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1.
IEEE Transactions on Radiation and Plasma Medical Sciences ; : 1-1, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20244069

ABSTRACT

Automatic lung infection segmentation in computed tomography (CT) scans can offer great assistance in radiological diagnosis by improving accuracy and reducing time required for diagnosis. The biggest challenges for deep learning (DL) models in segmenting infection region are the high variances in infection characteristics, fuzzy boundaries between infected and normal tissues, and the troubles in getting large number of annotated data for training. To resolve such issues, we propose a Modified U-Net (Mod-UNet) model with minor architectural changes and significant modifications in the training process of vanilla 2D UNet. As part of these modifications, we updated the loss function, optimization function, and regularization methods, added a learning rate scheduler and applied advanced data augmentation techniques. Segmentation results on two Covid-19 Lung CT segmentation datasets show that the performance of Mod-UNet is considerably better than the baseline U-Net. Furthermore, to mitigate the issue of lack of annotated data, the Mod-UNet is used in a semi-supervised framework (Semi-Mod-UNet) which works on a random sampling approach to progressively enlarge the training dataset from a large pool of unannotated CT slices. Exhaustive experiments on the two Covid-19 CT segmentation datasets and on a real lung CT volume show that the Mod-UNet and Semi-Mod-UNet significantly outperform other state-of-theart approaches in automated lung infection segmentation. IEEE

2.
Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Device Intelligence, Computing and Communication Technologies, DICCT 2023 ; : 401-405, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20244068

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 virus spread very rapidly if we come in contact to the other person who is infected, this was treated as acute pandemic. As per the data available at WHO more than 663 million infected cases reported and 6.7 million deaths are confirmed worldwide till Dec, 2022. On the basis of this big reported number, we can say that ignorance can cause harm to the people worldwide. Most of the people are vaccinated now but as per standard guideline of WHO social distancing is best practiced to avoid spreading of COVID-19 variants. This is difficult to monitor manually by analyzing the persons live cameras feed. Therefore, there is a need to develop an automated Artificial Intelligence based System that detects and track humans for monitoring. To accomplish this task, many deep learning models have been proposed to calculate distance among each pair of human objects detected in each frame. This paper presents an efficient deep learning monitoring system by considering distance as well as velocity of the object detected to avoid each frame processing to improve the computation complexity in term of frames/second. The detected human object closer to some allowed limit (1m) marked by red color and all other object marked with green color. The comparison of with and without direction consideration is presented and average efficiency found 20.08 FPS (frame/Second) and 22.98 FPS respectively, which is 14.44% faster as well as preserve the accuracy of detection. © 2023 IEEE.

3.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research ; 79(2):193-198, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2324660

ABSTRACT

Various guidelines recommend steroid in only severe COVID-19 patients. But in hospitals steroids are being rampantly used even at the beginning of symptom onset. Some studies indicate starting steroid only in severe and/or patients on mechanical ventilation while some suggest starting in first 5-7 days to stave off cytokine storm. Hence this study was undertaken with the aim to study the relationship between initiation of steroid therapy and clinical outcome in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The data for this study was collected from the medical records of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in a tertiary care hospital. Evaluation of relationship between day of initiating steroid therapy and dose with the clinical outcome was done in terms of all-cause mortality, duration of hospital stay, requirement of assisted ventilation, requirement of ICU and requirement of oxygen therapy. Patients were categorized according to the day of initiating steroid after symptom onset or RTPCR or RAT positivity date, whichever was earlier in 4-7 days group, 8-10 days group and 11-14 days group. And according to dose given of methylprednisolone per day in 40 mg and 80 mg groups. All-cause mortality was significantly less in 8-10 days group (25.78%) compared to 4-7 days (38%) and 11-14 days group (39.68%) and significantly less in 40 mg group (26.67%) compared to 80 mg group (38.46%). Starting steroid between 8-10 days and in low dose (40 mg) is more beneficial in terms of all-cause mortality.Copyright © 2023, Global Research Online. All rights reserved.

