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2.
Technological and Economic Development of Economy ; 29(2):500-517, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2315851

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the long- and short-run effects of crude oil price (COP) and economic policy uncertainty (EPU) on China's green bond index (GBI) using the quantile autoregressive distributed lag model. The empirical results show that COP and EPU produce a significant positive and negative influence on GBI in the long-run across most quantiles, respectively, but their short-run counterparts are opposite direction and only significant in higher quantiles. Thus, major contributions are made accordingly and shown in the following aspects. The findings emphasise the importance of understanding how COP and EPU affect China's green bond market for the first time. In addition, both the long- and short-run effects are captured, but long-run shocks primarily drive the green bond market. Finally, time- and quantile-varying analyses are adopted to explain the nexus between COP and EPU to GBI, which considers not only different states of the bond market but also events that occur in different time periods. Some detailed policies, such as a unified and effective green bond market, an early warning mechanism of oil price fluctuation, and prudent economic policy adjustments, are beneficial for stabilising the green finance market.

3.
Financ Res Lett ; 49: 103135, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282744

ABSTRACT

This study aims to bridge the gap that has remained unfilled after the initial scrutiny and reporting of the damaging effects of Covid-19 on financial markets. The study analyzes 10 European stock markets and compares their pre and post covid return dynamics. Our findings are surprisingly pleasant, albeit counterintuitive to some. We observe a quick and unprecedented recovery in the European stock market, yielding significantly higher returns post covid, given a reasonably large holding period. We also observe an alteration and change in the status quo of countries while transmitting or receiving cross-market spillovers.

4.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 16: 431-446, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241766

ABSTRACT

Purpose: International students are highly vulnerable to the risk of mental health worsening before and during the pandemic (COVID-19). This study investigated international students' mental health pre- and post-pandemic (COVID-19). Methods: It is a longitudinal study, and data were collected online, pre-pandemic (N = 470) and during the pandemic (N = 420). Using a random sampling technique, a self-administered questionnaire was used to measure mental health, including depression and anxiety. Results: Findings show that international students' mental health was good in pre-pandemic. Meanwhile, international students were found to be more depressed and anxious during the pandemic. Findings also investigated that in the pre-pandemic phase, young students' and mainly females' mental health was worsened. Conclusion: This study concluded that students' mental problems are alarming, so the university should provide psychological services for the student's mental health. Post-pandemic is leaving long-lasting psychological effects and will require further investigation.

5.
Energy Economics ; : 106568.0, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2232450

ABSTRACT

With the increasing severe pollution, the new energy industry is greatly favored by the government and investors. Using the static network connectedness method of Diebold and Yilmaz (2009, 2012, 2014) and the dynamic network connectedness approach of Antonakakis et al. (2020), this paper discusses the return and volatility spillover effects between China's crude oil futures market and 7 Chinese green energy stock markets. In terms of return spillover effects, we find firstly that Chinese green energy stock is able to dominate the price changes in the crude oil market, and the dominate role of natural gas stock market is stronger. Secondly, rather than changing the dominant role of the green energy stock market on crude oil futures market price changes, the outbreak of COVID-19 in 2020 strengthened that dominant role. For the volatility spillover effects, the results of static volatility spillover index show that the crude oil futures market volatility is mainly dominated by the green energy equity market, but the dynamic connectedness indices results show that the volatility in the international energy market can strengthen the dominant role of the crude oil futures on the volatility of the green energy stock market. Finally, we can find that both the outbreak of COVID-19 in 2020 and the online operation of the Chinese carbon trading market in 2021 can strengthen the dominant role of the green energy stock market on the crude oil futures market volatility.

