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1.
JAMA ; 327(9): 826-835, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750256

ABSTRACT

Importance: It is estimated that only 27% of patients with acute ischemic stroke and large vessel occlusion who undergo successful reperfusion after mechanical thrombectomy are disability free at 90 days. An incomplete microcirculatory reperfusion might contribute to these suboptimal clinical benefits. Objective: To investigate whether treatment with adjunct intra-arterial alteplase after thrombectomy improves outcomes following reperfusion. Design, Setting, and Participants: Phase 2b randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial performed from December 2018 through May 2021 in 7 stroke centers in Catalonia, Spain. The study included 121 patients with large vessel occlusion acute ischemic stroke treated with thrombectomy within 24 hours after stroke onset and with an expanded Treatment in Cerebral Ischemia angiographic score of 2b50 to 3. Interventions: Participants were randomized to receive intra-arterial alteplase (0.225 mg/kg; maximum dose, 22.5 mg) infused over 15 to 30 minutes (n = 61) or placebo (n = 52). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the difference in proportion of patients achieving a score of 0 or 1 on the 90-day modified Rankin Scale (range, 0 [no symptoms] to 6 [death]) in all patients treated as randomized. Safety outcomes included rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and death. Results: The study was terminated early for inability to maintain placebo availability and enrollment rate because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Of 1825 patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with thrombectomy at the 7 study sites, 748 (41%) patients fulfilled the angiographic criteria, 121 (7%) patients were randomized (mean age, 70.6 [SD, 13.7] years; 57 women [47%]), and 113 (6%) were treated as randomized. The proportion of participants with a modified Rankin Scale score of 0 or 1 at 90 days was 59.0% (36/61) with alteplase and 40.4% (21/52) with placebo (adjusted risk difference, 18.4%; 95% CI, 0.3%-36.4%; P = .047). The proportion of patients with symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage within 24 hours was 0% with alteplase and 3.8% with placebo (risk difference, -3.8%; 95% CI, -13.2% to 2.5%). Ninety-day mortality was 8% with alteplase and 15% with placebo (risk difference, -7.2%; 95% CI, -19.2% to 4.8%). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with large vessel occlusion acute ischemic stroke and successful reperfusion following thrombectomy, the use of adjunct intra-arterial alteplase compared with placebo resulted in a greater likelihood of excellent neurological outcome at 90 days. However, because of study limitations, these findings should be interpreted as preliminary and require replication. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03876119; EudraCT Number: 2018-002195-40.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Arteries , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Ischemic Stroke/drug therapy , Ischemic Stroke/surgery , Thrombectomy , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/administration & dosage , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/complications , Combined Modality Therapy , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome
2.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 34(11): 871-880, 2021 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580280

ABSTRACT

Objective: Previous studies have shown that meteorological factors may increase COVID-19 mortality, likely due to the increased transmission of the virus. However, this could also be related to an increased infection fatality rate (IFR). We investigated the association between meteorological factors (temperature, humidity, solar irradiance, pressure, wind, precipitation, cloud coverage) and IFR across Spanish provinces ( n = 52) during the first wave of the pandemic (weeks 10-16 of 2020). Methods: We estimated IFR as excess deaths (the gap between observed and expected deaths, considering COVID-19-unrelated deaths prevented by lockdown measures) divided by the number of infections (SARS-CoV-2 seropositive individuals plus excess deaths) and conducted Spearman correlations between meteorological factors and IFR across the provinces. Results: We estimated 2,418,250 infections and 43,237 deaths. The IFR was 0.03% in < 50-year-old, 0.22% in 50-59-year-old, 0.9% in 60-69-year-old, 3.3% in 70-79-year-old, 12.6% in 80-89-year-old, and 26.5% in ≥ 90-year-old. We did not find statistically significant relationships between meteorological factors and adjusted IFR. However, we found strong relationships between low temperature and unadjusted IFR, likely due to Spain's colder provinces' aging population. Conclusion: The association between meteorological factors and adjusted COVID-19 IFR is unclear. Neglecting age differences or ignoring COVID-19-unrelated deaths may severely bias COVID-19 epidemiological analyses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Weather , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Meteorological Concepts , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spain/epidemiology , Young Adult
3.
Non-conventional in English | MEDLINE, Grey literature | ID: grc-750400

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence suggests that patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at risk of thromboembolic complications, including ischemic strokes. We present a case illustrating the value of CT perfusion to identify acute small subcortical infarcts in a patient with COVID-19 admitted to an intensive care unit for bilateral pneumonia and pulmonary embolism presenting with sudden right limb weakness.

