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1.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization ; 100(2):161-167, 2022.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-1690495

ABSTRACT

Problem After Italy's first national restriction measures in 2020, a robust approach was needed to monitor the emerging epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at subnational level and provide data to inform the strengthening or easing of epidemic control measures. Approach We adapted the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control rapid risk assessment tool by including quantitative and qualitative indicators from existing national surveillance systems. We defined COVID-19 risk as a combination of the probability of uncontrolled transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and of an unsustainable impact of COVID-19 cases on hospital services, adjusted in relation to the health system's resilience. The monitoring system was implemented with no additional cost in May 2020. Local setting The infectious diseases surveillance system in Italy uses consistent data collection methods across the country's decentralized regions and autonomous provinces. Relevant changes Weekly risk assessments using this approach were sustainable in monitoring the epidemic at regional level from 4 May 2020 to 24 September 2021. The tool provided reliable assessments of when and where a rapid increase in demand for health-care services would occur if control or mitigation measures were not increased in the following 3 weeks. Lessons learnt Although the system worked well, framing the risk assessment tool in a legal decree hampered its flexibility, as indicators could not be changed without changing the law. The relative complexity of the tool, the impossibility of real-time validation and its use for the definition of restrictions posed communication challenges. Situación Tras las primeras medidas nacionales de restricción en Italia en 2020, se necesitaba un enfoque sólido para supervisar la epidemia emergente de la coronavirosis de 2019 (COVID-19) a nivel subnacional y proporcionar datos que informaran sobre el refuerzo o la flexibilización de las medidas de contención de la epidemia. Enfoque Se adaptó la herramienta de valoración rápida de riesgos del Centro Europeo para la Prevención y el Control de las Enfermedades, al incluir indicadores cuantitativos y cualitativos de los sistemas nacionales de vigilancia existentes. Se definió el riesgo de la COVID-19 como una combinación de la probabilidad de transmisión descontrolada del coronavirus del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave de tipo 2 y de un efecto no sostenible de los casos de la COVID-19 en los servicios hospitalarios, y se ajustó en relación con la capacidad de recuperación del sistema sanitario. El sistema de supervisión se aplicó sin costes adicionales en mayo de 2020. Marco regional El sistema de vigilancia de las enfermedades infecciosas en Italia aplica métodos de recopilación de datos coherentes en todas las regiones y provincias autónomas descentralizadas del país. Cambios importantes Las valoraciones semanales de los riesgos mediante este enfoque fueron sostenibles en la supervisión de la epidemia a nivel regional entre el 4 de mayo de 2020 y el 24 de septiembre de 2021. La herramienta proporcionó valoraciones fiables de cuándo y dónde se produciría un rápido aumento de la demanda de servicios sanitarios si no se incrementaban las medidas de contención o mitigación en las tres semanas siguientes. Lecciones aprendidas Aunque el sistema funcionó bien, el hecho de enmarcar la herramienta de valoración de los riesgos en un decreto legal dificultó su flexibilidad, ya que los indicadores no se podían modificar sin cambiar la ley. La relativa complejidad de la herramienta, la imposibilidad de validación en tiempo real y su uso para la definición de las restricciones plantearon problemas de comunicación. Problème Après avoir pris ses premières mesures de restriction nationales en 2020, l'Italie avait besoin d'une approche solide pour surveiller l'épidémie naissante de maladie à coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) au niveau régional, et fournir les