Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 16 de 16
Filter
1.
Experimental Medicine ; 41(4):547-553, 2023.
Article in Japanese | Ichushi | ID: covidwho-2305053
2.
EBioMedicine ; 91: 104561, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295239

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 delta (B.1.617.2 lineage) variant was first identified at the end of 2020 and possessed two unique amino acid substitutions in its spike protein: S-P681R, at the S1/S2 cleavage site, and S-D950N, in the HR1 of the S2 subunit. However, the roles of these substitutions in virus phenotypes have not been fully characterized. METHODS: We used reverse genetics to generate Wuhan-D614G viruses with these substitutions and delta viruses lacking these substitutions and explored how these changes affected their viral characteristics in vitro and in vivo. FINDINGS: S-P681R enhanced spike cleavage and membrane fusion, whereas S-D950N slightly promoted membrane fusion. Although S-681R reduced the virus replicative ability especially in VeroE6 cells, neither substitution affected virus replication in Calu-3 cells and hamsters. The pathogenicity of all recombinant viruses tested in hamsters was slightly but not significantly affected. INTERPRETATION: Our observations suggest that the S-P681R and S-D950N substitutions alone do not increase virus pathogenicity, despite of their enhancement of spike cleavage or fusogenicity. FUNDING: A full list of funding bodies that contributed to this study can be found under Acknowledgments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Cricetinae , Virulence/genetics , Membrane Fusion
4.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 3103, 2023 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2273603

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains a global pandemic. Although several vaccines targeting SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins protect against COVID-19 infection, mutations affecting virus transmissibility and immune evasion potential have reduced their efficacy, leading to the need for a more efficient strategy. Available clinical evidence regarding COVID-19 suggests that endothelial dysfunction with thrombosis is a central pathogenesis of progression to systemic disease, in which overexpression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) may be important. Here we developed a novel peptide vaccine against PAI-1 and evaluated its effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis and SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice. Administration of LPS and mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 increased serum PAI-1 levels, although the latter showed smaller levels. In an LPS-induced sepsis model, mice immunized with PAI-1 vaccine showed reduced organ damage and microvascular thrombosis and improved survival compared with vehicle-treated mice. In plasma clot lysis assays, vaccination-induced serum IgG antibodies were fibrinolytic. However, in a SARS-CoV-2 infection model, survival and symptom severity (i.e., body weight reduction) did not differ between vaccine- and vehicle-treated groups. These results indicate that although PAI-1 may promote the severity of sepsis by increasing thrombus formation, it might not be a major contributor to COVID-19 exacerbation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 , Sepsis , Animals , Mice , Antibodies, Viral , Disease Models, Animal , Lipopolysaccharides , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 1620, 2023 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284921

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of the Omicron subvariant BA.2.75 rapidly increased in India and Nepal during the summer of 2022, and spread globally. However, the virological features of BA.2.75 are largely unknown. Here, we evaluated the replicative ability and pathogenicity of BA.2.75 clinical isolates in Syrian hamsters. Although we found no substantial differences in weight change among hamsters infected with BA.2, BA.5, or BA.2.75, the replicative ability of BA.2.75 in the lungs is higher than that of BA.2 and BA.5. Of note, BA.2.75 causes focal viral pneumonia in hamsters, characterized by patchy inflammation interspersed in alveolar regions, which is not observed in BA.5-infected hamsters. Moreover, in competition assays, BA.2.75 replicates better than BA.5 in the lungs of hamsters. These results suggest that BA.2.75 can cause more severe respiratory disease than BA.5 and BA.2 in a hamster model and should be closely monitored.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Cricetinae , SARS-CoV-2 , Biological Assay , DNA Replication , India , Mesocricetus
10.
Nature ; 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096734

ABSTRACT

The BA.2 sublineage of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant has become dominant in most countries around the world; however, the prevalence of BA.4 and BA.5 is increasing rapidly in several regions. BA.2 is less pathogenic in animal models than previously circulating variants of concern1-4. Compared with BA.2, however, BA.4 and BA.5 possess additional substitutions in the spike protein, which play a key role in viral entry, raising concerns that the replication capacity and pathogenicity of BA.4 and BA.5 are higher than those of BA.2. Here we have evaluated the replicative ability and pathogenicity of BA.4 and BA.5 isolates in wild-type Syrian hamsters, human ACE2 (hACE2) transgenic hamsters and hACE2 transgenic mice. We have observed no obvious differences among BA.2, BA.4 and BA.5 isolates in growth ability or pathogenicity in rodent models, and less pathogenicity compared to a previously circulating Delta (B.1.617.2 lineage) isolate. In addition, in vivo competition experiments revealed that BA.5 outcompeted BA.2 in hamsters, whereas BA.4 and BA.2 exhibited similar fitness. These findings suggest that BA.4 and BA.5 clinical isolates have similar pathogenicity to BA.2 in rodents and that BA.5 possesses viral fitness superior to that of BA.2.

