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1.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-978, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967386

ABSTRACT

Background: An association between shorter disease duration and improved clinical efficacy has been shown in post hoc analyses of clinical trial data with biological therapies in Crohn’s disease (CD). The efficacy and safety of risankizumab (RZB) as induction and maintenance therapy have been recently reported.1,2 Here, the efficacy of RZB stratified by baseline CD duration is reported. Methods: In ADVANCE (NCT03105128) and MOTIVATE (NCT03104413), patients with moderately to severely active CD received intravenous (IV) RZB induction therapy or placebo (PBO) for 12 weeks. Patients with clinical response to RZB IV induction were re-randomised in a 52-week maintenance study (FORTIFY NCT03105102) to receive subcutaneous (SC) RZB or PBO (ie, withdrawal). For this posthoc analysis, patient subgroups were stratified by years of CD duration at baseline (< 2, 2– 5, > 5–10, and > 10 years). Induction analyses focused on patients who received RZB 600 mg IV or PBO for 12 weeks. As all patients who entered maintenance responded to RZB IV induction, maintenance analyses were limited to those patients who responded to induction and then received RZB 360 mg SC for 52 weeks. Clinical and endoscopic outcomes were evaluated using nonresponder imputation incorporating multiple imputation to handle missing data due to impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Safety was assessed throughout the studies. Results: The induction and maintenance analyses included 527 patients who received RZB 600 mg IV and 141 patients who received RZB 360 mg SC, respectively. At the end of induction (week 12), patients with CD duration of < 2 years achieved higher rates of endoscopic outcomes with IV RZB induction vs patients with longer durations of disease (Figure 1), and regardless of baseline CD duration, greater proportions of RZB-treated patients achieved clinical remission (defined by stool frequency and abdominal pain), endoscopic response, endoscopic remission, and ulcer-free endoscopy vs PBO (P ≤ .05). Clinical remission rates at week 12 were numerically higher in patients with CD duration of < 5 years vs > 5 years (Figure 1). Similar results for improved clinical and endoscopic outcomes associated with shorter disease duration were observed at week 52 with RZB 360 mg SC maintenance treatment (Figure 2). RZB was well tolerated with lower rates of serious adverse events and serious infections vs PBO in induction, across CD duration subgroups. Conclusions: RZB induction and maintenance therapy was effective and well tolerated with a safety profile generally similar across CD duration subgroups. Achievement of clinical and endoscopic endpoints were higher in patients with shorter duration of CD, suggesting that earlier introduction of RZB therapy may lead to improved outcomes.

2.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-599, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967345

ABSTRACT

Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can increase the risk of thrombosis, cardiovascular events, and kidney injury, but risks among patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remain unknown. We aimed to characterize risk for these complications among patients with IBD who developed COVID-19. Methods We analyzed complications of COVID-19 in patients reported to the Surveillance Epidemiology of Coronavirus Under Research Exclusion in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (SECURE-IBD) database prior to November 15, 2021. Our primary outcome was a composite of thrombotic complications (peripheral venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, thrombotic stroke, and peripheral arterial thrombosis), cardiovascular complications (new arrhythmia, heart failure, myocarditis/pericarditis, and vasculitis), and renal complications (acute kidney injury). Covariates included cardiovascular disease (including stroke), cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or smoking), pulmonary disease (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or other chronic lung disease), thrombotic risk conditions (cancer), chronic kidney disease, chronic liver disease, “other” comorbidities, and COVID-19 vaccination with at least one dose. Multivariable analyses assessed the independent effect of variables significant in univariate analyses. Results Among 4,923 patients reported to SECURE-IBD, 79 (1.6%) had thrombotic, cardiovascular, and/or renal complications. There were 45 (0.9%) reports of acute kidney injury, 24 (0.5%) of arrythmias, 8 (0.2%) of peripheral venous thrombosis, 5 (0.1%) each of heart failure, myocarditis/pericarditis, and pulmonary embolism, and 1 (0.02%) each of vasculitis, peripheral atrial thrombosis, and thrombotic stroke. In univariate analyses, complications were more common in patients who were older (p < 0.01), black (p < 0.01), and on corticosteroids (p < 0.01) (Table 1). Patients with severe IBD were more likely to have complications than patients in remission (p < 0.01), as were those with more comorbidities (p < 0.01). Cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular risk factors, pulmonary disease, and chronic renal disease were associated with increased risk (p < 0.01 each). There was no association with vaccination status (p = 1). In multivariate analyses, age (aOR 1.04 [1.03, 1.06]), black race (aOR 4.02 [1.53, 10.55]), severe IBD (aOR 3.21 [1.31, 7.86]), corticosteroid use (aOR 3.63 [1.85, 7.12]), and one (aOR 2.33 [1.10, 4.91]), two (aOR 4.24 [1.42, 12.65]), and three or more (aOR 13.36 [3.48, 51.32]) comorbidities were significant predictors of complications (Table 2). Discussion Thrombotic, cardiovascular, and renal complications from COVID-19 were uncommon among patients with IBD. Patients with older age, black race, corticosteroid use, severe IBD, and greater number of comorbidities may require closer monitoring if they develop COVID-19. (Table Presented)