données permettant de renforcer ou d'alléger les mesures destinées à l'endiguer. Approche Nous avons adapté l'outil d'évaluation rapide des risques du Centre européen de prévention et de contrôle des maladies en y intégrant des indicateurs quantitatifs et qualitatifs issus des systèmes de surveillance nationaux existants. Pour définir le risque lié à la COVID-19, nous avons associé la probabilité d'une transmission incontrôlée du coronavirus 2 du syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère, à l'impact immédiat des cas de COVID-19 sur les services hospitaliers, en procédant à des ajustements selon la résilience du système de soins de santé. Le dispositif de surveillance a été mis en oeuvre en mai 2020 sans entraîner de coûts supplémentaires. Environnement local En Italie, le système de surveillance des maladies infectieuses repose sur des méthodes uniformes de collecte de données dans les provinces autonomes et régions décentralisées à travers le pays. Changements significatifs Les évaluations des risques réalisées toutes les semaines avec cette approche ont permis de surveiller l'épidémie à l'échelle régionale du 4 mai 2020 au 24 septembre 2021. L'outil a identifié les dates et lieux susceptibles de connaître une augmentation rapide de la demande en services de soins de santé si aucune mesure supplémentaire de contrôle et de lutte n'était prise dans les trois semaines. Leçons tirées Bien que le système ait fonctionné, inscrire l'outil d'évaluation des risques dans un décret législatif a réduit sa flexibilité, car les indicateurs ne pouvaient être modifiés sans réformer la loi. La relative complexité de l'outil, l'impossibilité de procéder à une validation en temps réel et son usage pour imposer des restrictions ont posé des problèmes de communication. Проблема После первых национальных ограничительных мер в Италии в 2020 году потребовался активный подход для мониторинга зарождающейся эпидемии коронавирусной инфекции 2019 года (COVID-19) на субнациональном уровне и для предоставления данных для обоснования усиления или ослабления мер по борьбе с эпидемией. Подход Авторы адаптировали инструмент для оперативных оценок рисков Европейского центра по контролю и профилактике заболеваний, включив в него количественные и качественные показатели из существующих национальных систем эпиднадзора. Авторы определили риск COVID-19 как комбинацию вероятности неконтролируемой передачи тяжелого острого респираторного синдрома, вызванного коронавирусом-2, и разрушительного воздействия случаев COVID-19 на больничное обслуживание, которая скорректирована с учетом устойчивости системы здравоохранения. Система мониторинга была внедрена без каких-либо дополнительных затрат в мае 2020 года. Местные условия В системе эпиднадзора за инфекционными заболеваниями в Италии используются последовательные методы сбора данных по децентрализованным регионам и автономным провинциям страны. Осуществленные перемены Еженедельные оценки рисков с использованием данного подхода регулярно применялись при мониторинге эпидемии на региональном уровне с 4 мая 2020 года по 24 сентября 2021 года. Инструмент обеспечил надежную оценку того, когда и где может произойти быстрое увеличение спроса на медицинские услуги, если меры по борьбе или смягчению последствий не будут усилены в течение следующих 3 недель. Выводы Несмотря на то что система работала эффективно, включение инструмента для оценок рисков в юридические постановления ограничивало его гибкость, поскольку показатели не могли быть изменены без изменения закона. Относительная сложность инструмента, невозможность проверки в реальном времени и его использование для определения ограничений создают проблемы коммуникации. 问题 2020 年意大利首次实施全国性限制措施后,需要 采取可靠方法以监测新型冠状病毒肺炎 (新冠肺炎) 疫情在地方层面的蔓延情况,并提供数据以表明是否 需要加强或放松疫情控制措施。 方法 通过纳入现有国家监测系统的定量和定性指 标,我们调整了欧洲疾病预防和控制中心的快速风险 评估工具。我们将新型冠状病毒肺炎风险综合定义为 严重急性呼吸系统综合症冠状病毒 2 不受控制传播 的可能性以及新型冠状病毒肺炎病例对医院服务的非持续性影响,并根据卫生系统的顺应力进行了调整。 2020 年 5 月,在没有产生额外成本的前提下实施了监 测系统。 当地状况 意大利传染病监测系统在全国各个分散 的地区和自治省统一使用相同的数据收集方法。 相关变化 在 2020 年 5 月 4 日至 2021 年 9 月 24 日 期间,使用这种方法开展的每周风险评估在监测区域 层面疫情情况方面具有可持续性。该工具能够可靠地 评估,如果在接下来的 3 周内没有加强控制或缓解措 施,何时何地医疗保健服务需求会迅速增加。 经验教训 尽管该系统运作良好,但将风险评估工 具纳入法令范畴限制了其灵活性,因为若不更改法律, 则无法变更指标。该工具的相对复杂性、实时验证的 不可能性及其在法规限定方面的用途导致产生了沟通 挑战。

