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1.
Lancet Reg Health Southeast Asia ; 3: 100023, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1945945

ABSTRACT

Background: Surge of SARS CoV-2 infections ascribed to omicron variant began in December 2021 in New Delhi. We determined the infection and reinfection density in a cohort of health care workers (HCWs) along with vaccine effectiveness (VE) against symptomatic infection within omicron transmission period (considered from December 01, 2021 to February 25, 2022. Methods: This is an observational study from the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Data were collected telephonically. Person-time at risk was counted from November 30, 2021 till date of infection/ reinfection, or date of interview. Comparison of clinical features and severity was done with previous pandemic periods. VE was estimated using test-negative case-control design [matched pairs (for age and sex)]. Vaccination status was compared and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were computed by conditional logistic regression. VE was estimated as (1-adjusted OR)X100-. Findings: 11474 HCWs participated in this study. The mean age was 36⋅2 (±10⋅7) years. Complete vaccination with two doses were reported by 9522 (83%) HCWs [8394 (88%) Covaxin and 1072 Covishield (11%)]. The incidence density of all infections and reinfection during the omicron transmission period was 34⋅8 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 33⋅5-36⋅2] and 45⋅6 [95% CI: 42⋅9-48⋅5] per 10000 person days respectively. The infection was milder as compared to previous periods. VE was 52⋅5% (95% CI: 3⋅9-76⋅5, p = 0⋅036) for those who were tested within 14-60 days of receiving second dose and beyond this period (61-180 days), modest effect was observed. Interpretation: Almost one-fifth of HCWs were infected with SARS CoV-2 during omicron transmission period, with predominant mild spectrum of COVID-19 disease. Waning effects of vaccine protection were noted with increase in time intervals since vaccination. Funding: None.

2.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 16(6): 102529, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1889348

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Midlife women undergoing menopausal transition are predisposed to weight gain. Weight gain in midlife is driven by two modifiable risk factors: menopausal symptom's severity and lifestyle practices. The independent and interactive nature of menopausal symptoms and lifestyle practices as risk factors of weight gain has not been investigated yet. This study was undertaken to study menopausal symptoms and lifestyle practices as risk factors for weight gain in midlife women and identify midlife -related barriers in managing corrective lifestyle practices. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, menopausal symptom severity and lifestyle practices such as diet, exercise, and sleep were assessed using a pre-validated and reliable questionnaire on a convenience sample of midlife women (43-55 years) via an interview schedule. The association of lifestyle practices and its barriers with socio-demographics and menopausal symptoms were analysed. RESULT: A total of 504 women (mean age: 47.3 ± 4.1 years) were recruited. More than half of them followed corrective dietary practices, but only one-fourth engaged in moderate-intensity exercises. Total menopausal symptom severity was associated with increased food intake (P < 0.001), joint pain with limited physical activity and hot flashes and emotional volatility with sleep disturbances (P < 0.01). Demographic variables such as education, economic and employment status were associated with unhealthy lifestyle practices. CONCLUSION: Assessment of menopausal symptoms and lifestyle practices as risk factors and associated barriers must be the pivotal component to devise comprehensive women-centric weight management modules. Similar studies should be carried out in future when there is no clear effect of COVID19 on lifestyle factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Healthy Lifestyle , Humans , Menopause , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Weight Gain
3.
Rheumatol Int ; 42(3): 477-484, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473997

ABSTRACT

To study the clinical, laboratory characteristics and outcomes of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) temporally related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a resource-limited setting. All children meeting the World Health Organization case definition of MIS-C were prospectively enrolled. Baseline clinical and laboratory parameters were compared between survivors and non-survivors. Enrolled subjects were followed up for 4-6 weeks for evaluation of cardiac outcomes using echocardiography. The statistical data were analyzed using the stata-12 software. Thirty-one children with MIS-C were enrolled in an 11-month period. Twelve children had preexisting chronic systemic comorbidity. Fever was a universal finding; gastrointestinal and respiratory manifestations were noted in 70.9% and 64.3%, respectively, while 57.1% had a skin rash. Fifty-eight percent of children presented with shock, and 22.5% required mechanical ventilation. HSP like rash, gangrene and arthritis were uncommon clinical observations.The median duration of hospital stay was 9 (6.5-18.5) days: four children with preexisting comorbidities succumbed to the illness. The serum ferritin levels (ng/ml) [median (IQR)] were significantly higher in non-survivors as compared to survivors [1061 (581, 2750) vs 309.5 (140, 720.08), p value = 0.045]. Six patients had coronary artery involvement; five recovered during follow-up, while one was still admitted. Twenty-six children received immunomodulatory drugs, and five improved without immunomodulation. The choice of immunomodulation (steroids or intravenous immunoglobulin) did not affect the outcome. Most children with MIS-C present with acute hemodynamic and respiratory symptoms.The outcome is favorable in children without preexisting comorbidities.Raised ferritin level may be a poor prognostic marker. The coronary outcomes at follow-up were reassuring.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
4.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(5): 102238, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330759