3.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-598-S-599, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967344

ABSTRACT

Background: Current recommendations in many countries support additional COVID-19 vaccine doses in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who are treated with immunosuppressants, yet real-world data on the effectiveness and safety of additional vaccine doses is lacking. We sought to quantify the humoral immune response to an additional (third) dose of mRNA vaccines in adolescents and adult patients with IBD. Methods: We performed a direct-to-patient, internet-based cohort study of patients with IBD in the United States who have received any SARS-CoV-2 vaccine granted EUA. Participants completed baseline and follow-up surveys and had blood work obtained approximately 8 weeks following completion of the initial vaccination series and 6 weeks following administration of an additional (third) vaccine dose. We performed quantitative measurement of antireceptor binding domain (RBD) IgG antibodies specific to SARS-CoV-2 using the LabCorp Cov2Quant IgG™ assay. Results: A total of 659 participants were included [415 participants (63%) initially received BNT162b2, 243 participants (37%) initially received mRNA-1273, and 5 participants (1%) initially received Ad26.COV2.S]. Demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics of the study population are provided in Table 1. Over 98% of those receiving an initial mRNA vaccine received the same type additional dose. Whereas 93% had detectable antibody after the initial vaccination series, 99.5% had detectable antibodies following an additional dose. Mean (SD) increase in antibody level was 61 ug/mL (103) in those receiving BNT162b2 and 78 ug/mL (143) for those receiving mRNA-1273 (Figure 1). Importantly, of 47 of patients without initial antibody response, 45 (96%) had detectable antibodies following an additional dose. Additional vaccination was generally well tolerated in this population, with 44%, 24%, 25%, and 6% reporting no, mild, moderate, and severe side effects respectively. Discussion: These findings demonstrate robust immunogenicity to additional doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, even amongst patients with undetectable antibody following the initial series. Adverse event rates were low. These data can be used to inform vaccine decisions in patients with a broad array of immune-medicated conditions frequently managed by immunosuppression. (Table Presented) (Figure Presented)

4.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-593, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967335

ABSTRACT

Background: Several SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are highly effective in preventing most infections, serious disease, hospitalization, and death from COVID-19 in the general population, but data regarding their use and efficacy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are limited. In this study we assessed the use patterns and efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in patients with IBD. Methods: We established a multicenter matched case-control cohort of patients with IBD [Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC)] and COVID-19 between February 2020 and December 2020 for the Surveillance of COVID-19 Impact on Long- Term Outcomes in IBD (SCOUT IBD) study. Cases were defined by the presence of COVID- 19-related symptoms and confirmatory SARS-CoV-2 PCR or IgG testing and non-COVID controls were defined as absence of symptoms and both a negative PCR and IgG in 2020. Cases were matched 1:1 to controls based on age, sex and IBD type. Data were collected on vaccine administration in 2021 and incidence of interval COVID-19 (defined as above) between January and September 2021. Results: The total cohort included 502 patients with IBD [UC (n=222, 44%), CD (n=278, 55%), IBD-undefined (n=2, 1%)] of whom 251 had a history of COVID-19 in 2020. The overall vaccination rate was 61% (n=306) with 189 (62%) patients receiving Pfizer-BioNTech, 101 (33%) Moderna, and 12 (4%) Johnson & Johnson. Vaccinated patients were more likely to be older (P=0.02), female (P=0.07), have a co-morbidity (cardiovascular, respiratory, renal) (P=0.04), or currently be on a biologic (P=0.01), and less likely to have had prior COVID-19 (P<0.001) than patients who did not get vaccinated (Table 1). The overall incidence of interval COVID-19 was 1.6% (N=8), with an infection rate of 0.3% (1/311) in vaccinated patients vs. 3.7% (7/184) in unvaccinated patients (P<0.01). Of infections occurring in unvaccinated patients, 1/7 (14.2%) was severe and required hospitalization requiring ICU admission, and the breakthrough infection in the vaccinated patient was mild and self-limited. COVID-19 reinfection occurred in one patient (0.4%) with prior COVID-19 who was unvaccinated. Under multivariable logistic regression, COVID-19 vaccination (aOR 0.05, 95% CI 0.01-0.41) and prior COVID-19 infection (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.01-0.63) were highly protective against interval COVID-19. Conclusion: COVID-19 vaccines are effective in patients with IBD and markedly reduce the incidence of COVID-19. Prior COVID-19 is also protective against subsequent infection, although re-infections may occur at a very low rate. These results reaffirm the importance of COVID-19 vaccination in patients with IBD.(Table Presented)(Table Presented)