4.
2nd International Conference on Information Technology, InCITe 2022 ; 968:539-547, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2305052

ABSTRACT

Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease caused by severe acute respiratory symptoms. It has been declared a global pandemic since 2019 by the World Health Organization. Countries are in an authoritarian state of preventing and controlling this pandemic, and the USA is the central hub. The COVID-19 virus has also shown variance. As an outcome of the genetic recombination of genes that arise from coronavirus, their short life span results in mutations that promote new strains. However, the number of individuals who passed their lives is still counted. Additionally, it is crucial to analyze the spread of the virus before it is deferred in the lungs. In this research, the effort has been taken to predict the proliferation of the virus through various chest radiography images by data clustering. In this study, two clustering algorithms, i.e., the K-means algorithm and the Fuzzy c-means algorithm, have been used better to analyze the spread of the virus in the lungs. These algorithms are further being compared and evaluated for the precise result of both models. This study helps to recognize the most suitable clustering model for the COVID-19 prediction and spread of the virus in the lung. © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2023.

5.
Business Perspectives and Research ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2305051

ABSTRACT

After COVID, Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), suppliers, and distributors are seeking to streamline their local, and global supply chains, the issue has gained attention in how they identify, analyze and manage their procurement and supply chain processes with stakeholders. The use of supply chain adoption with green technology has been found to be preferred in international trade, which is forcing the Indian manufacturing, and services sector to realign their CSR (Corporate social responsibility) goals. Interviews have been conducted with a mix of manufacturing and service firms in India to map their sustainable procurement in green supply chain practices. The use of MAXQDA software for conducting thematic analysis to support the inductive theory and trend-building practices to know "what, why, and how” from interview responses. Each sector, manufacturing, and service showed distinct trends that divorce their approach to green SCM, and supply chain strategy for sustainable procurement though they have spread awareness about sustainable procurement with stakeholders, emphasizing economic benefits. Additionally, they pursued jointly to address environmental issues and extend societal benefits as a CSR effort. Variances in approaches in manufacturing are market-linked, time-based, and demand-driven while services firms showed green technology pledges as CSR initiatives along with an environmental emphasis in downstream SCM activities. © 2023 K.J. Somaiya Institute of Management Studies and Research.

6.
Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development ; 14(2):307-313, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2281668

ABSTRACT

A total of 77 literatures till November 2020 were screened regarding various interventions to treat COVID-19 patients, among which 16 and 15 studies fulfilling predefined exclusion and inclusion criteria were subjected to Pairwise and Network meta-analysis respectively. In Pairwise meta-analysis, the recovery rate of treatment with Lopinavir/Ritonavir versus other antiviral (OR= 0. 0381, CI= 0.0021-0.6870), placebo (OR= 0.6592, CI= 0.4207-1. 0329), Remdesivir (OR= 0.5286, CI= 0.3915-0.7137) and standard care (OR= 0.9787, CI= 0.8523-1.1238) in fixed and random effect model with 95% confidence limit found statistically significant protection than those of all other treatment. In Network meta-analysis, recovery estimates sizes of treatment, in reference with other antivirals 1.0000 (0.9917, 1.0000) shows less risk with treatment Standard care 0.7811 (0.6696, 0.8417), Remdesivir 0.7717 (0.6491, 0.8144), Lopinavir/ Ritonavir 0.7801 (0.6701, 0.8473), Placebo 0.7219 (0.6178, 0.7836).Copyright © 2023, Institute of Medico-legal Publication. All rights reserved.

