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1.
Lancet Reg Health Southeast Asia ; 3: 100023, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1945945

ABSTRACT

Background: Surge of SARS CoV-2 infections ascribed to omicron variant began in December 2021 in New Delhi. We determined the infection and reinfection density in a cohort of health care workers (HCWs) along with vaccine effectiveness (VE) against symptomatic infection within omicron transmission period (considered from December 01, 2021 to February 25, 2022. Methods: This is an observational study from the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Data were collected telephonically. Person-time at risk was counted from November 30, 2021 till date of infection/ reinfection, or date of interview. Comparison of clinical features and severity was done with previous pandemic periods. VE was estimated using test-negative case-control design [matched pairs (for age and sex)]. Vaccination status was compared and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were computed by conditional logistic regression. VE was estimated as (1-adjusted OR)X100-. Findings: 11474 HCWs participated in this study. The mean age was 36⋅2 (±10⋅7) years. Complete vaccination with two doses were reported by 9522 (83%) HCWs [8394 (88%) Covaxin and 1072 Covishield (11%)]. The incidence density of all infections and reinfection during the omicron transmission period was 34⋅8 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 33⋅5-36⋅2] and 45⋅6 [95% CI: 42⋅9-48⋅5] per 10000 person days respectively. The infection was milder as compared to previous periods. VE was 52⋅5% (95% CI: 3⋅9-76⋅5, p = 0⋅036) for those who were tested within 14-60 days of receiving second dose and beyond this period (61-180 days), modest effect was observed. Interpretation: Almost one-fifth of HCWs were infected with SARS CoV-2 during omicron transmission period, with predominant mild spectrum of COVID-19 disease. Waning effects of vaccine protection were noted with increase in time intervals since vaccination. Funding: None.

2.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 16(6): 102529, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1889348

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Midlife women undergoing menopausal transition are predisposed to weight gain. Weight gain in midlife is driven by two modifiable risk factors: menopausal symptom's severity and lifestyle practices. The independent and interactive nature of menopausal symptoms and lifestyle practices as risk factors of weight gain has not been investigated yet. This study was undertaken to study menopausal symptoms and lifestyle practices as risk factors for weight gain in midlife women and identify midlife -related barriers in managing corrective lifestyle practices. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, menopausal symptom severity and lifestyle practices such as diet, exercise, and sleep were assessed using a pre-validated and reliable questionnaire on a convenience sample of midlife women (43-55 years) via an interview schedule. The association of lifestyle practices and its barriers with socio-demographics and menopausal symptoms were analysed. RESULT: A total of 504 women (mean age: 47.3 ± 4.1 years) were recruited. More than half of them followed corrective dietary practices, but only one-fourth engaged in moderate-intensity exercises. Total menopausal symptom severity was associated with increased food intake (P < 0.001), joint pain with limited physical activity and hot flashes and emotional volatility with sleep disturbances (P < 0.01). Demographic variables such as education, economic and employment status were associated with unhealthy lifestyle practices. CONCLUSION: Assessment of menopausal symptoms and lifestyle practices as risk factors and associated barriers must be the pivotal component to devise comprehensive women-centric weight management modules. Similar studies should be carried out in future when there is no clear effect of COVID19 on lifestyle factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Healthy Lifestyle , Humans , Menopause , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Weight Gain
3.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 25(1): 60-67, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726286

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study impact of COVID-19 pandemic on frequency, clinical/electrophysiological profile and treatment outcomes in pediatric Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Background: GBS is the most frequent cause of pediatric acute flaccid paralysis. The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on pediatric GBS is unclear in the literature. Methods: We conducted an ambispective, multicentric, cohort study involving 12 of 27 centres in GBS Consortium, during two periods: pre-COVID-19 (March-August 2019) and during COVID-19 (March-August 2020). Children ≤12 years who satisfied National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke criteria for GBS/variants were enrolled. Details pertaining to clinical/laboratory parameters, treatment and outcomes (modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at discharge, GBS Disability score at discharge and 3 months) were analysed. Results: We enrolled 33 children in 2019 and 10 in 2020. Children in 2020 were older (median 10.4 [interquartile range 6.75-11.25] years versus 5 (2.5-8.4) years; P = 0.022) and had more sensory symptoms (50% versus 18.2%; P = 0.043). The 2020 group had relatively favourable mRS at discharge (median 1 (1-3.5) versus 3 (2-4); P = 0.042) and GBS disability score at 3 months (median 0 (0-0.75) versus 2 (0-3); P = 0.009) compared to 2019. Multivariate analysis revealed bowel involvement (P = 0.000) and ventilatory support (P = 0.001) as independent predictors of disability. No child in 2020 had preceding/concurrent SARS-CoV2 infection. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic led to a marked decline in pediatric GBS presenting to hospitals. Antecedent illnesses, clinical and electrophysiological profile of GBS remained largely unchanged from the pre-pandemic era.