5.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-592-S-593, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967334

ABSTRACT

Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and IBD-related biologic therapies are not associated with worse outcomes of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), however, data are lacking regarding the long-term impact of COVID-19 and its inflammatory sequelae on the disease course of IBD. We aimed to investigate the long-term outcomes of patients with IBD and COVID-19. Methods: We performed a multicenter matched case-control study of patients with IBD [Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC)] and COVID-19 between February 2020 and December 2020 at 5 large health systems. Cases were defined by the presence of COVID-19-related symptoms and confirmatory SARS-CoV-2 PCR or IgG testing. Non-COVID controls were defined as absence of symptoms and both a negative PCR and IgG during the study entry period. Cases were matched 1:1 to controls based on age, sex and IBD type. The primary composite outcome was IBD-related hospitalization or surgery, and outcomes were sub-stratified by COVID-19 severity. Results: We identified 251 cases with IBD [UC (n=111, 44%), CD (n=139, 55%)] and confirmed COVID-19, matched with 251 non-COVID-19 IBD controls, with a median follow-up of 394 days. COVID-19 patients had higher rates of prior IBD-related hospitalizations (36% vs. 27%;P=0.03), corticosteroid use (75% vs. 65%;P=0.06), and biologic exposure (73% vs. 64%;P=0.04) than controls. There were no differences in UC extent or CD phenotype between groups. In COVID-19 positive patients, the most common symptoms were fever (61%), cough (48%), fatigue (30%) and diarrhea (28%). Severe COVID-19 (defined as hospitalization, ICU requirement or mechanical ventilation) occurred in 16% (n=39) of cases. The primary composite outcome of IBD-related hospitalization or surgery occurred in 12% (n=38) of cases vs. 15% (n=29) of controls (P=0.24;Table 1). When further stratified by COVID-19 severity, the incidence of the primary composite outcome was highest in patients with severe COVID-19, followed by controls and non-severe COVID-19 (Figure 1). Under multivariate Cox regression, severe COVID-19 remained a predictor of worse IBD outcomes (aHR 2.09, 95% CI 0.91-4.86) whereas non-severe COVID-19 was associated with decreased risk (aHR 0.52, 95% CI 0.28- 0.99). Prior IBD-related hospitalization or surgery (aHR 3.10, 95% CI 1.70-6.57) and current steroid use (aHR 2.17, 95% CI 0.95-4.94) were also predictive of worse IBD outcomes. Conclusion: In this matched case-control study, a history of any COVID-19 infection did not appear to exacerbate the course of IBD, however, severe COVID-19 was associated with worse IBD outcomes. These data suggest that the inflammatory sequelae of COVID-19 may adversely impact the subsequent disease course of IBD. Further studies are required to confirm these associations, which underscore the importance of COVID-19 mitigation measures.(Table Presented) (Figure Presented)

6.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-591-S-592, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967332

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Ozanimod, a sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor S1P1 and S1P5 modulator, is approved in the United States for moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis (UC) and in multiple countries for relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS). We describe COVID-19 outcomes in ozanimod-treated UC or MS patients in active phase 3 open-label extension studies. Methods: A database search identified COVID-19 infection reports in ozanimodtreated patients with UC in the True North open-label extension and MS in the DAYBREAK open-label extension. The analysis period was November 1, 2019 to either August 31, 2021 (UC) or May 10, 2021 (MS). The last COVID-19 event from all patients with ³1 event was analyzed. Results: Among 2792 ozanimod-treated patients with UC or MS, 258 developed COVID-19 (confirmed: 215);thus, the incidence in these clinical trial settings was 9.2% during the analysis periods. Most patients with confirmed cases (193/215 [89.8%]) had nonserious infections not requiring hospitalization or meeting other International Conference on Harmonisation criteria for a serious event. Of 611 ozanimod-treated patients with UC, 68 (11.1%) developed COVID-19 (confirmed: 55;Figure 1). A majority of UC patients with confirmed cases (45/55 [81.8%]) had nonserious COVID-19;most (54/55 [98.2%]) recovered (2 with sequalae) and 1 was recovering at data cutoff. One UC patient with confirmed COVID-19 discontinued ozanimod (1.8%), 23 temporarily interrupted it (41.8%), and 31 had no change to treatment (56.4%). No COVID-19-related deaths were reported in UC patients. Of 2181 ozanimod-treated pts with MS, 190 (8.7%) developed COVID-19 (confirmed: 160;Figure 2). Most MS patients with confirmed COVID-19 (148/160 [92.5%]) had nonserious cases;most (158/160 [98.8%]) recovered (5 with sequelae) (Figure 1). No MS patients with confirmed cases discontinued ozanimod, 61 temporarily interrupted it (38.1%), and 99 had no change to treatment (61.9%). Outcomes in 13 additional UC patients (Figure 1) and 30 additional MS patients (Figure 2) with suspected COVID-19 were similar to those with confirmed cases. There were 3 COVID-19-related deaths in the MS program. Conclusion: In the UC and MS open-label extension studies, most patients with confirmed COVID-19 had nonserious infections, recovered, and did not require ozanimod discontinuation. There were 3 deaths in MS patients (case-fatality rate 1.6% in MS, 1.2% overall). (Figure Presented)(Figure Presented)