7.
Fishery Technology ; 59(4):303-310, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2124870

ABSTRACT

The usage of mobile-based agro-advisories and its utilization pattern was unclear, especially in the case of fisheries and aquaculture in Tripura, coming under the North-Eastern region of India, where 1.87 lakh population was primarily identified as fish farmers. Similar to other parts of the country, the COVID-19 outbreak hampered fishery and aquaculture in Tripura, and farmers were physically barred from accessing support systems and technical facilities of different organizations. In view of that, the present study was performed to identify all such mobile-based advisories related to fish farming, which were actively circulated in the state during the COVID-19 outbreak. The accessibility, perceived level of satisfaction, and utility of those mobile-based advisories were studied. It was found that out of 120 respondents, 102 actively sought/accessed some of these advisory services. The advisory on fish farming, released by the Department of Fisheries (DoF), Tripura, was accessed by more than half of the respondents (54.17 %), followed by 'Mobile Based Agro-Advisory' system (20.83 %) under the 'Matsya Varta' project of College of Fisheries, Central Agricultural University (COF-CAU), Tripura. Other advisories from KVKs were also accessed by the respondents (9.16 %) indicating a significant rate of accessibility and utility. The findings suggest the existence of adequate advisory services in the state during COVID-19 outbreak.

8.
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology ; 15(1):4845-4882, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2124596

ABSTRACT

'Corona', this alarming word comes from the 'Latin' word 'Crown' that protects the virus. On Dec, 19, firstly, this virus was isolated from three patients having pneumonia connected to a cluster of acute illnesses. WHO declared it a 'pandemic' in Jan, 20 but later in Feb, WHO's general director Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus named the virus nCOVID-19. It was first identified in Wuhan, China, as a respiratory illness causing novel diseases (SARS and MERS). CDC informed corona primarily causes mild to moderate upper RTI and, in a few cases, lower RTI (pneumonia, bronchitis). Transmission occurs through direct contact or air droplets of sneezing, coughing, etc. The origin is not clear, but recent studies reported that ACE 2, a membrane exopeptidase receptor, was used to enter the human cell. The primary symptoms are fever above 104 degrees F, shortness of breath, pneumonia, throat soreness, diarrhea, etc. Available approved therapeutics include hydroxychloroquine. This current review updates about the viral transmission and main effect of this virus on children, pregnant women, diabetic, and cancer patients.

9.
Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment ; 16(3), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2040284

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted in Lucknow city to assess the impact of firecracker burning during Diwali, from 2 November 2021-6 November 2021 including the pre and post-Diwali days. The concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, CO, O3, benzene and toluene, were monitored from the Central Pollution Control Board site on an hourly basis. The Air Quality Index was also recorded for PM10, PM2.5, SO2 and NO2. A questionnaire survey was done with 51 doctors to know the reported complaints post-Diwali. On Diwali night the PM2.5 value reached 262 μg m-3 around 22:00 hours and the maximum value (900 μg m-3) was obtained on 5 November, reported from the Central School monitoring station. From Gomti Nagar highest PM2.5 value obtained on Diwali day was 538 μg m-3 at 23:00 hours reaching 519 μg m-3 post-Diwali. Areas belonging to the old part of the city witnessed higher variations as PM2.5 crossed 900 μg m-3, in Lalbagh and Talkatora areas. The multivariate analysis showed that on Diwali night there was an increase of 204, 386, 344 and 341 in the PM2.5 concentration reported from Gomtinagar, Central School, Talkatora and Lalbagh stations, showing that firecracker burning resulted in a significant increase in air pollution. The Toluene/Benzene ratio was mostly more than 1 indicating that toluene and benzene may be emitted from other sources as well including the mobile sources. Around 50-75% rise was seen in the number of patients post-Diwali. 57.1% of the reported cases had respiratory issues, followed by allergic reactions. The data obtained from Lalbagh, Talkatora and Central School showed that although the values remained high, a decreasing trend was seen in the AQI compared to previous years which is a good sign and may be attributed to public awareness and the ongoing pandemic making people conscious © 2022 by Asian Association for Atmospheric Environment

10.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):8, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880343