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311797

ABSTRACT

On March 10, 2020, Italy imposed a national lockdown to curtail the spread of COVID-19. Here we estimate that, fourteen days after the implementation of the strategy, the net reproduction number has dropped below the epidemic threshold - estimated range 0.4-0.7. Our findings provide a timeline of the effectiveness of the implemented lockdown, which is relevant for a large number of countries that followed Italy in enforcing similar measures.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308578

ABSTRACT

In 2020, countries affected by the COVID-19 pandemic implemented various non-pharmaceutical interventions to contrast the spread of the virus and its impact on their healthcare systems and economies. Using Italian data at different geographic scales, we investigate the relationship between human mobility, which subsumes many facets of the population's response to the changing situation, and the spread of COVID-19. Leveraging mobile phone data from February through September 2020, we find a striking relationship between the decrease in mobility flows and the net reproduction number. We find that the time needed to switch off mobility and bring the net reproduction number below the critical threshold of 1 is about one week. Moreover, we observe a strong relationship between the number of days spent above such threshold before the lockdown-induced drop in mobility flows and the total number of infections per 100k inhabitants. Estimating the statistical effect of mobility flows on the net reproduction number over time, we document a 2-week lag positive association, strong in March and April, and weaker but still significant in June. Our study demonstrates the value of big mobility data to monitor the epidemic and inform control interventions during its unfolding.

4.
Bull World Health Organ ; 100(2): 161-167, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674216

ABSTRACT

PROBLEM: After Italy's first national restriction measures in 2020, a robust approach was needed to monitor the emerging epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at subnational level and provide data to inform the strengthening or easing of epidemic control measures. APPROACH: We adapted the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control rapid risk assessment tool by including quantitative and qualitative indicators from existing national surveillance systems. We defined COVID-19 risk as a combination of the probability of uncontrolled transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and of an unsustainable impact of COVID-19 cases on hospital services, adjusted in relation to the health system's resilience. The monitoring system was implemented with no additional cost in May 2020. LOCAL SETTING: The infectious diseases surveillance system in Italy uses consistent data collection methods across the country's decentralized regions and autonomous provinces. RELEVANT CHANGES: Weekly risk assessments using this approach were sustainable in monitoring the epidemic at regional level from 4 May 2020 to 24 September 2021. The tool provided reliable assessments of when and where a rapid increase in demand for health-care services would occur if control or mitigation measures were not increased in the following 3 weeks. LESSONS LEARNT: Although the system worked well, framing the risk assessment tool in a legal decree hampered its flexibility, as indicators could not be changed without changing the law. The relative complexity of the tool, the impossibility of real-time validation and its use for the definition of restrictions posed communication challenges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 669209, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337690

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 dramatically influenced mortality worldwide, in Italy as well, the first European country to experience the Sars-Cov2 epidemic. Many countries reported a two-wave pattern of COVID-19 deaths; however, studies comparing the two waves are limited. The objective of the study was to compare all-cause excess mortality between the two waves that occurred during the year 2020 using nationwide data. All-cause excess mortalities were estimated using negative binomial models with time modeled by quadratic splines. The models were also applied to estimate all-cause excess deaths "not directly attributable to COVD-19", i.e., without a previous COVID-19 diagnosis. During the first wave (25th February-31st May), we estimated 52,437 excess deaths (95% CI: 49,213-55,863) and 50,979 (95% CI: 50,333-51,425) during the second phase (10th October-31st December), corresponding to percentage 34.8% (95% CI: 33.8%-35.8%) in the second wave and 31.0% (95%CI: 27.2%-35.4%) in the first. During both waves, all-cause excess deaths percentages were higher in northern regions (59.1% during the first and 42.2% in the second wave), with a significant increase in the rest of Italy (from 6.7% to 27.1%) during the second wave. Males and those aged 80 or over were the most hit groups with an increase in both during the second wave. Excess deaths not directly attributable to COVID-19 decreased during the second phase with respect to the first phase, from 10.8% (95% CI: 9.5%-12.4%) to 7.7% (95% CI: 7.5%-7.9%), respectively. The percentage increase in excess deaths from all causes suggests in Italy a different impact of the SARS-CoV-2 virus during the second wave in 2020. The decrease in excess deaths not directly attributable to COVID-19 may indicate an improvement in the preparedness of the Italian health care services during this second wave, in the detection of COVID-19 diagnoses and/or clinical practice toward the other severe diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Europe , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 645543, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172969