6.
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0281455, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2229325

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The aim of this study is to identify the clinical predictors of mortality among patients with COVID-19 pneumonia during first and second waves in a treatment center in northwestern Nigeria. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 195 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 between April 2020 to March 2021 at a designated COVID-19 isolation center in Kano State, Northwest Nigeria. Data were summarized using frequencies and percentages. Unadjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals and p-values were obtained. To determine independent determinants of mortality, we performed a stepwise multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS: Of 195 patients studied, 21(10.77%) patients died. Males comprised 158 (81.03%) of the study population. In the adjusted stepwise logistic regression analysis, age>64 years (OR = 9.476, 95% CI: 2.181-41.165), second wave of the pandemic (OR = 49.340, 95% CI:6.222-391.247), cardiac complications (OR = 24.984, 95% CI: 3.618-172.508), hypertension (OR = 5.831, 95% CI:1.413-24.065) and lowest systolic blood pressure while on admission greater than or equal to 90mmHg were independent predictors of mortality (OR = 0.111, 95%CI: 0.021-0.581). CONCLUSION: Strategies targeted to prioritize needed care to patients with identified factors that predict mortality might improve patient outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Nigeria/epidemiology , Hospitalization
7.
Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies ; 26:179-184, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2169977

ABSTRACT

Keywords: Supply chain resilience, Haddon Matrix, disaster management A Framework to Study Supply Chain Strategies Against Global Pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant challenges for global supply chains. [...]well-prepared supply chains would be in a better position to respond. Categorizing the interventions in the disaster management life cycle is one thing, but whether these interventions brining any supply chain resilience is also essential consideration especially during global pandemic. [...]in this study, we suggest introducing the supply chain resilience components as the thirddimension elements for this modified Haddon matrix. Resilience can be defined as the ability of a system to bounce back from disturbance (Burnard & Bhamra, 2011). [...]Klibi and Martel (2013) define resilience as the ability of a supply chain network to resist and effectively respond to disruptions and to recover quickly from failures.

8.
Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies ; 26:167-178, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2169976

ABSTRACT

Having an extensive network structure, and the help of key government organisations like Tourism NZ (who shared information and created targeted marketing campaigns focused on attracting domestic tourists), enabled these supply chains to bounce back relatively quickly. While there has been some improvement to occupancy rates due to domestic travel, IATA (2020) predicted that global passenger numbers are not likely to top pre-Covid-19 levels until 2023 as airlines' capacity has significantly reduced, and the cost of travel has increased. [...]the management, coordination, and collaboration with different suppliers, customers, and third-party logistics service providers are also included in supply chain management (Frankel et al., 2008). The term tourism supply chains refers to a network of tourism related organisations engaged in range of different activities, from the supply of different tourism components (such as flights and accommodation), to the distribution and marketing of a specific tourism product (X. Zhang et al., 2009).

9.
Financ Res Lett ; 53: 103650, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2178872

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we analyze the impact of the marketing authorization of EMA-approved vaccines on the returns of equity funds in the EU. Using the event study methodology, we report that the introduction of all vaccines had a positive impact on the funds' returns. Higher abnormal returns were associated with the earlier vaccines, indicating the first-mover advantage and the abnormal returns were persistent across several event windows. The findings imply that equity markets welcomed the vaccine administration as an important pharmaceutical intervention to support the quasi-revival of business activities. Consequently, there was a significant uplift in the economic bottom line.

10.
Borsa Istanbul Review ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2158520

ABSTRACT

This paper investigates the link between crude oil prices (COP) and green bonds through a rolling-window Granger-causality test. The positive, negative, and uncorrelated impacts of COP on the green bond index (GBI) are captured with the same sample. The positive effects show that the prosperity of the green bond market is promoted by the high COP, demonstrating that green bonds can avoid shocks from COP. Nevertheless, due to the high profits of the green energy industry and the excess supply on the oil market, the negative impact between COP and GBI is also found. These results are not completely consistent with the price correlation model between oil and green bonds. Furthermore, the positive impact of the GBI on COP shows that green bonds cannot moderate the oil crisis due to COVID-19, instability in the international political environment, and the immaturity of green bonds market. In addition, depending on the quantile Granger-causality test, only high COP affects the GBI, and this asymmetric feature is attributed to increasing production costs and environmental protection pressure. Understanding the nexus between COP and the GBI is of practical significance for bond issuers, regulators, and investors.