7.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-334610

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Risk calculators can facilitate shared medical decision-making 1 . Demographics, comorbidities, medication use, geographic region, and other factors may increase the risk for COVID-19-related complications among patients with IBD 2,3 . OBJECTIVES: Develop an individualized prognostic risk prediction tool for predicting the probability of adverse COVID-19 outcomes in patients with IBD. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This study developed and validated prognostic penalized logistic regression models 4 using reports to Surveillance Epidemiology of Coronavirus Under Research Exclusion for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (SECURE-IBD) from March-October 2020. Model development was done using a training data set (85% of cases reported March 13 - September 15, 2020), and model validation was conducted using a test data set (the remaining 15% of cases plus all cases reported September 16-October 20, 2020). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: COVID-19 related:Hospitalization+: composite outcome of hospitalization, ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, or deathICU+: composite outcome of ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, or deathDeathWe assessed the resulting models' discrimination using the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curves and reported the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: We included 2709 cases from 59 countries (mean age 41.2 years [s.d. 18], 50.2% male). A total of 633 (24%) were hospitalized, 137 (5%) were admitted to the ICU or intubated, and 69 (3%) died. 2009 patients comprised the training set and 700 the test set. The models demonstrated excellent discrimination, with a test set AUC (95% CI) of 0.79 (0.75, 0.83) for Hospitalization+, 0.88 (0.82, 0.95) for ICU+, and 0.94 (0.89, 0.99) for Death. Age, comorbidities, corticosteroid use, and male gender were associated with higher risk of death, while use of biologic therapies was associated with a lower risk. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Prognostic models can effectively predict who is at higher risk for COVID-19-related adverse outcomes in a population of IBD patients. A free online risk calculator ( https://covidibd.org/covid-19-risk-calculator/ ) is available for healthcare providers to facilitate discussion of risks due to COVID-19 with IBD patients. The tool numerically and visually summarizes the patient's probabilities of adverse outcomes and associated CIs. Helping physicians identify their highest-risk patients will be important in the coming months as cases rise in the US and worldwide. This tool can also serve as a model for risk stratification in other chronic diseases. KEY POINTS: Question: How well can a multivariable risk model predict the risk of hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, or death due to COVID-19 in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)?Findings: Multivariable prediction models developed using data from an international voluntary registry of IBD patients and available for use online ( https://covidibd.org/ ) have very good discrimination for predicting hospitalization (Test set AUC 0.79) and excellent discrimination for ICU admission (Test set AUC 0.88) and death (Test set AUC 0.94). The models were developed with a training sample of 2009 cases and validated in an independent test sample of 700 cases comprised of a random sub-sample of cases and all cases entered in the registry during a one-month period after model development. Meaning: This risk prediction model may serve as an effective tool for healthcare providers to facilitate conversations about COVID-19-related risks with IBD patients.