12.
Nature ; 607(7917): 119-127, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915276

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529 lineage) variants possessing numerous mutations has raised concerns of decreased effectiveness of current vaccines, therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and antiviral drugs for COVID-19 against these variants1,2. The original Omicron lineage, BA.1, prevailed in many countries, but more recently, BA.2 has become dominant in at least 68 countries3. Here we evaluated the replicative ability and pathogenicity of authentic infectious BA.2 isolates in immunocompetent and human ACE2-expressing mice and hamsters. In contrast to recent data with chimeric, recombinant SARS-CoV-2 strains expressing the spike proteins of BA.1 and BA.2 on an ancestral WK-521 backbone4, we observed similar infectivity and pathogenicity in mice and hamsters for BA.2 and BA.1, and less pathogenicity compared with early SARS-CoV-2 strains. We also observed a marked and significant reduction in the neutralizing activity of plasma from individuals who had recovered from COVID-19 and vaccine recipients against BA.2 compared to ancestral and Delta variant strains. In addition, we found that some therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (REGN10987 plus REGN10933, COV2-2196 plus COV2-2130, and S309) and antiviral drugs (molnupiravir, nirmatrelvir and S-217622) can restrict viral infection in the respiratory organs of BA.2-infected hamsters. These findings suggest that the replication and pathogenicity of BA.2 is similar to that of BA.1 in rodents and that several therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and antiviral compounds are effective against Omicron BA.2 variants.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/pharmacology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cricetinae , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Drug Combinations , Hydroxylamines , Indazoles , Lactams , Leucine , Mice , Nitriles , Proline , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Triazines , Triazoles
13.
Nat Microbiol ; 7(8): 1252-1258, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890192

ABSTRACT

The spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the major antigen stimulating the host's protective immune response. Here we assessed the efficacy of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) sublineage BA.1 variants in Syrian hamsters. Of the FDA-approved therapeutic mAbs tested (that is, REGN10987/REGN10933, COV2-2196/COV2-2130 and S309), only COV2-2196/COV2-2130 efficiently inhibited BA.1 replication in the lungs of hamsters, and this effect was diminished against a BA.1.1 variant possessing the S-R346K substitution. In addition, treatment of BA.1-infected hamsters with molnupiravir (a SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitor) or S-217622 (a SARS-CoV-2 protease inhibitor) strongly reduced virus replication in the lungs. These findings suggest that the use of therapeutic mAbs in Omicron-infected patients should be carefully considered due to mutations that affect efficacy, and demonstrate that the antiviral compounds molnupiravir and S-217622 are effective against Omicron BA.1 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cricetinae , Humans , Mesocricetus , RNA, Viral
14.
Nature ; 603(7902): 687-692, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641974

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence of B.1.1.529, the Omicron variant1,2, has raised concerns of escape from protection by vaccines and therapeutic antibodies. A key test for potential countermeasures against B.1.1.529 is their activity in preclinical rodent models of respiratory tract disease. Here, using the collaborative network of the SARS-CoV-2 Assessment of Viral Evolution (SAVE) programme of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), we evaluated the ability of several B.1.1.529 isolates to cause infection and disease in immunocompetent and human ACE2 (hACE2)-expressing mice and hamsters. Despite modelling data indicating that B.1.1.529 spike can bind more avidly to mouse ACE2 (refs. 3,4), we observed less infection by B.1.1.529 in 129, C57BL/6, BALB/c and K18-hACE2 transgenic mice than by previous SARS-CoV-2 variants, with limited weight loss and lower viral burden in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. In wild-type and hACE2 transgenic hamsters, lung infection, clinical disease and pathology with B.1.1.529 were also milder than with historical isolates or other SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Overall, experiments from the SAVE/NIAID network with several B.1.1.529 isolates demonstrate attenuated lung disease in rodents, which parallels preliminary human clinical data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Models, Animal , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Cricetinae , Female , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Mesocricetus , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Viral Load
15.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(12): e1010085, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559373

ABSTRACT

Regulatory T (Treg) cells, which constitute about 5-10% of CD4+T cells expressing Foxp3 transcription factor and CD25(IL-2 receptor α chain), are key regulators in controlling immunological self-tolerance and various immune responses. However, how Treg cells control antigen-specific immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effect of transient breakdown of the immunological tolerance induced by Treg-cell depletion on adaptive immune responses against administered SARS-CoV-2 antigen, spike protein 1 (S1). Notably, without the use of adjuvants, transient Treg-cell depletion in mice induced anti-S1 antibodies that neutralized authentic SARS-CoV-2, follicular helper T cell formation and S1-binding germinal center B cell responses, but prevented the onset of developing autoimmune diseases. To further clarify the mechanisms, we investigated maturation of dendritic cells (DCs), which is essential to initiate antigen-specific immunity. We found that the transient Treg-cell depletion resulted in maturation of both migratory and resident DCs in draining lymph nodes that captured S1-antigen. Moreover, we observed S1-specific CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells with interferon-γ production. Thus, captured S1 was successfully presented by DCs, including cross-presentation to CD8+ T cells. These data indicate that transient Treg-cell depletion in the absence of adjuvants induces maturation of antigen-presenting DCs and succeeds in generating antigen-specific humoral and cellular immunity against emerging SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Finally, we showed that SARS-CoV-2 antigen-specific immune responses induced by transient Treg-cell depletion in the absence of adjuvants were compatible with those induced with an effective adjuvant, polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidyl acid (poly IC) and that the combination of transient Treg-cell depletion with poly IC induced potent responses. These findings highlight the capacity for manipulating Treg cells to induce protective adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 with activating antigen-presenting DCs, which may improve the efficacy of ongoing vaccine therapies and help enhance responses to emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Forkhead Transcription Factors/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antigen Presentation/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Female , Germinal Center/immunology , Humans , Immune Tolerance , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Inbred MRL lpr , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Vero Cells
16.
Nat Chem Biol ; 18(1): 6-7, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510603
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL