we have built a custom tracking website (cov-lineages.org/global_report.html) which hosts this daily report and will continue to include novel SARS-CoV-2 lineages of concern as they are detected.

9.
Irish Medical Journal ; 114(3), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1407698

ABSTRACT

Aims The COVID-19 pandemic has had an enormous impact on elective surgical activity worldwide;however, its effect on emergency surgical referrals and admissions is not well documented. Understanding the volume and nature of such presentations is key to future resource allocation and guideline creation. Methods Surgical handovers from a 9-week period from the commencement of the first government restriction of non-essential travel (March 8th-May 10th 2020) were studied. A corresponding time period of usual surgical activity (March 10th-12th May 2019) was studied for comparison. Results During the pandemic period, 447 referrals (mean age 54, 4.9% COVID-19 positive) were received representing a 16.5% decrease compared to 2019 (n=521). The most common referral in each period was abdominal pain (n=255 vs 259). The duration of symptoms prior to admission and overall number of traumas did not differ between the periods. Fewer referrals for traumatic brain injuries and polytraumas and more symptomatic hernias, cellulitis and blocked/dislodged lines/tubes were seen during the pandemic. Conclusion The volume of surgical referrals and admissions was significantly decreased during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Traumas and abdominal pain were unaffected. An increase in several referrals for which patients would typically visit their general practitioner or have an expedited hospital appointment was seen.

10.
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene ; 62(2):E326-E328, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1353412
11.
Irish Medical Journal ; 114(3), 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1172156
12.
Cmc-Computers Materials & Continua ; 67(2):2631-2646, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1136713

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that can be transmitted from one person to another. Earlier strains have only been mild viruses, but the current form, known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has become a deadly infection. The outbreak originated in Wuhan, China, and has since spread worldwide. The symptoms of COVID-19 include a dry cough, sore throat, fever, and nasal congestion. Antimicrobial drugs, pathogen-host interaction, and 2 weeks of isolation have been recommended for the treatment of the infection. Safe operating procedures, such as the use of face masks, hand sanitizer, handwashing with soap, and social distancing, are also suggested. Moreover, travel bans for cities, states, and countries have been put in place, along with lockdowns to control the outbreak. Travel restrictions, mask use, sanitizer or soap use, and avoidance of touching the face and nose have produced encouraging results, whereas the effectiveness of antibiotics has not been proved. The results of isolation for the recovery of infected people have also been promising. Travel bans and lockdowns have caused a slump in economies, and unemployment has risen sharply, resulting in an increase in mental health cases globally. To date, vaccines have been developed and are in use in certain countries, but following standard operating procedures remain critical. The countries following the guidelines can eradicate this virus. New Zealand was the first country to eliminate the virus from their territory.

13.
Int. Conf. Comput. Intell., ICCI ; : 70-74, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-991075

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of coronavirus caused by a novel virus called SARS-CoV-2 occurred at the end of 2019. The unexpected outbreak and unchecked global spread of COVID19 indicate that the current global healthcare networks have limitations in addressing the crises for public safety. The detection of infected or tested patients globally is challenging when patients travel abroad. As such, innovative technology such as blockchain has emerged as a potential approach for addressing coronavirus patient tracking. Blockchain technology can tackle pandemics by allowing early detection of outbreaks, protecting individual privacy while maintaining data security by using smart contracts. Motivated by these facts, we propose a novel blockchain-based framework that integrates intercountry for COVID-19 to track infected or tested patients globally using the methodology of design science research. The proposed framework could help governments, aviation industries, health authorities, and residents make essential decisions on infection identification, infection prediction, and infection prevention. © 2020 IEEE.

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