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To evaluate the dose-effect association between COVID-19 vaccination and probability of turning RT-PCR positive and to assess the correlation between disease severity and vaccination status. METHODS: A single centre cross-sectional study was conducted amongst 583 individuals presenting to COVID-19 testing clinic and 55 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Vaccination status was assessed by the number of doses and duration since the last dose. Disease severity was evaluated by the requirement of hospitalisation and ICU admission/death. The association between the vaccination status and development of disease and its severity were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: The mean age of the population was 36.6 years and 82.6% had no comorbidities. The odds of turning RT-PCR positive was 0.17(95% CI: 0.11-0.27) among the clinical suspects who had taken both doses of the vaccine at least 14 days before (fully vaccinated). The odds of hospitalisation was 0.12(95% CI: 0.03-0.45) and ICU admission/death was 0.07(95% CI: 0.01-0.36) among fully vaccinated individuals. The protective role of vaccination was observed to start 14 days after receiving the first dose. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccination provides dose-dependent protection against the development of the disease. It also lowers the risk of hospitalisation and ICU admission/death in RT-PCR positive patients in a dose-dependent manner.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization Schedule , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccine Potency , Young Adult
5.
J Neurol Sci ; 428: 117583, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313266

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the health systems around the world struggled to meet the challenges of COVID-19 pandemic, care of many non-COVID emergencies was affected. AIMS: The present study examined differences in the diagnosis, evaluation and management of stroke patients during a defined period in the ongoing pandemic in 2020 when compared to a similar epoch in year 2019. METHODS: The COVID stroke study group (CSSG) India, included 18 stroke centres spread across the country. Data was collected prospectively between February and July 2020 and retrospectively for the same period in 2019. Details of demographics, stroke evaluation, treatment, in-hospital and three months outcomes were collected and compared between these two time points. RESULTS: A total of 2549 patients were seen in both study periods; 1237 patients (48.53%) in 2019 and 1312 (51.47%) in 2020. Although the overall number of stroke patients and rates of thrombolysis were comparable, a significant decline was observed in the month of April 2020, during the initial period of the pandemic and lockdown. Endovascular treatment reduced significantly and longer door to needle and CT to needle times were observed in 2020. Although mortality was higher in 2020, proportion of patients with good outcome were similar in both the study periods. CONCLUSIONS: Although stroke admissions and rates of thrombolysis were comparable, some work flow metrics were delayed, endovascular stroke treatment rates declined and mortality was higher during the pandemic study period. Reorganization of stroke treatment pathways during the pandemic has likely improved the stroke care delivery across the globe.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , India/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Time-to-Treatment
6.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(4): 102144, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244725

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: COVID-19 is expected to have a significant impact on the socio-behavioural aspect of citizens' lives, although the effects are expected to manifest differently in different population groups. The current study was conducted to assess the socio-behavioural impact of COVID-19 among the general population across India between the first and the second wave of pandemic. METHODS: A web-based cross-sectional study was conducted from 15th March -25th March 2021 using a pre-validated validated questionnaire upon the general population using e-survey, telephonic and face-to-face interview. The participants were recruited from the different regions of India by the purposive and snowball sampling technique following the principle of maximum diversity. Appropriate statistical tests were applied to study the association between the various sociodemographic variables and different behaviours. RESULTS: A total of 1079 responses were analysed for the study. Almost half of the participants feared contracting the COVID-19 infection. Overall, female participants, elderly people (more than 60 years of age) and urban dwellers reported a greater fear in the survey. More than half of the participants (53.39%) reported significant difficulties due to home confinement. People have become more inclined to adopt healthy lifestyles. There are mixed responses in the area of following preventive practices. CONCLUSION: People have a significant amount of fear and anxiety related to the pandemic, leading to several social and behavioural changes that might have a considerable impact on their everyday lives.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Fear/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety/virology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
7.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(3): 987-992, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213148

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The success of the COVID-19 vaccination program is dependent on people's knowledge and attitude regarding the vaccination program. Higher vaccine acceptance can be ensured by strengthening the facilitators and limiting the barriers being observed among the general population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Indexed study is a cross-sectional web-based survey using a pre-validated questionnaire to assess knowledge, barriers and facilitators of COVID-19 vaccine and vaccination programme administered on adults across India using a Google online survey platform. RESULTS: A total of 1294 responses (age: 38.02 ± 13.34 years) were collected. Most of the participants had limited knowledge regarding the eligibility of vaccines in vulnerable population groups such as people with allergies (57.89%) and immune-compromised patients (62.98%), pregnant and lactating women (41.89%) and patients with chronic illness (34.78%). Older participants (>45 years) were more willing to take the COVID-19 vaccine (p < 0.001) as they believed the vaccine is not harmful and considered it as societal responsibility. Younger participants (<45 years) and those residing in urban settings raised concerns on the availability of the vaccine and authenticity of the vaccine (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: There is a scope for improvement in people's knowledge regarding COVID-19 vaccine and the vaccination programme by addressing the barriers and facilitators which can improve the participants' turnover at vaccination centres.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communication Barriers , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Literacy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Literacy/organization & administration , Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy , Preventive Health Services/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
8.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(3): 919-925, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193288