ABSTRACT

Background: Systemic and local inflammation following SARS-CoV-2 infection has been widely described and predictive of disease severity and death. However, the exact immune mediators driving inflammation contributing to SARS-CoV-2 host defense vs. those driving immune-mediated pathology in humans have not been fully elucidated. Deficiencies in type-I interferon (IFN-I) responses, including inborn errors to genes in the IFN-I pathway, neutralizing auto-antibodies against all subtypes of IFN-I, or the lack of production of IFN-I, are associated with severe COVID-19 in otherwise healthy individuals. Conversely, sustained IFN-I responses have been shown to contribute to severe COVID-19 by exacerbating inflammation, and prolonged IFN-I signaling has been shown to interfere with lung repair following viral infection and to increase susceptibility to bacterial infections. Thus, it is critical to understand the roles of IFN-I signaling in COVID-19 to design therapeutic strategies. Methods: Here, we modulated IFN-I signaling in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta;RMs) from day-1 through day 2 post SARS-CoV-2 infection (dpi) using an IFN-I antagonist (IFNant). Eighteen RMs (9 control and 9 IFNant treated) were infected with SARS-CoV-2 on day 0, with 6 RMs sacrificed at 2, 4, and 7dpi. Nasal and throat swabs were collected for viral load;blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) for flow cytometry and RNAseq. Results: IFNant treatment prior to infection resulted in a highly significant and consistent reduction in SARS-CoV-2 viral load in the lower airways (>3-log difference;2dpi BAL) and upper airways (nasal and throat swabs). Treatment with IFNant initiated also potently reduced: (i) soluble markers of inflammation in BAL, (ii) expansion of inflammatory monocytes (CD14+CD16+), and (iii) pathogenesis in the lung. Furthermore, Siglec-1 expression, which has been shown to enhance SARS-CoV-2 infection, was rapidly downregulated in the lung and in monocytes of IFNant-treated RMs. Remarkably, RNAseq analysis showed a robust reduction in pathways associated with inflammation and decreased levels of interferon-stimulated genes post-infection in treated RMs. Thus, IFNant treatment prior to infection resulted in limited viral replication, inflammation, and pathogenesis in SARS-CoV-2-infected RMs. Conclusion: These data indicate a vital, early role of IFN-I in regulating COVID-19 progression and emphasize the importance of understanding IFN-I pathways in COVID-19 for the development of targeted therapeutic strategies.

11.
Journal of Modelling in Management ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1878919

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Facing the challenges posed by the pandemic of COVID-19, this paper aims to contribute to the resilience of businesses through the development of a real options approach (ROA) that provides alternatives and opportunities for a decision process under situations when future events and outcomes are unknown and not capable of being known from current information. Design/methodology/approach: This paper involves a stochastic modelling process in generating a set of absolute option values, using available data and scenarios from the COVID-19 pandemic event. The modelling and simulations using ROA suggest how strategic portfolios resolve the growing problem during the endemic to all but in the most isolated societies. Findings: This study finds the emergent correlation between circuit breakers and lockdowns, which have brought about a “distorted gravity” effect (inverse growth of global businesses and trades). However, “time-to-build” real options (i.e. deferral, expand, switch and compound exchange) start to function in the adaptive-transformative capabilities for growth opportunities of both government and corporate sectors. Significantly, some sectors grow faster than others while the compound exchange remains primarily challenging. Clearly, the government and corporate sectors are entangled, inevitably, the decoherence allows for the former to change uncertainty in the latter;therefore, government sector options change option values in the corporate sector. Originality/value: The ROA by empirically focusing on both government and corporate sectors demonstrates under conditions of uncertainty how options in decision-making generate opportunities that hitherto have not been recognised and exercised upon by research in the immediate context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Importantly, the ROA provides an insightful concatenation (capability–behaviour approach) that drives resilience. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