4.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 24(5): 668-685, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566723

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Occurrence of stroke has been reported among patients with COVID-19. The present study compares clinical features and outcomes of stroke patients with and without COVID-19. METHODS: The COVID-19 Stroke Study Group (CSSG) is a multicentric study in 18 sites across India to observe and compare the clinical characteristics of patients with stroke admitted during the current pandemic period and a similar epoch in 2019. The present study reports patients of stroke with and without COVID-19 (CoVS and non-CoVS, respectively) seen between February 2020 and July 2020. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and outcome details of patients were collected. RESULTS: The mean age and gender were comparable between the two groups. CoVS patients had higher stroke severity and extent of cerebral involvement on imaging. In-hospital complications and death were higher among CoVS patients (53.06% vs. 17.51%; P < 0.001) and (42.31% vs. 7.6%; P < 0.001), respectively. At 3 months, higher mortality was observed among CoVS patients (67.65% vs. 13.43%; P < 0.001) and good outcome (modified Rankin score [mRS]: 0-2) was seen more often in non-CoVS patients (68.86% vs. 33.33%; P < 0.001). The presence of COVID-19 and baseline stroke severity were independent predictors of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: CoVS is associated with higher severity, poor outcome, and increased mortality. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and baseline stroke severity are independent predictors of mortality.

5.
Rheumatol Int ; 42(3): 477-484, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473997

ABSTRACT

To study the clinical, laboratory characteristics and outcomes of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) temporally related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a resource-limited setting. All children meeting the World Health Organization case definition of MIS-C were prospectively enrolled. Baseline clinical and laboratory parameters were compared between survivors and non-survivors. Enrolled subjects were followed up for 4-6 weeks for evaluation of cardiac outcomes using echocardiography. The statistical data were analyzed using the stata-12 software. Thirty-one children with MIS-C were enrolled in an 11-month period. Twelve children had preexisting chronic systemic comorbidity. Fever was a universal finding; gastrointestinal and respiratory manifestations were noted in 70.9% and 64.3%, respectively, while 57.1% had a skin rash. Fifty-eight percent of children presented with shock, and 22.5% required mechanical ventilation. HSP like rash, gangrene and arthritis were uncommon clinical observations.The median duration of hospital stay was 9 (6.5-18.5) days: four children with preexisting comorbidities succumbed to the illness. The serum ferritin levels (ng/ml) [median (IQR)] were significantly higher in non-survivors as compared to survivors [1061 (581, 2750) vs 309.5 (140, 720.08), p value = 0.045]. Six patients had coronary artery involvement; five recovered during follow-up, while one was still admitted. Twenty-six children received immunomodulatory drugs, and five improved without immunomodulation. The choice of immunomodulation (steroids or intravenous immunoglobulin) did not affect the outcome. Most children with MIS-C present with acute hemodynamic and respiratory symptoms.The outcome is favorable in children without preexisting comorbidities.Raised ferritin level may be a poor prognostic marker. The coronary outcomes at follow-up were reassuring.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
6.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(5): 102238, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330759

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To evaluate the dose-effect association between COVID-19 vaccination and probability of turning RT-PCR positive and to assess the correlation between disease severity and vaccination status. METHODS: A single centre cross-sectional study was conducted amongst 583 individuals presenting to COVID-19 testing clinic and 55 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Vaccination status was assessed by the number of doses and duration since the last dose. Disease severity was evaluated by the requirement of hospitalisation and ICU admission/death. The association between the vaccination status and development of disease and its severity were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: The mean age of the population was 36.6 years and 82.6% had no comorbidities. The odds of turning RT-PCR positive was 0.17(95% CI: 0.11-0.27) among the clinical suspects who had taken both doses of the vaccine at least 14 days before (fully vaccinated). The odds of hospitalisation was 0.12(95% CI: 0.03-0.45) and ICU admission/death was 0.07(95% CI: 0.01-0.36) among fully vaccinated individuals. The protective role of vaccination was observed to start 14 days after receiving the first dose. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccination provides dose-dependent protection against the development of the disease. It also lowers the risk of hospitalisation and ICU admission/death in RT-PCR positive patients in a dose-dependent manner.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization Schedule , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccine Potency , Young Adult
7.
Cureus ; 13(7): e16420, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328271