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There seems to be hesitation in the general population in accepting COVID 19 vaccine because of associated myths and/or misinformation. This study is dedicated to develop and validate a tool to interpret vaccine acceptance and/or hesitancy by assessing the knowledge, attitude, practices, and concerns regarding the COVID vaccine. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Mixed methods study design was used. In phase 1, the questionnaire was developed through literature review, focus group discussion, expert evaluation, and pre-testing. In phase 2, the validity of the questionnaire was obtained by conducting a cross-sectional survey on 201 participants. The construct validity was established via principal component analysis. Cronbach's alpha value was used to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. RESULTS: The 39-item questionnaire to assess the knowledge, attitude, practices, and concerns regarding the COVID-19 vaccine was developed. The Cronbach's alpha value of the questionnaire was 0.86 suggesting a good internal consistency. CONCLUSION: The developed tool is valid to assess the knowledge, attitude, practices and concerns regarding the COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and/or hesitancy. It has the potential utility for healthcare workers and government authorities to further build vaccine literacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Literacy/organization & administration , Health Literacy/standards , Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Perception , Psychometrics/methods , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
9.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(1): 69-75, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965082

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Health care workers (HCWs) are at increased risk of getting infected with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and suboptimal preventive practices have been identified as an important risk factor in this regard. This study was done to evaluate the preventive practices being followed by health care workers and identify reasons for suboptimal compliance. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was done in HCWs belonging to various occupational roles and socio-cultural backgrounds across India through online platforms and telephonic interviews from July 30, 2020 to August 30, 2020. A scientifically designed and pre-validated questionnaire with good validity (CVR = 0.87, S-CVI/Av = 0.978) and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient = 0.85) was used. RESULTS: The responses of 956 participants were analysed. Various suboptimal practices like touching outer surface of masks, lack of social distancing in cafeteria and duty rooms, inability to wash hands for adequate duration and properly follow steps of hand hygiene, inability to don and doff PPE properly, carrying PPE to duty rooms before completely doffing, use of personal mobile phones during duty and improper sleep were identified. Lack of knowledge, long duty hours, shortage of PPE, high patient workload, and casual attitude regarding own safety were identified as important barriers. Resident doctors and paramedical staff in the age group 18-30 years reported lower adherence. CONCLUSIONS: Suboptimal compliance in preventive practices like handling PPE, distancing in cafeteria/duty rooms and hand hygiene is not uncommon in HCWs. Certain barriers are identified which should be addressed to ensure adequate safety of HCWs against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel/standards , Infection Control/standards , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hand Disinfection/standards , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Infection Control/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Physical Distancing , Young Adult
10.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240710, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890180

ABSTRACT

The 2019-Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has had a global impact. The effect of environmental temperature on transmissibility and fatality rate of COVID-19 and protective efficacy of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination towards COVID-19 remains ambiguous. Therefore, we explored the global impact of environmental temperature and neonatal BCG vaccination coverage on transmissibility and fatality rate of COVID-19. The COVID-19 data for reported cases, deaths and global temperature were collected from 31st December 2020 to 3rd April 2020 for 67 countries. Temperature data were split into quartiles for all three categories (minimum temperature, maximum temperature and mean temperature). The impact of three types of temperature data and policy of BCG vaccination on COVID-19 infection was determined by applying the multivariable two-level negative binomial regression analysis keeping daily new cases and daily mortality as outcome. The highest number of cases fell in the temperature categories as following: mean temperature in the second quartile (6°C to 10.5°C), median 26, interquartile range (IQR) 237; minimum temperature in the first quartile (-26°C to 1°C), median 23, IQR 173; maximum temperature in the second quartile (10°C to 16°C), median 27.5, IQR 219. For the minimum temperature category, 28% statistically significant lower incidence was noted for new cases from the countries falling in the second quartile (2°C to 6°C) compared with countries falling in the first quartile (-26°C to 1°C) (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57 to 0.93). However, no statistically significant difference in incidence rate was observed for mean temperature categories in comparison to the first quartile. Countries with BCG vaccination policy had 58% less mortality as compared with countries without BCG coverage (IRR 0.42; 95% CI 0.18 to 0.95). Our exploratory study provides evidence that high temperature might not be associated with low transmissibility and countries having neonatal BCG vaccination policy had a low fatality rate of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Global Health , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Temperature , Vaccination Coverage , Binomial Distribution , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Incidence , Infant, Newborn , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons
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