12.
Economic Affairs ; 67(2):37-42, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1877409

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented stresses on food supply chain in the country, with bottlenecks in processing, transportation and logistics, as well as momentous shifts in consumption pattern and demand for fish and other meat. In this study, the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on consumption pattern of fish, chicken, egg, mutton, beef and pork, market availability and as well as prices in North Eastern Region of India was analysed in this study. The study based on primary data collected through online survey method for which a questionnaire framed in Google Form. The sample comprises of total 104 respondents. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test for repeated measure differences between before COVID-19 and during COVID-19 levels of consumption of fish and other non vegetarian food items and quality of fishes supplied during two periods were analysed. It was found that the reduction in consumption of fishes, chicken and beef, during COVID-19 pandemic, were statistically significant. Whereas, the Wilcoxon signed rank test statistics for mutton and pork turned out to be insignificant. During COVID-19 the consumption of local fishes increased due non availability and distortion of fish supply chain. The quality of fishes in terms of freshness, size and odour were also impacted. Due poor availability of fishes, prices of fish increased during COVID-19. The increase in fish prices and poor availability of fishes resulted to shift in purchase of processed fish products in the North Eastern Region in India. The disruption in transportation, logistics, lockdown, etc during COVID-19 impacted trade of fishes as well as its consumption in the region. Hence, efforts for increasing of local supply of fishes as well as the development of resilient supply chain with sufficient storage facilities is needed to cope up under such unprecedented situation.

13.
2nd International Conference on Communication and Artificial Intelligence, ICCAI 2021 ; 435:111-123, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1872367

ABSTRACT

The paper presents the development of a virtual simulation lab that provides theoretical content, simulations, models, videos, animations, comparative simulations, simulation benches, and self-check quizzes for e-learning and self-study. Self-assessment evaluates the learning capability and knowledge of students. Virtual lab may play a role to teach students without any assistance of teachers or professors in this coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic situation. The COVID-19 pandemic situation has barriers between students and universities in delivering lectures in classroom. Virtual simulation labs can change the traditional teaching practices of classroom teaching in the world. The virtual lab is developed due to the limited equipment of experiments and simultaneously assisting students. Web-based educational resources have taken an important place in e-education and self-study through an e-learning platform. Virtual simulation lab is an e-learning platform where students can perform experimentation without any direct involvement on instruments in physical lab. An interactive virtual lab is developed to provide web-based global access to everyone without any authentication. This lab does not require any credentials to login into website. This lab provides multiple options for experimentations of various simulations. This can be accessed through web address http://14.139.245.230/mfvlab/home.php and contains over 950 simulations. Each module contains theory as well as audio embedded videos to reduce time and effort required to understand and analysis of various process parameters. Comparative simulation compares among different materials and processed and different parameters with interactive graphs. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

14.
International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management ; : 28, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1853363

ABSTRACT

Purpose The supply chain (SC) encompasses all actions related to meeting customer requests and transferring materials upstream to meet those demands. Organisations must operate towards increasing SC efficiency and effectiveness to meet SC objectives. Although most businesses expected the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic to severely negatively impact their SCs, they did not know how to model disruptions or their effects on performance in the event of a pandemic, leading to delayed responses, an incomplete understanding of the pandemic's effects and late deployment of recovery measures. Therefore, this study aims to consider the impact of implementing Bayesian network (BN) modelling to measure SC performance in the airline catering context. Design/methodology/approach This study presents a method for modelling and quantifying SC performance assessment for airline catering. In the COVID-19 context, the researchers proposed a BN model to measure SC performance and risk events and quantify the consequences of pandemic disruptions. Findings The study simulates and measures the impact of different triggers on SC performance and business continuity using forward and backward propagation analysis, among other BN features, enabling us to combine various SC perspectives and explicitly account for pandemic scenarios. Originality/value This study's findings offer a fresh theoretical perspective on the use of BNs in pandemic SC disruption modelling. The findings can be used as a decision-making tool to predict and better understand how pandemics affect SC performance.