ABSTRACT

Objective This study was conducted to assess the traumatic impact of the second wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on depression, anxiety, stress, sleep quality, mental well-being, and resilience among the general population of India. Methods An online cross-sectional survey was conducted in May-June, 2021 via Google Forms, which included adult individuals who were willing to participate in the study. The purposive and snowball sampling technique was used to ensure the principle of maximum diversity. Standardised tools [Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Impact of Event-Revised (IES-R), Short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (SWEMWBS), and the Brief Resilience Scale (BRS)] were used to collect data. Results A total of 1,109 responses were analysed for this study. Participants of different age groups (mean age: 32.98 ±14.72 years) and different sociodemographics were enrolled. The younger population group (18-34 years) was found to be the most affected among all the age groups. The findings revealed that 44.18% showed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-like symptoms. About 48.87%, 65.56%, and 22.09% of the participants had significant depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms respectively, and 11.27% had disturbed sleep patterns. Mental well-being was found to be disturbed for 74.75% of the study population, out of which only 4.15% showed high resilience capacity. Conclusion The associated collective psychological trauma mapped out by this paper is a pandemic in itself and needs to be addressed on a scale similar to the efforts being made to curb the physical symptoms of COVID-19.

8.
J Neurol Sci ; 428: 117583, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313266

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the health systems around the world struggled to meet the challenges of COVID-19 pandemic, care of many non-COVID emergencies was affected. AIMS: The present study examined differences in the diagnosis, evaluation and management of stroke patients during a defined period in the ongoing pandemic in 2020 when compared to a similar epoch in year 2019. METHODS: The COVID stroke study group (CSSG) India, included 18 stroke centres spread across the country. Data was collected prospectively between February and July 2020 and retrospectively for the same period in 2019. Details of demographics, stroke evaluation, treatment, in-hospital and three months outcomes were collected and compared between these two time points. RESULTS: A total of 2549 patients were seen in both study periods; 1237 patients (48.53%) in 2019 and 1312 (51.47%) in 2020. Although the overall number of stroke patients and rates of thrombolysis were comparable, a significant decline was observed in the month of April 2020, during the initial period of the pandemic and lockdown. Endovascular treatment reduced significantly and longer door to needle and CT to needle times were observed in 2020. Although mortality was higher in 2020, proportion of patients with good outcome were similar in both the study periods. CONCLUSIONS: Although stroke admissions and rates of thrombolysis were comparable, some work flow metrics were delayed, endovascular stroke treatment rates declined and mortality was higher during the pandemic study period. Reorganization of stroke treatment pathways during the pandemic has likely improved the stroke care delivery across the globe.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , India/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Time-to-Treatment
9.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252679, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259245

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients are at a high risk for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this study, we compared characteristics and outcomes of ESKD and non-ESKD patients admitted with COVID-19 to a large safety-net hospital. METHODS: We evaluated 759 adults (45 with ESKD) hospitalized with COVID-19 in Spring of 2020. We examined clinical characteristics, laboratory measures and clinical outcomes. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the associations between ESKD status and outcomes. RESULTS: 73% of ESKD and 47% of non-ESKD patients identified as Black (p = 0.002). ESKD patients were older and had higher rates of comorbidities. Admission ferritin was approximately 6-fold higher in ESKD patients. During hospitalization, the rise in white blood cell count, lactate dehydrogenase, ferritin and C-reactive protein, and the decrease in platelet count and serum albumin were all significantly greater in ESKD patients. The in-hospital mortality was higher for ESKD [18% vs. 10%; multivariable adjusted odds ratio 1.5 (95% CI, 0.48-4.70)], but this did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, ESKD patients had more co-morbidities and more robust inflammatory response than non-ESKD patients. The odds ratio point estimate for death was higher in ESKD patients, but the difference did not reach statistical significance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals, Urban , Kidney Failure, Chronic/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Safety , Adult , Aged , Boston/epidemiology , COVID-19/blood , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
10.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(4): 102144, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244725

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: COVID-19 is expected to have a significant impact on the socio-behavioural aspect of citizens' lives, although the effects are expected to manifest differently in different population groups. The current study was conducted to assess the socio-behavioural impact of COVID-19 among the general population across India between the first and the second wave of pandemic. METHODS: A web-based cross-sectional study was conducted from 15th March -25th March 2021 using a pre-validated validated questionnaire upon the general population using e-survey, telephonic and face-to-face interview. The participants were recruited from the different regions of India by the purposive and snowball sampling technique following the principle of maximum diversity. Appropriate statistical tests were applied to study the association between the various sociodemographic variables and different behaviours. RESULTS: A total of 1079 responses were analysed for the study. Almost half of the participants feared contracting the COVID-19 infection. Overall, female participants, elderly people (more than 60 years of age) and urban dwellers reported a greater fear in the survey. More than half of the participants (53.39%) reported significant difficulties due to home confinement. People have become more inclined to adopt healthy lifestyles. There are mixed responses in the area of following preventive practices. CONCLUSION: People have a significant amount of fear and anxiety related to the pandemic, leading to several social and behavioural changes that might have a considerable impact on their everyday lives.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Fear/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety/virology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
11.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(3): 987-992, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213148