8.
Journal of Crohn's and Colitis ; 16:i046-i048, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1722294

ABSTRACT

Background: An association between shorter disease duration and improved clinical efficacy has been shown in post hoc analyses of clinical trial data with biological therapies in Crohn's disease (CD). The efficacy and safety of risankizumab (RZB) as induction and maintenance therapy have been recently reported. Here, the efficacy of RZB stratified by baseline CD duration is reported. Methods: In ADVANCE (NCT03105128) and MOTIVATE (NCT03104413), patients with moderately to severely active CD received intravenous (IV) RZB induction therapy or placebo (PBO) for 12 weeks. Patients with clinical response to RZB IV induction were re-randomised in a 52-week maintenance study (FORTIFY, NCT03105102) to receive subcutaneous (SC) RZB or PBO (ie, withdrawal). For this post-hoc analysis, patient subgroups were stratified by years of CD duration at baseline (< 2, 2-5, > 5-10, and > 10 years). Induction analyses focused on patients who received RZB 600 mg IV or PBO for 12 weeks. As all patients who entered maintenance responded to RZB IV induction, maintenance analyses were limited to those patients who responded to induction and then received RZB 360 mg SC for 52 weeks. Clinical and endoscopic outcomes were evaluated using nonresponder imputation incorporating multiple imputation to handle missing data due to impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Safety was assessed throughout the studies. Results: The induction and maintenance analyses included 527 patients who received RZB 600 mg IV and 141 patients who received RZB 360 mg SC, respectively. At the end of induction (week 12), patients with CD duration of < 2 years achieved higher rates of endoscopic outcomes with IV RZB induction vs patients with longer durations of disease (Figure 1), and regardless of baseline CD duration, greater proportions of RZB-treated patients achieved clinical remission (defined by stool frequency and abdominal pain), endoscopic response, endoscopic remission, and ulcer-free endoscopy vs PBO (P ≤ .05). Clinical remission rates at week 12 were numerically higher in patients with CD duration of < 5 years vs > 5 years (Figure 1). Similar results for improved clinical and endoscopic outcomes associated with shorter disease duration were observed at week 52 with RZB 360 mg SC maintenance treatment (Figure 2). RZB was well tolerated with lower rates of serious adverse events and serious infections vs PBO in induction, across CD duration subgroups. Conclusion: RZB induction and maintenance therapy was effective and well tolerated with a safety profile generally similar across CD duration subgroups. Achievement of clinical and endoscopic endpoints were higher in patients with shorter duration of CD, suggesting that earlier introduction of RZB therapy may lead to improved outcomes.

9.
Gastroenterology ; 160(6):S-332-S-333, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1598866

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can cause gastrointestinal (GI) symp-toms, which may be associated with improved outcomes. There are limited data on COVID-19 and GI symptoms among inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. We aimed to describe new GI symptoms and their association with clinical outcomes in IBD patients with COVID-19.Methods: We utilized data from the Surveillance of Coronavirus Under Research Exclusion for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (SECURE-IBD), an international, collaborative registry of IBD patients with confirmed COVID-19. Any new GI symptoms during the time of COVID-19 infection were recorded. We performed descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses to characterize patients with and without new GI symptoms. We also performed a sensitivity analysis of new GI symptoms comparing patients in remission versus those not in remission by physician global assessment. Multivariable logistic regression assessed independent associ-ation of any new GI symptoms with the odds of death due to COVID-19 adjusting for age, sex, race, number of comorbidities, baseline corticosteroid use, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonist use.Results: Of 2,917 IBD patients with COVID-19, 764 (26.2%) experienced new GI symptoms. The most commonly reported new GI symptom was diarrhea (Table 1). IBD was noted to be in remission in 382 (50%) patients at time of COVID-19 infection. New GI symptoms were common (23.3%) among IBD patients in remission though were more frequently observed in patients with active disease (29.4%). Patients with new GI symptoms were more likely to be older, female, have active disease, of Asian race, and have at least one co-morbidity (Table 2). Patients on any medication, in particular TNF antagonist monotherapy, were less likely to report new GI symptoms. On bivariate analyses, IBD patients with new GI symptoms were more likely to be hospitalized (31.4% vs. 19.2%, p<0.001) but were not more likely to require intensive care/ventilator (5.8% vs. 4.6%, p=0.18) or die due to COVID-19 (2.0% vs 2.5%, p=0.39). On multivariable analysis, new GI symptoms were not significanlty associated with risk of death due to COVID-19 (adjusted OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.38-1.36).Conclusion: New GI symptoms are common among IBD patients with COVID-19. Diarrhea was the most predominant symptom. Patients in remission and those with active disease both frequently reported new GI symptoms. While IBD patients with new GI symptoms were more likely to be hospitalized, they were not more likely to die due to COVID-19.(Table Presented)Table 1. Description of Gastrointestinal (GI) Symptoms Among IBD Patients with COVID-19. New GI symptoms reported among all patients and stratified by disease activity at time of COVID-19 infection.(Table Presented)