11.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(12)2022 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2163729

ABSTRACT

Monkeypox virus (MPXV) continues to pose severe threats to global public health, especially in non-endemic areas. Like all other regions, Africa faces potential public health crises due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and other infectious disease outbreaks (such as Lassa fever and malaria) that have devastated the region and overwhelmed the healthcare systems. Owing to the recent surge in the MPXV and other infections, the COVID-19-control efforts could deteriorate and further worsen. This study discusses the potential emergencies of MPXV transmission during the current COVID-19 pandemic. We hypothesize some of the underlying drivers that possibly resulted in an increase in rodent-to-human interaction, such as the COVID-19 pandemic's impact and other human behavioral or environmental factors. Furthermore, we estimate the MPXV time-varying effective reproduction number (Rt) based on case notification in Nigeria. We find that Rt reached a peak in 2022 with a mean of 1.924 (95% CrI: 1.455, 2.485) and a median of 1.921 (95% CrI: 1.450, 2.482). We argue that the real-time monitoring of Rt is practical and can give public health authorities crucial data for circumstantial awareness and strategy recalibration. We also emphasize the need to improve awareness programs and the provision of adequate health care resources to suppress the outbreaks. These could also help to increase the reporting rate and, in turn, prevent large community transmission of the MPXV in Nigeria and beyond.

12.
Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja ; : 1-21, 2022.
Article in English | Taylor & Francis | ID: covidwho-2120955
13.
Energy Economics ; : 106396, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2104863

ABSTRACT

A search for a safe haven inspired by investors' loss aversion significantly exacerbates in times of turbulence. The same happened during the crisis of Covid-19 when recurring losses forced investors to alter their investment strategies, and the search for alternative investment classes picked momentum. This study evaluates the safe haven properties of Green financial products, Islamic assets, and Cryptocurrencies, which gained prominence in financial markets after the global financial crisis, coupled with the long-acknowledged safe haven assets like Gold, Silver, and Treasuries. We employ a quantile VAR framework to examine the connectedness between the assets' markets during stressed, normal, and euphoric periods. Our results show that both Green and Islamic Bonds only act as a safe haven during the normal market condition;however, US Treasury, cryptocurrencies, and gold emerged as safe-haven assets under bearish or extreme volatility periods. While proclivity towards US Treasury and gold supports the phenomenon of flight-to-safety, we find cryptos have also become investors' preference amid bearish trends finding their way into the list of safe havens for investors.

14.
Cureus ; 14(8): e28394, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056318

ABSTRACT

Clopidogrel is an antithrombotic agent widely used for the secondary prevention of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular complications. Clopidogrel can cause serious adverse events, including gastrointestinal bleeding. Pulmonary complications caused by clopidogrel are not widely described, and clopidogrel-induced interstitial lung disease (ILD) is rare. Here, we report a case of drug-induced ILD in a patient who presented with dyspnea, chest pain, and mild fever. The patient underwent percutaneous coronary intervention two months ago and was commenced on clopidogrel. He was diagnosed with clopidogrel-induced ILD based on clinical and imaging findings, history of drug exposure without any change, exclusion of other respiratory disorders, and clinical improvement after discontinuation of clopidogrel and steroid use.

15.
COVID ; 2(10):1329-1340, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2043613

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to examine the subjective reasons for hesitancy to receive COVID-19 vaccination and the sociodemographic factors associated with vaccination uptake. An online social media survey was conducted among the general Nigerian population using a self-developed questionnaire. Data were analyzed using binary logistic regression with crude and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) at a 95% confidence interval (CI) and a p value of less than 0.05. A total of 576 participants with a mean age of 31.86 years participated in the study. 28% (n = 180) received one or more doses of the COVID-19 vaccine. Teachers were significantly less likely than health professionals to be vaccinated (AOR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.16–0.69). In addition, unemployed people (AOR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.15–0.89) were less likely to be vaccinated than government employees, and those of intermediate socioeconomic status (AOR = 0.47 95% CI 0.26–0.88) were less likely to be vaccinated than were those of high socioeconomic status. Five main themes emerged regarding participants' subjective reasons for hesitating to receive the COVID-19 vaccine: fear related to vaccine content (e.g., efficacy), negative effects on the body (e.g., blood clots), distrust of the system/government (e.g., politics), psychological concerns (e.g., anxiety), and misconceptions. Sociodemographic variables and vaccine misconceptions were found to play an important role in COVID-19 vaccination coverage in Nigeria.