4.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 50(5): 551-559, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238619

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in significant healthcare reorganizations, potentially striking standard medical care. We investigated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on acute stroke care quality and clinical outcomes to detect healthcare system's bottlenecks from a territorial point of view. METHODS: Crossed-data analysis between a prospective nation-based mandatory registry of acute stroke, Emergency Medical System (EMS) records, and daily incidence of COVID-19 in Catalonia (Spain). We included all stroke code activations during the pandemic (March 15-May 2, 2020) and an immediate prepandemic period (January 26-March 14, 2020). Primary outcomes were stroke code activations and reperfusion therapies in both periods. Secondary outcomes included clinical characteristics, workflow metrics, differences across types of stroke centers, correlation analysis between weekly EMS alerts, COVID-19 cases, and workflow metrics, and impact on mortality and clinical outcome at 90 days. RESULTS: Stroke code activations decreased by 22% and reperfusion therapies dropped by 29% during the pandemic period, with no differences in age, stroke severity, or large vessel occlusion. Calls to EMS were handled 42 min later, and time from onset to hospital arrival increased by 53 min, with significant correlations between weekly COVID-19 cases and more EMS calls (rho = 0.81), less stroke code activations (rho = -0.37), and longer prehospital delays (rho = 0.25). Telestroke centers were afflicted with higher reductions in stroke code activations, reperfusion treatments, referrals to endovascular centers, and increased delays to thrombolytics. The independent odds of death increased (OR 1.6 [1.05-2.4], p 0.03) and good functional outcome decreased (mRS ≤2 at 90 days: OR 0.6 [0.4-0.9], p 0.015) during the pandemic period. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, Catalonia's stroke system's weakest points were the delay to EMS alert and a decline of stroke code activations, reperfusion treatments, and interhospital transfers, mostly at local centers. Patients suffering an acute stroke during the pandemic period had higher odds of poor functional outcome and death. The complete stroke care system's analysis is crucial to allocate resources appropriately.


Subject(s)
Emergency Medical Services , Fibrinolytic Agents/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stroke/virology , Humans , Prospective Studies , Spain/epidemiology , Stroke/diagnosis , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Time-to-Treatment
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(16): 2269-2271, 2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1165365

ABSTRACT

We studied the relationship between the incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), demographical, and climatological measurements in different regions across the world. Lower solar irradiance and higher population density were independent predictors of greater COVID-19 outbreaks. Further studies on the potential protective effect of sunlight over COVID-19 are warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Climate , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Sunlight , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Incidence , Population Density , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultraviolet Rays
6.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 43, 2021 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054807

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a small but clinically significant risk of stroke, the cause of which is frequently cryptogenic. In a large multinational cohort of consecutive COVID-19 patients with stroke, we evaluated clinical predictors of cryptogenic stroke, short-term functional outcomes and in-hospital mortality among patients according to stroke etiology. METHODS: We explored clinical characteristics and short-term outcomes of consecutively evaluated patients 18 years of age or older with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from 31 hospitals in 4 countries (3/1/20-6/16/20). RESULTS: Of the 14.483 laboratory-confirmed patients with COVID-19, 156 (1.1%) were diagnosed with AIS. Sixty-one (39.4%) were female, 84 (67.2%) white, and 88 (61.5%) were between 60 and 79 years of age. The most frequently reported etiology of AIS was cryptogenic (55/129, 42.6%), which was associated with significantly higher white blood cell count, c-reactive protein, and D-dimer levels than non-cryptogenic AIS patients (p

Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospital Mortality , Ischemic Stroke/virology , Registries , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Computed Tomography Angiography , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/blood , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Stroke , United States/epidemiology
7.
Stroke ; 52(1): 31-39, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939945

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acute ischemic stroke and large vessel occlusion can be concurrent with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Outcomes after mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for large vessel occlusion in patients with COVID-19 are substantially unknown. Our aim was to study early outcomes after MT in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Multicenter, European, cohort study involving 34 stroke centers in France, Italy, Spain, and Belgium. Data were collected between March 1, 2020 and May 5, 2020. Consecutive laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases with large vessel occlusion, who were treated with MT, were included. Primary investigated outcome: 30-day mortality. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: early neurological improvement (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale improvement ≥8 points or 24 hours National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale 0-1), successful reperfusion (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction grade ≥2b), and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. RESULTS: We evaluated 93 patients with COVID-19 with large vessel occlusion who underwent MT (median age, 71 years [interquartile range, 59-79]; 63 men [67.7%]). Median pretreatment National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score were 17 (interquartile range, 11-21) and 8 (interquartile range, 7-9), respectively. Anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke represented 93.5% of cases. The rate modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 2b to 3 was 79.6% (74 patients [95% CI, 71.3-87.8]). Thirty-day mortality was 29% (27 patients [95% CI, 20-39.4]). Early neurological improvement was 19.5% (17 patients [95% CI, 11.8-29.5]), and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage was 5.4% (5 patients [95% CI, 1.7-12.1]). Patients who died at 30 days exhibited significantly lower lymphocyte count, higher levels of aspartate, and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase). After adjustment for age, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score, and successful reperfusion, these biological markers remained associated with increased odds of 30-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio of 2.70 [95% CI, 1.21-5.98] per SD-log decrease in lymphocyte count, 2.66 [95% CI, 1.22-5.77] per SD-log increase in aspartate, and 4.30 [95% CI, 1.43-12.91] per SD-log increase in LDH). CONCLUSIONS: The 29% rate of 30-day mortality after MT among patients with COVID-19 is not negligible. Abnormalities of lymphocyte count, LDH and aspartate may depict a patient's profiles with poorer outcomes after MT. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT04406090.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Endovascular Procedures , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Ischemic Stroke/surgery , Thrombectomy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Endovascular Procedures/mortality , Europe , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombectomy/mortality , Treatment Outcome
8.
Int J Stroke ; 16(4): 437-447, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-806135