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The success of the COVID-19 vaccination program is dependent on people's knowledge and attitude regarding the vaccination program. Higher vaccine acceptance can be ensured by strengthening the facilitators and limiting the barriers being observed among the general population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Indexed study is a cross-sectional web-based survey using a pre-validated questionnaire to assess knowledge, barriers and facilitators of COVID-19 vaccine and vaccination programme administered on adults across India using a Google online survey platform. RESULTS: A total of 1294 responses (age: 38.02 ± 13.34 years) were collected. Most of the participants had limited knowledge regarding the eligibility of vaccines in vulnerable population groups such as people with allergies (57.89%) and immune-compromised patients (62.98%), pregnant and lactating women (41.89%) and patients with chronic illness (34.78%). Older participants (>45 years) were more willing to take the COVID-19 vaccine (p < 0.001) as they believed the vaccine is not harmful and considered it as societal responsibility. Younger participants (<45 years) and those residing in urban settings raised concerns on the availability of the vaccine and authenticity of the vaccine (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: There is a scope for improvement in people's knowledge regarding COVID-19 vaccine and the vaccination programme by addressing the barriers and facilitators which can improve the participants' turnover at vaccination centres.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communication Barriers , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Literacy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Literacy/organization & administration , Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy , Preventive Health Services/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
12.
Cureus ; 13(4): e14270, 2021 Apr 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1212079

ABSTRACT

Objective The social and behavioral changes brought about by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have led to adverse consequences on the psychosocial functioning of peripartum women. Therefore, we developed and validated a tool to assess the psychosocial effect of the pandemic among these women. Methods The questionnaire was developed using a scientifically accepted systematic methodology comprising literature search, focus-group discussion (FGD), expert evaluation, pretesting, and validation. Results The final questionnaire consists of 38 questions, and it has a Cronbach's α value of 0.90 and a Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) value of 0.773. Conclusion The questionnaire has good reliability and face, content, and construct validity. It can be used to assess the psychosocial functioning of peripartum women in low middle-income countries and help perinatal mental health specialists to devise strategies to cope with the psychological impact of COVID-19-like pandemics on peripartum women.

13.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(3): 919-925, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193288

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There seems to be hesitation in the general population in accepting COVID 19 vaccine because of associated myths and/or misinformation. This study is dedicated to develop and validate a tool to interpret vaccine acceptance and/or hesitancy by assessing the knowledge, attitude, practices, and concerns regarding the COVID vaccine. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Mixed methods study design was used. In phase 1, the questionnaire was developed through literature review, focus group discussion, expert evaluation, and pre-testing. In phase 2, the validity of the questionnaire was obtained by conducting a cross-sectional survey on 201 participants. The construct validity was established via principal component analysis. Cronbach's alpha value was used to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. RESULTS: The 39-item questionnaire to assess the knowledge, attitude, practices, and concerns regarding the COVID-19 vaccine was developed. The Cronbach's alpha value of the questionnaire was 0.86 suggesting a good internal consistency. CONCLUSION: The developed tool is valid to assess the knowledge, attitude, practices and concerns regarding the COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and/or hesitancy. It has the potential utility for healthcare workers and government authorities to further build vaccine literacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Literacy/organization & administration , Health Literacy/standards , Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Perception , Psychometrics/methods , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
14.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(2): 601-603, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1086907

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aim of the study is to develop a valid and reliable tool to assess sociobehavioural changes due to COVID among the general population. METHODS: This mixed method study has two phases. Phase I for questionnaire development (literature review, focus group discussion, expert evaluation and pilot testing). Phase II for establishing construct validity via factor analysis and internal consistency via Cronbach's ɑ by administering the questionnaire on 179 participants. RESULTS: A questionnaire comprising 33 questions and five domains was developed having Cronbach's α of 0·82. CONCLUSION: The developed questionnaire is a concise, easy to administer and valid tool to assess socio-behavioural changes.


Subject(s)
Attitude to Health , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Health Behavior , Social Participation , Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety/psychology , Diet , Exercise , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Fear/psychology , Female , Hand Disinfection , Humans , India , Male , Masks , Physical Distancing , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , Social Isolation/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(1): 69-75, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965082

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Health care workers (HCWs) are at increased risk of getting infected with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and suboptimal preventive practices have been identified as an important risk factor in this regard. This study was done to evaluate the preventive practices being followed by health care workers and identify reasons for suboptimal compliance. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was done in HCWs belonging to various occupational roles and socio-cultural backgrounds across India through online platforms and telephonic interviews from July 30, 2020 to August 30, 2020. A scientifically designed and pre-validated questionnaire with good validity (CVR = 0.87, S-CVI/Av = 0.978) and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient = 0.85) was used. RESULTS: The responses of 956 participants were analysed. Various suboptimal practices like touching outer surface of masks, lack of social distancing in cafeteria and duty rooms, inability to wash hands for adequate duration and properly follow steps of hand hygiene, inability to don and doff PPE properly, carrying PPE to duty rooms before completely doffing, use of personal mobile phones during duty and improper sleep were identified. Lack of knowledge, long duty hours, shortage of PPE, high patient workload, and casual attitude regarding own safety were identified as important barriers. Resident doctors and paramedical staff in the age group 18-30 years reported lower adherence. CONCLUSIONS: Suboptimal compliance in preventive practices like handling PPE, distancing in cafeteria/duty rooms and hand hygiene is not uncommon in HCWs. Certain barriers are identified which should be addressed to ensure adequate safety of HCWs against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel/standards , Infection Control/standards , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hand Disinfection/standards , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Infection Control/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Physical Distancing , Young Adult
16.
Cureus ; 12(10): e11274, 2020 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-961832

ABSTRACT

Objectives COVID-19 has infected millions of people across the globe, leading to hundreds of thousands of deaths. Currently, there are no vaccines available for COVID-19, and the most effective way to curb its spread is to follow preventive practices. The present study aimed to assess the extent of adoption of preventive practices among the general population in India. Methods A web-based cross-sectional survey was carried out recruiting 964 participants from all over India through purposive sampling. A pre-validated questionnaire consisting of 37 questions was used to collect data. Items 1A to 18A covered various preventive practices and items 1B to 19B covered reasons for not following those preventive practices. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, t-tests and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were conducted. Results Most participants reported taking precautions such as wearing masks (91.80%), covering both nose and mouth (79.14%) and avoiding hand shaking (83.40%). However, practices like following social distancing in public places (51.76%) and workplace (51.04%), frequent hand washing/sanitising (63.59%) and washing hands for at least 20 seconds (45.44%) were less commonly observed. Participants failed to follow social distancing because of overcrowding and lack of space. They also found it cumbersome to wash hands multiple times. Female participants and people residing in metropolitan and small cities were fairly doing well in following preventive practices. Conclusion The study helped in identifying the glitches in following various preventive practices against COVID-19 during unlock phase and reasons for the failure to perform these practices.

17.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240710, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890180

ABSTRACT

The 2019-Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has had a global impact. The effect of environmental temperature on transmissibility and fatality rate of COVID-19 and protective efficacy of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination towards COVID-19 remains ambiguous. Therefore, we explored the global impact of environmental temperature and neonatal BCG vaccination coverage on transmissibility and fatality rate of COVID-19. The COVID-19 data for reported cases, deaths and global temperature were collected from 31st December 2020 to 3rd April 2020 for 67 countries. Temperature data were split into quartiles for all three categories (minimum temperature, maximum temperature and mean temperature). The impact of three types of temperature data and policy of BCG vaccination on COVID-19 infection was determined by applying the multivariable two-level negative binomial regression analysis keeping daily new cases and daily mortality as outcome. The highest number of cases fell in the temperature categories as following: mean temperature in the second quartile (6°C to 10.5°C), median 26, interquartile range (IQR) 237; minimum temperature in the first quartile (-26°C to 1°C), median 23, IQR 173; maximum temperature in the second quartile (10°C to 16°C), median 27.5, IQR 219. For the minimum temperature category, 28% statistically significant lower incidence was noted for new cases from the countries falling in the second quartile (2°C to 6°C) compared with countries falling in the first quartile (-26°C to 1°C) (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57 to 0.93). However, no statistically significant difference in incidence rate was observed for mean temperature categories in comparison to the first quartile. Countries with BCG vaccination policy had 58% less mortality as compared with countries without BCG coverage (IRR 0.42; 95% CI 0.18 to 0.95). Our exploratory study provides evidence that high temperature might not be associated with low transmissibility and countries having neonatal BCG vaccination policy had a low fatality rate of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Global Health , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Temperature , Vaccination Coverage , Binomial Distribution , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Incidence , Infant, Newborn , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons
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