ABSTRACT

Background: In Italy, during the first epidemic wave of 2020, the peak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality was reached at the end of March. Afterward, a progressive reduction was observed until much lower figures were reached during the summer, resulting from the contained circulation of SARS-CoV-2. This study aimed to determine if and how the pathological patterns of the individuals deceased from COVID-19 changed during the phases of epidemic waves in terms of: (i) main cause of death, (ii) comorbidities, and (iii) complications related to death. Methods: Death certificates of persons who died and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, provided by the National Surveillance system, were coded according to ICD rev10. Deaths due to COVID-19 were defined as those in which COVID-19 was the underlying cause of death. Results: The percentage of COVID-19 deaths varied over time. It decreased in the downward phase of the epidemic curve (76.6 vs. 88.7%). In February-April 2020, hypertensive heart disease was mentioned as a comorbidity in 18.5% of death certificates, followed by diabetes (15.9% of cases), ischemic heart disease (13.1%), and neoplasms (12.1%). In May-September, the most frequent comorbidity was neoplasms (17.3% of cases), followed by hypertensive heart disease (14.9%), diabetes (14.8%), and dementia/Alzheimer's disease (11.9%). The most mentioned complications in both periods were pneumonia and respiratory failure with a frequency far higher than any other condition (78.4% in February-April 2020 and 63.7% in May-September 2020). Discussion: The age of patients dying from COVID-19 and their disease burden increased in the May-September 2020 period. A more serious disease burden was observed in this period, with a significantly higher frequency of chronic pathologies. Our study suggests better control of the virus' lethality in the second phase of the epidemic, when the health system was less burdened. Moreover, COVID-19 care protocols had been created in hospitals, and knowledge about the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 had improved, potentially leading to more accurate diagnosis and better treatment. All these factors may have improved survival in patients with COVID-19 and led to a shift in mortality to older, more vulnerable, and complex patients.

7.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(5-6 Suppl 2): 236-243, 2020.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068144

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: to assess the temporal variation in excess total mortality and the portion of excess explained by COVID-19 deaths by geographical area, gender, and age during the COVID-19 epidemic. DESIGN: descriptive analysis of temporal variations of total excess deaths and COVID-19 deaths in the phase 1 and phase 2 of the epidemic in Italy. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 12 Northern cities and 20 Central-Southern cities from December 2019 to June 2020: daily mortality from the National Surveillance System of Daily Mortality (SiSMG) and COVID-19 deaths from the integrated COVID-19 surveillance system. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: total mortality excess and COVID-19 deaths, defined as deaths in microbiologically confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2, by gender and age groups. RESULTS: the largest excess mortality was observed in the North and during the first phase of the epidemic. The portion of excess mortality explained by COVID-19 decreases with age, decreasing to 51% among the very old (>=85 years). In phase 2 (until June 2020), the impact was more contained and totally attributable to COVID-19 deaths and this suggests an effectiveness of social distancing measures. CONCLUSIONS: mortality surveillance is a sensible information basis for the monitoring of health impact of the different phases of the epidemic and supporting decision making at the local and national level on containment measures to put in place in coming months.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mortality/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cause of Death , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Population Surveillance , Quarantine , Time Factors , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
8.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(5-6 Suppl 2): 70-80, 2020.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068126