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been associated with a significant risk of thrombotic events in critically ill patients. AIM: To summarize the findings of a multinational observational cohort of patients with SARS-CoV-2 and cerebrovascular disease. METHODS: Retrospective observational cohort of consecutive adults evaluated in the emergency department and/or admitted with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) across 31 hospitals in four countries (1 February 2020-16 June 2020). The primary outcome was the incidence rate of cerebrovascular events, inclusive of acute ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhages (ICH), and cortical vein and/or sinus thrombosis (CVST). RESULTS: Of the 14,483 patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2, 172 were diagnosed with an acute cerebrovascular event (1.13% of cohort; 1130/100,000 patients, 95%CI 970-1320/100,000), 68/171 (40.5%) were female and 96/172 (55.8%) were between the ages 60 and 79 years. Of these, 156 had acute ischemic stroke (1.08%; 1080/100,000 95%CI 920-1260/100,000), 28 ICH (0.19%; 190/100,000 95%CI 130-280/100,000), and 3 with CVST (0.02%; 20/100,000, 95%CI 4-60/100,000). The in-hospital mortality rate for SARS-CoV-2-associated stroke was 38.1% and for ICH 58.3%. After adjusting for clustering by site and age, baseline stroke severity, and all predictors of in-hospital mortality found in univariate regression (p < 0.1: male sex, tobacco use, arrival by emergency medical services, lower platelet and lymphocyte counts, and intracranial occlusion), cryptogenic stroke mechanism (aOR 5.01, 95%CI 1.63-15.44, p < 0.01), older age (aOR 1.78, 95%CI 1.07-2.94, p = 0.03), and lower lymphocyte count on admission (aOR 0.58, 95%CI 0.34-0.98, p = 0.04) were the only independent predictors of mortality among patients with stroke and COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 is associated with a small but significant risk of clinically relevant cerebrovascular events, particularly ischemic stroke. The mortality rate is high for COVID-19-associated cerebrovascular complications; therefore, aggressive monitoring and early intervention should be pursued to mitigate poor outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Thrombosis/etiology , Tobacco Use , Young Adult
9.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(8): 104974, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-665314

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence suggests that patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at risk of thromboembolic complications, including ischemic strokes. We present a case illustrating the value of CT perfusion to identify acute small subcortical infarcts in a patient with COVID-19 admitted to an intensive care unit for bilateral pneumonia and pulmonary embolism presenting with sudden right limb weakness.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Brain Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Perfusion Imaging/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Thalamic Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Brain Infarction/therapy , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Noninvasive Ventilation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , Prosthesis Implantation/instrumentation , SARS-CoV-2 , Thalamic Diseases/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Vena Cava Filters
10.
Stroke ; 51(7): 1991-1995, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-343262

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to analyze how the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic affected acute stroke care in a Comprehensive Stroke Center. METHODS: On February 28, 2020, contingency plans were implemented at Hospital Clinic of Barcelona to contain the COVID-19 pandemic. Among them, the decision to refrain from reallocating the Stroke Team and Stroke Unit to the care of patients with COVID-19. From March 1 to March 31, 2020, we measured the number of emergency calls to the Emergency Medical System in Catalonia (7.5 million inhabitants), and the Stroke Codes dispatched to Hospital Clinic of Barcelona. We recorded all stroke admissions, and the adequacy of acute care measures, including the number of thrombectomies, workflow metrics, angiographic results, and clinical outcomes. Data were compared with March 2019 using parametric or nonparametric methods as appropriate. RESULTS: At Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, 1232 patients with COVID-19 were admitted in March 2020, demanding 60% of the hospital bed capacity. Relative to March 2019, the Emergency Medical System had a 330% mean increment in the number of calls (158 005 versus 679 569), but fewer Stroke Code activations (517 versus 426). Stroke admissions (108 versus 83) and the number of thrombectomies (21 versus 16) declined at Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, particularly after lockdown of the population. Younger age was found in stroke admissions during the pandemic (median [interquartile range] 69 [64-73] versus 75 [73-80] years, P=0.009). In-hospital, there were no differences in workflow metrics, angiographic results, complications, or outcomes at discharge. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic reduced by a quarter the stroke admissions and thrombectomies performed at a Comprehensive Stroke Center but did not affect the quality of care metrics. During the lockdown, there was an overload of emergency calls but fewer Stroke Code activations, particularly in elderly patients. Hospital contingency plans, patient transport systems, and population-targeted alerts must act concertedly to better protect the chain of stroke care in times of pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Hospitals, Special/organization & administration , Hospitals, Urban/organization & administration , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Stroke/therapy , Acute Disease , Age Distribution , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospital Bed Capacity/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Special/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Urban/standards , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Neuroimaging/statistics & numerical data , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Procedures and Techniques Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Resource Allocation , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/surgery , Thrombectomy/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Outcome
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