10.
Gastroenterology ; 160(6):S-329-S-330, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1598320

ABSTRACT

Background: Risk calculators can be an important tool for enabling shared decision making between patients and their health care providers. Demographics, comorbidities, medication use, geographic region, and other factors may increase the risk for complications from COVID-patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We developed a prognostic risk prediction tool for estimating the probability of hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and death due to COVID-19 in patients with IBD. Methods: Based on reports to Surveillance Epidemiology of Coronavirus Under Research Exclusion for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (SECURE-IBD) from March to October 2020, we modeled the probability of Hospitalization+ (a composite outcome of hospitalization, ICU and/or death), ICU+ (a composite outcome of ICU admission, intubation, and/or death) and Death separately using the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection set consisting of a random sample of cases reported between March 2020 and a pre-set cutoff date. Model validation was conducted using a test data set consisting of the remaining cases not in the training data plus all additional cases from one month past the cutoff date. We assessed the resulting models' discrimination using the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curves and corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Results: Overall, 2709 cases from 59 countries were included (mean age 41.3 years (s.d. 633 (24%) were hospitalized, 137 (5%) were admitted to ICU or intubated, and 69 (3%) died. The models have excellent discrimination, with an AUC and associated 95% confidence interval estimated on the test data set of 0.79 (0.75, 0.83) for Hospitalization+, 0.88 (0.82, 0.95) for ICU+, and 0.95 (0.91, 0.99) for Death. Age, comorbidities, corticosteroid use, and male sex were associated with higher risk of death while use of biologic therapies was associated with a lower risk of death (Figure 1). The online risk calculator is free and publicly available at https://covidibd.org/covid-19-riskcalculator/ for health care providers to facilitate discussion of the risk from COVID-19 with their IBD patients (Figure 2). After the physician inputs patient information, the prediction tool numerically and visually summarizes the patient’s probabilities of adverse outcomes intervals. Conclusion: Prognostic models can effectively predict who is at higher risk for COVID-19-related adverse outcomes in a population of IBD patients. The risk calculator could provide a basis for distinguishing between high and low-risk patients to aid in personalizing clinical guidance.

11.
Gastroenterology ; 160(6):S-332, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1596783

ABSTRACT

Background: Comorbidities Increase The Risk Covid-19 Morbidity And Mortality. As Comorbidities Are Common In Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (Ibd), We Sought To Evaluate The Effect Of Comorbidities On Covid-19 Outcomes Among Ibd Patients. Methods: Data Were Obtained From Surveillance Epidemiology Of Coronavirus Under Research Exclusion For Inflammatory Bowel Disease (Secure-Ibd), An International Registry To Determine Characteristics And Outcomes Of Covid-19 In Ibd Patients. We Used Multivariable Regression To Analyze Associations Between Eleven Non-Ibd Comorbidities And Covid-19-Related Hospitalization Or Death. We First Modeled Each Comorbidity Individually, Adjusting Potential Confounders Such As Age, Gender, Race, Ethnicity And Medication Use. Then, To Determine The Independent Effects Of Each Comorbidity, We Fit A Model Including All Comorbidities As Covariates. Results: 2,035 Patients From 58 Countries Were Included (Mean Age Was 42.7 Years, 50.6% Male). A Total Of 538 Patients (26.4%) Experienced Covid-19-Related Hospitalization Or Death. Of Eleven Comorbidities Analyzed, All But A History Of Stroke And Obesity Were Associated With Hospitalization Or Death In Our Initial Analysis, With Adjusted Odds Ratio (Aor) Ranging From 1.9 (Asthma And Cardiovascular Disease) To 3.7 (Chronic Kidney Disease). After Adjusting For Age, Sex, Medications, And Comorbidites Found To Significantly Influence Severe Covid-19 In The Initial Analysis, The Independent Associations For Most Comorbidities Remained Significant And Were Strongest For Chronic Kidney Disease (Aor 3.02, 95% Ci 1.45-6.31) And Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Copd) (Aor 2.92, 95% Ci 1.32-6.48) (Table 1). Conclusion: Comorbidities Are Associated With Covid-19 Hospitalization And Death Among Ibd Patients. These Data Can Be Used To Risk-Stratify Ibd Patients And Guide Treatment And Lifestyle Decisions During The Ongoing Pandemic. (Table Presented) Independent Effects Of Individual Comorbidities On The Risk Of Hospitalization Or Death From Covid-19 In Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

