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1.
Journal of Contemporary Studies in Epidemiology and Public Health ; 2(2), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2081485

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, several countries have been strongly affected by the different impacts of the disease. This has not been different in Africa, where in addition to the current load of COVID-19, there are other epidemics (such as pneumonia) that have aggravated the situation. In this perspective article, we discuss various aspects of pneumonia amidst the COVID-19 pandemic in Africa, including its burden, current status and efforts, and related challenges.

2.
Annals of medicine and surgery (2012) ; 81, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2034467

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis is defined as the inflammatory reaction of the liver parenchyma. It is either acute, which resolves within six months or may be chronic. An outbreak of severe, acute hepatitis of unknown origin in children was reported in nearly all World Health Organisation (WHO) regions except in the Africa. As per the recent update on the 26th of May, approximately 650 cases have met the WHO's probable criteria. While some are yet to be confirmed, the WHO warns that the figure may be underestimating the real situation. The observed clinical presentation includes outstanding immoderate levels of transaminases, vomiting from the previous presentation, pale/mild stools, and jaundice. So far, the viruses which can cause viral hepatitides, like Hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E, have not been detected in any of the identified cases. Some literature reported human enteric adenovirus type 41F in the majority of cases aged sixteen or younger, with few cases of co-infection with SARS-CoV-2. Currently, only several hypotheses have discussed the causality of the outbreak. However, no consensus has been reached. During this outbreak, it is important to adhere to both hand and body hygiene, general infection and control prevention strategies, and lastly, case presentation matching the criteria of case definition set by the WHO. Said identified cases should be reported to concerned health authorities on an urgent basis and must be kept under proper surveillance. Highlights • Hepatitis is defined as the inflammatory reaction of the liver parenchyma. It is either acute, which resolves within six months or may be chronic.• An outbreak of severe, acute hepatitis of unknown origin in children was reported in nearly all World Health Organisation (WHO) regions except in the Africa.• Although extensive research has not been conducted on the rapidly-progressing AHUO in children, current literature has reported human enteric adenovirus type-41F in most cases aged sixteen or younger.• Potential confounding coronavirus infection is one of several theories currently being considered in acute non-hepatitis A–E viral hepatitis origin.• During this outbreak, it is important to adhere to both hand and body hygiene, general infection and control prevention strategies, and lastly, case presentation matching the criteria of case definition set by the WHO.

3.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 82: 104613, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031103

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Measles, one of the most common infections in the world, accounts for more than over 100.000 deaths every year. Measles outbreaks are still ravaging the African continent, and the 2010 Measles outbreak in Zimbabwe is one to be noted, where more than 7754 infections and 517 deaths were reported, ultimately leading to the UN initiation of the vaccination program. COVID-19 could have been delaying the vaccination process in Africa. This article aims to shed the light on the current Measles outbreak in Zimbabwe and how global health organizations are taking measures to fight off this outbreak. Methodology: Data was collected from online databases PubMed, Science Direct, and the Lancet, as well as news and conferences and press releases on the current measles outbreak. All articles and news related to the measles outbreak in Zimbabwe were taken into consideration. Results: A measles outbreak was reported earlier in August of 2022, with more than 2000 confirmed cases out of which 157 were reported dead. Since the outbreak this year, cases of measles in Zimbabwe have been rapidly growing. The government in Zimbabwe started a massive vaccination campaign for children in and near the areas where the outbreak is present. Traditional and faith leaders are involved in the campaigns to encourage the public to volunteer to be vaccinated. Conclusion: Efforts to control the measles outbreak in Zimbabwe are being mitigated by the government as well as the WHO and other global health organizations. With many people refusing the vaccination, this outbreak might not see an end, and more cases, as well as deaths, will increase by the end of the year.

4.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 82: 104599, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007412

ABSTRACT

In the past two decades, countries like Malaysia, Singapore, Bangladesh, and India have recorded several cases of Nipah virus (NiV) infection. Following the 2018 NiV outbreak in the Kozhikode district of Kerala, India that claimed 17 lives, there has been a recent re-emergence of the virus in the same district, causing the recently reported death of a 12-year-old boy. Accordingly, population panic has heightened as inhabitants of these areas try to together combat the existing COVID-19 pandemic alongside the emerging NiV infection. Although the rate of transmission of NiV is low as compared to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), scientists suggest a higher mortality rate from NiV infection. In this manuscript, we aim to discuss the NiV infection in India as well as suggest recommendations to contain and ameliorate the severe impact of the virus on affected populations.