15.
Aerosol and Air Quality Research ; 22(4), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1792159

ABSTRACT

South Asia is a hotspot of air pollution with limited resilience and hence, understanding the mitigation potential of different sources is critically important. In this context the country lockdown initiated to combat the COVID-19 pandemic (during March and April 2020 that is the pre-monsoon season) provides an unique opportunity for studying the relative impacts of different emission sources in the region. Here, we analyze changes in levels of air quality species across the region during selected lockdown periods using satellite and in-situ datasets. This analysis compares air quality levels during the lockdown against pre-lockdown conditions as well as against regional long-term mean. Satellite derived AOD, NO2, and CO data indicates an increase of 9.5%, 2%, and 2.6%, respectively, during the 2020 lockdown period compared to pre-lockdown over the South Asia domain. However, individual country statistics, urban site data, and industrial grid analysis within the region indicate a more varied picture. Cities with high traffic loads reported a reduction of 12–39% in columnar NO2 during lockdown, in-situ PM2.5 measurements indicate a 23–56% percent reduction over the country capitals and columnar SO2 has an approximate reduction of 50% over industrial areas. In contrast, pollutant emissions from natural sources e.g., from biomass burning were observed to be adversely affecting the air quality in this period potentially masking expected lockdown related air quality improvements. This study demonstrates the need for a more nuanced and situation specific understanding of sources of air pollutants (anthropogenic and natural) and for these sources to be better understood from the local to the regional scale. Without this deeper understanding, mitigation strategies cannot be effectively targeted, wasting limited resources as well as risking unintended consequences both for the atmosphere and how mitigation action is perceived by the wider public. © The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

16.
International Journal of Logistics Management ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print):18, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1684983

ABSTRACT

Purpose This article shows operational excellence achieved during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic using the Lean, Six Sigma and Sustainability practices in small medium enterprise (SME) manufacturing firms and its impact on the performance dimensions of efficiency, growth and profit for firms located in the industrial zones of Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach A quantitative methodology was used and data were collected from a sample of top-level managers from 28 SME manufacturing firms located in the five industrial zones in Pakistan. A total of 62 questionnaires were included in the study. Findings The findings show that awareness levels of Lean, Six Sigma and Sustainability are emerging, and firms are trying to implement these concepts. However, the results show that while Lean and Six Sigma enhance firms' performance in terms of efficiency, profit and growth, sustainability has no impact on these three performance dimensions. Research limitations/implications The quantitative data of a sample of 28 manufacturing firms inevitably present limitations on the generalizability of this work. Future research could employ greater quantitative data to explore the topic further. Only one particular country is studied so that future research could be carried out in other countries or regions. Practical implications This study may have value for policymakers and other stakeholders who need to know more about how Lean, Six Sigma and Sustainability affect a firm's performance in industrial zones in the context of a developing country. Originality/value This paper contributes to knowledge in the field by integrating Lean, Six Sigma and Sustainability with firms' performance during the COVID-19 pandemic by assessing efficiency, growth and profit dimensions where otherwise no empirical research has been undertaken in the Pakistani context.

17.
Pediatric Rheumatology ; 19(SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1571766

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The spectrum of clinical manifestations of COVID-19 in children is expanding since the global emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic from early reports in January 2020 depicting respiratory distress to a severe multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) within various pediatric clusters. There is a paucity of data from resource-poor countries with respect to follow-up outcomes, particularly for coronary artery abnormalities. Considering this, we conducted a single centre prospective longitudinal study to describe the clinical, laboratory, echocardiographic findings and follow-up of children with MIS-C. Objectives: To study the clinical and laboratory characteristics and outcomes of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) temporally related to COVID-19. Methods: All children meeting the WHO case definition of MIS-C were prospectively enrolled. Baseline clinical and laboratory parameters were compared between survivors and non-survivors. Enrolled subjects were followed up for 4-6 weeks for evaluation of cardiac outcomes using echocardiography. The statistical data were analyzed using the SPSS version 12 software. Results: 31 children with MIS-C were enrolled in an eleven-month period. Twelve children had preexisting chronic systemic comorbidity. Fever was a universal finding;gastrointestinal and respiratory manifestations were noted in 70.9% and 64.3%, respectively, while 57.1% had a skin rash. Fifty-eight % of children presented with shock, and 22.5% required mechanical ventilation. The median (IQR) duration of hospital stay was 9 (6.5-18.5) days. Four children with preexisting comorbidities succumbed to the illness. The serum ferritin levels (ng/ml) [median (IQR)] were significantly higher in nonsurvivors as compared to survivors [1061 (581,2750) vs 309.5 (140,720.08), p value=0.045] (table 1). Six children had coronary artery involvement: 5 recovered during follow-up, while one was still admitted. Twenty-six children received immunomodulatory drugs, and five improved without immunomodulation. The choice of immunomodulation (steroids or intravenous immunoglobulin) did not affect the outcome (table 1). Conclusion: Most children with MIS-C present with acute hemodynamic and respiratory symptoms. The outcome is favourable in children without preexisting comorbidities. Raised ferritin level may be a poor prognostic marker. The coronary outcomes on followup were reassuring.