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: to describe the integrated surveillance system of COVID-19 in Italy, to illustrate the outputs used to return epidemiological information on the spread of the epidemic to the competent public health bodies and to the Italian population, and to describe how the surveillance data contributes to the ongoing weekly regional monitoring and risk assessment system. METHODS: the COVID-19 integrated surveillance system is the result of a close and continuous collaboration between the Italian National Institute of Health (ISS), the Italian Ministry of Health, and the regional and local health authorities. Through a web platform, it collects individual data of laboratory confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection and gathers information on their residence, laboratory diagnosis, hospitalisation, clinical status, risk factors, and outcome. Results, for different levels of aggregation and risk categories, are published daily and weekly on the ISS website, and made available to national and regional public health authorities; these results contribute one of the information sources of the regional monitoring and risk assessment system. RESULTS: the COVID-19 integrated surveillance system monitors the space-time distribution of cases and their characteristics. Indicators used in the weekly regional monitoring and risk assessment system include process indicators on completeness and results indicators on weekly trends of newly diagnosed cases per Region. CONCLUSIONS: the outputs of the integrated surveillance system for COVID-19 provide timely information to health authorities and to the general population on the evolution of the epidemic in Italy. They also contribute to the continuous re-assessment of risk related to transmission and impact of the epidemic thus contributing to the management of COVID-19 in Italy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Information Dissemination , Italy/epidemiology , Population Surveillance/methods , Research Report , Risk
9.
Euro Surveill ; 25(49)2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972067

ABSTRACT

BackgroundOn 20 February 2020, a locally acquired coronavirus disease (COVID-19) case was detected in Lombardy, Italy. This was the first signal of ongoing transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the country. The number of cases in Italy increased rapidly and the country became the first in Europe to experience a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak.AimOur aim was to describe the epidemiology and transmission dynamics of the first COVID-19 cases in Italy amid ongoing control measures.MethodsWe analysed all RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 cases reported to the national integrated surveillance system until 31 March 2020. We provide a descriptive epidemiological summary and estimate the basic and net reproductive numbers by region.ResultsOf the 98,716 cases of COVID-19 analysed, 9,512 were healthcare workers. Of the 10,943 reported COVID-19-associated deaths (crude case fatality ratio: 11.1%) 49.5% occurred in cases older than 80 years. Male sex and age were independent risk factors for COVID-19 death. Estimates of R0 varied between 2.50 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.18-2.83) in Tuscany and 3.00 (95% CI: 2.68-3.33) in Lazio. The net reproduction number Rt in northern regions started decreasing immediately after the first detection.ConclusionThe COVID-19 outbreak in Italy showed a clustering onset similar to the one in Wuhan, China. R0 at 2.96 in Lombardy combined with delayed detection explains the high case load and rapid geographical spread. Overall, Rt in Italian regions showed early signs of decrease, with large diversity in incidence, supporting the importance of combined non-pharmacological control measures.


Subject(s)
Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(1)2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883830

ABSTRACT

On March 11, 2020, Italy imposed a national lockdown to curtail the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. We estimate that, 14 days after lockdown, the net reproduction number had dropped below 1 and remained stable at ¼0.76 (95% CI 0.67-0.85) in all regions for >3 of the following weeks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Public Health , Time Factors
11.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646154

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pediatric patients aged <18 years in Italy. METHODS: Data from the national case-based surveillance system of confirmed COVID-19 infections until May 8, 2020, were analyzed. Demographic and clinical characteristics of subjects were summarized by age groups (0-1, 2-6, 7-12, 13-18 years), and risk factors for disease severity were evaluated by using a multilevel (clustered by region) multivariable logistic regression model. Furthermore, a comparison among children, adults, and elderly was performed. RESULTS: Pediatric patients (3836) accounted for 1.8% of total infections (216 305); the median age was 11 years, 51.4% were male, 13.3% were hospitalized, and 5.4% presented underlying medical conditions. The disease was mild in 32.4% of cases and severe in 4.3%, particularly in children ≤6 years old (10.8%); among 511 hospitalized patients, 3.5% were admitted in ICU, and 4 deaths occurred. Lower risk of disease severity was associated with increasing age and calendar time, whereas a higher risk was associated with preexisting underlying medical conditions (odds ratio = 2.80, 95% confidence interval = 1.74-4.48). Hospitalization rate, admission in ICU, disease severity, and days from symptoms onset to recovery significantly increased with age among children, adults and elderly. CONCLUSIONS: Data suggest that pediatric cases of COVID-19 are less severe than adults; however, age ≤1 year and the presence of underlying conditions represent severity risk factors. A better understanding of the infection in children may give important insights into disease pathogenesis, health care practices, and public health policies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , Age Factors , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Italy/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Population Surveillance , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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