12.
Gastroenterology ; 160(6):S-525, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1594630

ABSTRACT

Background: Cases of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have emerged in discrete waves across different regions in the world. We explored temporal trends in the reporting of COVID-19 in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in a large global database. Methods: The Surveillance Epidemiology of Coronavirus Under Research Exclusion for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (SECURE-IBD) is an international registry to study the character-istics and outcomes of patients with IBD diagnosed with COVID-19. Joinpoint regression models calculated the average percent change (APC) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) in weekly reported cases of COVID-19 in patients in the registry stratified by geographic regions (Asia, Europe, Latin America, and North America) during two time periods: March 22 to September 12 and September 13 to November 14, 2020. We also determined the APC in US regions (Midwest, Northeast, South and West) during the two time periods. Results: Across 63 countries and dependencies, 3,195 cases of COVID-19 in people with IBD were reported over an 8-month period. Overall, COVID-19 reporting steadily decreased throughout the world by 4.5% per week (95% CI: −5.7, −3.2) from March 22 to September 12, 2020 but then steadily climbed by 12.4% per week (95% CI: 6.8, 18.3) from September 13 to November 14, 2020. After stratification by geographic region, weekly reporting declined before September 13 in North America (APC = −2.0%;95% CI: −3.7, −0.4), Asia (APC =− 4.4%;95% CI: −7.8, −0.9), and Europe (APC = −8.6%;95% CI: −10.6, −6.6), but escalated in Latin America (APC = 3.4%;95% CI: 0.7, 6.1) (Figure 1). After September 12, the rate of weekly cases decreased in Latin America (APC = −19.0%;95% CI: −33.3, −1.7) and Asia (APC = −19.3%;95% CI: −34.6, −0.5), while increased in North America (APC = 10.7%;95% CI: 4.3, 17.4) and Europe (APC = 28.0%;95% CI: 17.3, 39.6) (Figure 1). Within the US, temporal trends differed by region: Midwest (stable APC: −0.8%;95% CI: −3.5, 1.9 then increase APC: 27.3%;95%: 16.1, 39.6), Northeast (decrease APC: −9.1%;95% CI:− 11.8, −6.2 then stable APC: 2.4%;95% CI: −9.9, 16.5), South (increase APC: 5.3%;95%CI: 2.5, 8.3 then decrease APC: −12.0;95% CI: −18.4, −5.0), and West (stable APC: 0.2%;95% CI: −3.0, 3.5 then stable APC: 9.0%;95% CI: −13.8, 37.9) (Figure 2). Conclusion: COVID-19 reporting to SECURE-IBD declined steadily during the first wave of the pandemic throughout the world except Latin America. Starting in September, reports to SECURE-IBD rose in both Europe and North America, consistent with the second wave of the pandemic in these countries.(Figure presented)Figure 1. Global regional temporal trends in reporting of COVID-19 in patients with IBD from the SECURE-IBD registry: A. Asia, B. Europe, C. Latin America, and D. North America: March 22–28 to September 6-12 and September 13-19 to November 8–14, 2020(Figure presented)Figure 2. United States regional temporal trends in reporting of COVID-19 in patients with IBD from the SECURE-IBD registry: A. Midwest, B. Northeast, C. South, and D. West: March 22–28 to September 6-12 and September 13-19 to November 8–14, 2020

13.
Gastroenterology ; 160(6):S-331, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1590915

ABSTRACT

Background The impact of immune-modifying therapies on outcomes of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may vary depending on their mechanism of action. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of vedolizumab (VDZ), a gut-selective anti-integrin, on COVID-19 outcomes in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Methods Utilizing data from the Surveillance of Coronavirus Under Research Exclusion for IBD (SECUREIBD), an international, collaborative registry of IBD patients with confirmed COVID-19, we studied the impact of VDZ use compared to non-use, and VDZ monotherapy compared to anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) monotherapy, on hospitalization and severe COVID-19 (intensive care unit stay, mechanical ventilation and/or death) in adult IBD patients using multivariable logistic regression analyses. Backward selection of covariates was performed to obtain parsimonious models. P values #0.05 were considered significant for all analyses. Results Of 2,631 adult patients with confirmed COVID-19 on any IBD medication in the registry as of November 11, 2020, 312 (11.9%) patients were on VDZ of whom 236 (9.0%) were on VDZ monotherapy. A total of 731 (27.8%) patients were on an anti-TNF monotherapy. COVID-19 outcomes were similar for VDZ users versus non-users [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74 to 1.09 for hospitalization and 1.12, 95% CI 0.60 to 2.10 for severe COVID-19, Table]. However, compared to anti-TNF monotherapy, VDZ monotherapy was positively associated with hospitalization and severe COVID-19 (aOR 1.66, 95% CI 1.17 to 2.35 and 4.71, 95% CI 1.65 to 13.45, respectively). Discussion VDZ use, compared to non-use, was not associated with adverse COVID-19 outcomes. However, when compared to anti-TNF monotherapy, VDZ monotherapy was associated with increased risk of hospitalization and ICU requirement/death. These findings suggest the comparable safety of VDZ relative to most other IBD therapies. The observed effect of anti-TNF may be related to improved safety and/or a possible protective effect against more aggressive COVID-19.(Table presented) Table: Multivariable regression analyses with backward selection of covariates for COVID-19 outcomes by medication class from adult cases in the SECURE-IBD registry