18.
Pantnagar Journal of Research ; 19(2):311-317, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1519430

ABSTRACT

World Health Organization (WHO) China Country Office told instances of pneumonia of unknown etiology found in Wuhan City, Hubei Province of China, thereafter,on seventh January 2020, Chinese specialists recognized another novel strain of Coronavirus as the causative agent of the sickness. The infection agent has been renamed by WHO as SARS-CoV- 2 and the disease brought about by it as COVID-19. The virus first identified in China has now spread to more than 210 nations/domains, with reports of nearby transmission occurring in more than 160 of these nations/regions. According to WHO there has been an aggregate of millions of confirmed cases and a great many passings because of COVID-19 around the world. This study was conducted to determine the determinants of cases, recovered and death of the covid-19 with some demographic and economical factors in Indian states. The correlation analysis showed that total population, male, female, population above 60, no. of literate, person below poverty and private hospital has significant positive correlation with covid-19 cases, recovery and death whereas population density, public hospital, per capita income, shikhs, Christians, vegetarian- nonvegetarian, tobacco smoker, toddy - country liquor, beer, imported alcohol-wine did not show significance.

19.
2021 International Conference on Intelligent Technologies, CONIT 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1416194

ABSTRACT

The rising amount of imminent and ongoing biological threats increases risks at public places. Disinfection is the major chain breaker in the COVID-19 pandemic with UVC source and appropriate intensity. At the same time human safety is a major concern while dealing with actual intense UVC light. We develop a disinfection machine which will be operated automatically and with a contact less system. Intense UV-C radiations will disinfect all the human belongings inside the close chamber of the machine. The project targets public places such as airports, railway stations, Hospitals, Schools, Colleges, Corporates and malls where average footfall is greater to maintain the social distancing norms. Physical implementation of this project at least one of the above places will ensure complete destruction of COVID-19 virus. Time of the disinfection can be varied automatically using IOT and depending on the real time active cases in the locality. Weight sensors, bag detection, battery back up and automation are few added advantages. © 2021 IEEE.

20.
PLoS ONE ; 16(2), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1410690

ABSTRACT

We report clinical profile of hundred and nine patients with SARS CoV-2 infection, and whole genome sequences (WGS) of seven virus isolates from the first reported cases in India, with various international travel histories. Comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease were frequently associated with severity of the disease. WBC and neutrophil counts showed an increase, while lymphocyte counts decreased in patients with severe infection suggesting a possible neutrophil mediated organ damage, while immune activity may be diminished with decrease in lymphocytes leading to disease severity. Increase in SGOT, SGPT and blood urea suggests the functional deficiencies of liver, heart, and kidney in patients who succumbed to the disease when compared to the group of recovered patients. The WGS analysis showed that these isolates were classified into two clades: I/A3i, and A2a (four according to GISAID: O, L, GR, and GH). Further, WGS phylogeny and travel history together indicate possible transmission from Middle East and Europe. Three S protein variants: Wuhan reference, D614G, and Y28H were identified predicted to possess different binding affinities to host ACE2.

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