16.
European Transport Research Review ; 14(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2038652

ABSTRACT

This study determines the impact of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) that has been prevalent since the year 2019, on the shipping freights. This task has been undertaken by using the wavelet quantile on the quantile approach. The results of the study affirm that the pandemic has in fact affected the shipping freight costs, primarily due to the lower demand for energy and raw materials, and the unavailability of the vessels. In addition to this, the spread of COVID-19 has had a positive impact on the Baltic Dry Index in the high quantiles and is deemed to be more responsive in the long run. Also, the COVID-19 infection has had a negative effect on the Baltic Dry Tanker Index and the Baltic Clean Tanker Index in the medium to high quantiles, particularly in the short and the medium run. The positive impact of COVID-19 on the Baltic Clean Tanker Index has been recognized in the long term in the high quantiles. These findings support the theoretical model which states that the spread of COVID-19 and the shipping freights are closely related. The results suggest that the degree of the effect is more causal in the short. Therefore, the shipping industry must ideally pay special attention to the detection of abrupt changes in the freight rate dynamics, and the specific regulations regarding these intricacies are critical.

17.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(8)2022 Aug 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1979442

ABSTRACT

This study examined the association between COVID-19 and fear of contracting COVID-19 and reasons for vaccination refusal. A population-based online survey was conducted via social media in Nigeria using the Fear of COVID-19 scale and items related to vaccination refusal/hesitancy items. Individuals aged 13 years and older were invited to participate. Data were analysed using binary logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) at a p-value of less than 0.05. The study enrolled 577 individuals with a mean age of 31.86 years, 70% of whom were male and 27.7% of whom had received at least one dose of the vaccine against COVID-19. None of the variables on the Fear of COVID-19 scale significantly predicted vaccine uptake in multivariate analysis. However, individuals who were fearful of COVID-19 were more likely to be vaccinated in bivariate analysis (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.06-2.63). The most significant factors among the vaccination refusal items associated with COVID-19 vaccination were doubts about vaccination (adjusted OR: 2.56, 95% CI: 1.57-4.17) and misconceptions about vaccine safety/efficacy (adjusted OR: 2.15, 95% CI: 1.24-3.71). These results suggest that uptake of the vaccine against COVID-19 in Nigeria can be predicted by factors associated with vaccination refusal, but not by fear of COVID-19. To contain the pandemic COVID-19 in Nigeria, efforts should be made to educate people about the efficacy of the vaccine and to increase their confidence in vaccination.

18.
Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja ; : 1-22, 2022.
Article in English | Taylor & Francis | ID: covidwho-1978083
19.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 78: 103796, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944135

ABSTRACT

With the emergence of COVID-19 vaccines, individuals with comorbidities and immunosuppression require particular attention and should be prioritized for vaccination. However, the majority of vaccine clinical trials excluded people with comorbidities, resulting in a lack of data regarding vaccine efficacy in this demographic. Along with more inclusivity in clinical trials, reaching a definitive conclusion regarding vaccine efficacy in these patients is also crucial. In our review, we highlight the BNT162b2 vaccine safety and efficacy based on the limited number of clinical trials which included this demographic. We also provide vaccine considerations for individuals with cancer, autoimmune diseases, HIV, obesity, diabetes, organ transplant recipients and those undergoing maintenance haemodialysis to help them govern their decision regarding vaccine administration. In conclusion, further studies are required to alleviate any insecurities in patients with comorbidities regarding vaccination and it is recommended that patients are monitored post-vaccination to make sure sufficient immunity is achieved.

20.
Econ Anal Policy ; 75: 389-395, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936315

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic has impeded the transition to sustainability and net-zero targets. The immediate focus on health-related issues limits the progress of the pro-ecological initiatives. Financial institutions can play a pivotal role in supporting green recovery, notably in emerging markets. This paper evaluates the incentives of sustainable financing for banking firms in member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council. Using a comprehensive sample of banks between 2011 and 2021, we report that increasing green exposure will improve the intermediation spread. Similarly, when banks have environmental considerations for extending loans, their risk of default will reduce. The impact of green financing is more profound for smaller banks indicating that responsible lending provides them with new earning avenues while mitigating the risk. The findings are reassurance for green recovery, and because of the explicit benefits, banks can play a critical role in helping in achieving sustainable development goals. The results have important implications for regulators, monetary authorities, and the banking sector since green financing can lead to more efficient and resilient financial systems.

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