14.
Gastroenterology ; 160(6):S-338, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1590914

ABSTRACT

Introduction In the United States (US), race and ethnicity impact outcomes of chronic diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to evaluate racial and ethnic disparities in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes among IBD patients and to assess the degree to which observed disparities may be attributed to non-IBD comorbidities. Methods Using data from the Surveillance of Coronavirus Under Research Exclusion for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (SECURE-IBD), an international, collaborative registry of IBD patients with confirmed COVID-19, we used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate associations between race and ethnicity and COVID-19 outcomes. These included hospitalization and severe COVID-19 defined as a composite of intensive care unit stay, mechanical ventilation and/or death. Results We analyzed 988 US cases (96 [9.7%] Hispanic;141 [14.3%] non-Hispanic Black;680 [68.8%] non-Hispanic White). Bivariate analyses of outcomes are reported in the Table. Compared to non-Hispanic White patients, Hispanic patients had higher odds of hospitalization [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.01, 95% CI 1.07 to 3.79] but not severe COVID-19 (2.75, 95% CI 0.93 to 8.10). Compared to non-Hispanic White patients, non-Hispanic Black patients had higher odds of hospitalizations (aOR 2.47, 95% CI 1.48 to 4.11) and severe COVID-19 (2.50, 95% CI 1.01 to 6.20) after adjusting for age, sex, and IBD activity (Figure). Upon adjusting for comorbidities, the odds of hospitalization and severe COVID-19 remained unchanged in Hispanic individuals compared to non-White Hispanic individuals (aOR 2.14, 95% CI 1.09 to 4.18 for hospitalizations and 2.69, 95% CI 0.77 to 9.38 for severe COVID-19), but decreased in Black individuals compared to non-White Hispanic individuals (aOR 2.21, 95% CI 1.30 to 3.76 for hospitalization and 2.13, 95% CI 0.81 to 5.59 for severe COVID-19). Conclusions The odds of adverse COVID-19 outcomes are higher in Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black, compared with non-Hispanic White individuals with IBD, accounted for partially by underlying comorbidities. (Table presented) COVID-19 Outcomes for United States cases reported to SECURE-IBD, overall and stratified by race/ethnicity (Figure presented) Odds ratios of A) hospitalization due to COVID-19 and B) severe COVID-19 outcomes (ICU stay, mechanical ventilation or death) among Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic White individuals and among non-Hispanic Black vs. non-Hispanic White individuals

15.
PUBMED; 2021.
Preprint in English | PUBMED | ID: ppcovidwho-293123

ABSTRACT

Importance: Risk calculators can facilitate shared medical decision-making 1 . Demographics, comorbidities, medication use, geographic region, and other factors may increase the risk for COVID-19-related complications among patients with IBD 2,3 . Objectives: Develop an individualized prognostic risk prediction tool for predicting the probability of adverse COVID-19 outcomes in patients with IBD. Design Setting and Participants: This study developed and validated prognostic penalized logistic regression models 4 using reports to Surveillance Epidemiology of Coronavirus Under Research Exclusion for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (SECURE-IBD) from March-October 2020. Model development was done using a training data set (85% of cases reported March 13 - September 15, 2020), and model validation was conducted using a test data set (the remaining 15% of cases plus all cases reported September 16-October 20, 2020). Main Outcomes and Measures: COVID-19 related:Hospitalization+: composite outcome of hospitalization, ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, or deathICU+: composite outcome of ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, or deathDeathWe assessed the resulting models' discrimination using the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curves and reported the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: We included 2709 cases from 59 countries (mean age 41.2 years [s.d. 18], 50.2% male). A total of 633 (24%) were hospitalized, 137 (5%) were admitted to the ICU or intubated, and 69 (3%) died. 2009 patients comprised the training set and 700 the test set. The models demonstrated excellent discrimination, with a test set AUC (95% CI) of 0.79 (0.75, 0.83) for Hospitalization+, 0.88 (0.82, 0.95) for ICU+, and 0.94 (0.89, 0.99) for Death. Age, comorbidities, corticosteroid use, and male gender were associated with higher risk of death, while use of biologic therapies was associated with a lower risk. Conclusions and Relevance: Prognostic models can effectively predict who is at higher risk for COVID-19-related adverse outcomes in a population of IBD patients. A free online risk calculator ( https://covidibd.org/covid-19-risk-calculator/ ) is available for healthcare providers to facilitate discussion of risks due to COVID-19 with IBD patients. The tool numerically and visually summarizes the patient's probabilities of adverse outcomes and associated CIs. Helping physicians identify their highest-risk patients will be important in the coming months as cases rise in the US and worldwide. This tool can also serve as a model for risk stratification in other chronic diseases. Key Points: Question: How well can a multivariable risk model predict the risk of hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, or death due to COVID-19 in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)?Findings: Multivariable prediction models developed using data from an international voluntary registry of IBD patients and available for use online ( https://covidibd.org/ ) have very good discrimination for predicting hospitalization (Test set AUC 0.79) and excellent discrimination for ICU admission (Test set AUC 0.88) and death (Test set AUC 0.94). The models were developed with a training sample of 2009 cases and validated in an independent test sample of 700 cases comprised of a random sub-sample of cases and all cases entered in the registry during a one-month period after model development. Meaning: This risk prediction model may serve as an effective tool for healthcare providers to facilitate conversations about COVID-19-related risks with IBD patients.

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