5.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 82: 104537, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007405

ABSTRACT

Yellow fever (YF) is a viral acute hemorrhagic illness caused by infected mosquitoes of the flavivirus family. The first yellow fever outbreak in Kenya was in 1992. Similar outbreaks were recorded in the western part of the country in 1993, 1995, and 2011, particularly in the Rift Valley province of Kenya. In early 2022, the viral acute illness resurfaced and hit Kenya. On January 12, 2022, the first case was discovered, with over 14 patients suffering from fever, jaundice, and joint and muscle pains. On March 4, 2022, a yellow fever outbreak re-emerged in Kenya, affecting 11 wards in Isiolo County. The fatality rate recorded was 11.3% (six deaths), with Chari accounting for 39.6% of the total 21 cases, Cherab 14 (26.4%), and 5 Garba Tulla (9.4%). This has the potential to further endanger the nation's economic growth while also negatively impacting people's daily lives in a part of the world that is already dealing with the catastrophic impacts of the coronavirus pandemic. However, there is no curative therapy for yellow fever. The only options for curbing its spread are through vaccination and preventive measures. Hence, Kenya's government must take responsibility for requiring vaccination of its citizens, implement an active national disease surveillance protocol, and set up anti-yellow fever campaigns in the country.

6.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 81: 104418, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1995993

ABSTRACT

Anthrax and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are both notable zoonoses that have high morbidity and mortality, not to mention adverse socio-economic and health consequences on the communities they ravage. Anthrax wreaks disease amongst mammalian species worldwide and has an endemic distribution in Africa and Asia. Kenya, for example, records an average of 10 outbreaks annually. In 2014 and 2017, it held anthrax attack rates of 15% and 29%, respectively, and case fatality rates of 1-5%. As with COVID-19, effective surveillance, containment, and vaccination programs are crucial in the fight against anthrax. While there is no evidence of direct, human-to-human transmission of anthrax currently, Bacillus anthracis remains a disease of public health concern that serves to fuel the devastating effects of SARS-CoV-2 in African communities. In this commentary, we examine anthrax spread in Africa amidst COVID-19, the challenges faced by these simultaneous zoonoses, and the efforts put to combat both equally.

7.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 81: 104414, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1995992

ABSTRACT

Chagas Disease (CD) is an infectious, neglected tropical disease (NTD) that has affected over 1.7 billion people worldwide. Unfortunately, most countries usually put little effort into mitigating the spread of NTDs, having weak public health approaches, diagnostic delays, and ineffective clinical management guidelines and resources. However, the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, exacerbates the impact of NTDs. In this review, we examine the subsequent changes that have been imposed on CD prevention and treatment. Articles from Google Scholar and PubMed were extracted which satisfied our inclusion criteria. From our data, we gather that COVID-19 has - from preventive measures to treating patients - greatly affected every stage in the fight against CD. For instance, co-infection of CD and COVID-19 puts patients at higher risk for cardiomyopathy (i.e., atrial fibrillation, chronic heart failure), yet no clinical guidelines were established for co-infected patients. To mitigate the spread of CD during the COVID-19 pandemic, further investigations on the impacts of co-infections and vaccines that can be developed to treat such conditions are warranted.

8.
Brain Behav ; 12(9): e2742, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990424

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has hampered the progress of neurological healthcare services for patients across Africa. Before the pandemic, access to these services was already limited due to elevated treatment costs among uninsured individuals, shortage of medicines, equipment, and qualified personnel, immense distance between residing areas and neurological facilities, and a limited understanding of neurological diseases and their presentation by both the health workers and the African population. METHODOLOGY: The databases PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and the National Library of Medicine were searched for literature. All articles on neurological disorders in Africa were considered. AIM: This review article explores the challenges of providing the best services for patients suffering from neurological disorders in Africa amid the COVID-19 pandemic and provides evidence-based recommendations. RESULTS: As Africa's governments made more resources available to support patients affected by COVID-19, neurological care received less priority and the capacity and competency to treat patients with neurological disorders thus suffered substantially. Both short-term and long-term strategies are needed to improve the quality of neurological services after the pandemic in the region. CONCLUSION: To strengthen Africa's neurological services capability during and after the COVID-19 pandemic, African governments must ensure appropriate healthcare resource allocation, perform neurology management training, and increase health security measures in medication supply. Long-term strategies include incorporating responsible finance and resource procurement and advancement of tele-neurology. International collaboration is essential to promote the sustainable improvement of neurological services in Africa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Africa/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/therapy , Pandemics , United States
9.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 81: 104377, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982538

ABSTRACT

Since the initial identification of the Marburg virus in 1967, it has sporadically emerged in several countries throughout Africa, including Zimbabwe, Kenya, South Africa, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Uganda, and Zimbabwe. Due to the concurrent occurrence of other epidemics like the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), this outbreak could endanger the healthcare systems in these many African nations. Recently, two cases of the Marburg virus were detected in Ghana for the first time. However, there has been a noticeable lack of information concerning this recent outbreak of July 2022 in Ghana. Therefore, this article seeks to provide an overview of this outbreak in Ghana to better understand the most recent status and current efforts being made to mitigate the dissemination of the Marburg virus. We also suggest recommendations that may contribute to limiting the burden of this virus.

10.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 80: 104263, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966309

ABSTRACT

Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease, endemic to Africa, Asia, and South America due to inadequate access to medication and underreporting of leishmaniasis cases. Leishmaniasis has two forms: cutaneous and visceral. The fight against leishmaniasis has been greatly affected by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that impacted resource distribution and access to medication. Continuous effort in vaccine development and affordable therapeutics are necessary to eliminate leishmaniasis in low-income countries. Further research is necessary to determine molecular drug resistance markers in leishmaniasis patients. In this analysis, we focus on the effect of COVID-19 on leishmaniasis in Africa.

11.
Clin Epidemiol Glob Health ; 16: 101074, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944446

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has triggered unprecedented social, economic and health challenges. To control and reduce the infection rate, countries employed non-pharmaceutical measures such as social distancing, isolation, quarantine, and the use of masks, hand and surface sanitisation. Since 2021 a global race for COVID-19 vaccination ensued, mainly due to a lack of equitable vaccine production and distribution. To date, no treatments have been demonstrated to cure COVID-19. The scientific World is now considering the potential use of Ivermectin as a prophylactic and treatment for COVID-19. Against this background, the objective of this study is to review the literature to demystify the enigma or panacea in the use of Ivermectin. This paper intends to investigate literature which supports the existence or shows the nonexistence of a causal link between Ivermectin, COVID-19 mortality and recovery. There are inconsistent results on the effectiveness of Ivermectin in the treatment of COVID-19 patients. Some studies have asserted that in a bid to slow down the transmission of COVID-19, ivermectin can be used to inhibit the in vitro replication of SARS-CoV-2. The pre-existing health system burdens can be alleviated as patients treated prophylactically would reduce hospital admissions and stem the spread of COVID-19. On a global scale, Ivermectin is currently used by about 28% of the world's population, and its adoption is presently about 44% of countries. However, the full administration of this drug would require further tests to establish its clinical effectiveness and efficacy.

12.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 80: 104197, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926187

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease - 19 (COVID-19) pandemic has put additional strain on Africa's fragile healthcare systems and has impacted the rise of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Currently, there is a rise in cases of Monkeypox Disease, a zoonotic viral disease caused by the Monkeypox virus, which was first documented in 1970 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Most of the clinical symptoms of Monkeypox resemble that of smallpox, whose virus also belongs to the same genus. Initial symptoms include headache, fever, and fatigue, followed by lymphadenopathy and a rash. This study aims to provide more insight into Monkeypox by exposing its current burden and efforts to combat it amidst COVID-19 in Africa. Since Monkeypox disease is re-emerging and is less contagious than COVID-19, prevention and treatment are much more manageable. Still, African countries face several crucial challenges in responding to the Monkeypox in times of the covid-19 pandemic. These include lack of a well-functioning surveillance system for early detection of the disease, lack of awareness and knowledge of the monkeypox disease across the general population, lack of healthcare facilities already burdened by COVID-19 cases, and shortage of trained healthcare professionals. On the other hand, one significant factor contributing to the minimized risk in Africa was the smallpox vaccination done before 1980. However, a declining cross-protective immunity is seen in those inoculated with the smallpox vaccine and the ever-increasing risk to the unvaccinated population. Thus, focusing on vaccination and disease surveillance operations and diligent monitoring, as well as cross-border collaborations with international sectors, including One Health, FOA, OIE, and WHO is critical to achieving the ultimate eradication of monkeypox in Africa.

13.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 79: 104084, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906728

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the primary cause of acute viral hepatitis in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It is transmitted by oral-faecal route via contaminated water or animal products, which is more pronounced in SSA, where inadequate hygiene measures, low socioeconomic situation, and frail healthcare system increase HEV susceptibility. During the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), numerous initiatives concerning viral hepatitis relief in SSA are implemented. However, national programs do not support most services and are neglected when national and local attention rests on the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, during the COVID-19 pandemic, hepatitis E prevention and control programs were affected in low-income countries due to economic losses. Therefore, an interdisciplinary approach should be adopted to mitigate HEV infections during COVID-19.

14.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 79: 104033, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906720

ABSTRACT

The Russia-Ukraine crisis has been at the center of international talks since early 2022. This conflict, bursting after the sanitary crisis of the covid 19 pandemic, creates an atmosphere of uncertainty and instability, which negatively impacts many aspects, including mental health. Young Ukrainians have been suffering from socio-political instability for decades, and the current war, together with the Covid 19 pandemic, shatters hopes of brighter days. This commentary covers the challenges facing the younger generation in Ukraine and the impact of this situation on their mental health.

15.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-3, 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878450

ABSTRACT

Globally, tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading infectious causes of mortality, with around 4000 deaths daily. Since the emergence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Africa, the region has experienced a lapse in responses directed at TB control, because the priority has shifted to interventions aimed at managing COVID-19. In addition to an unprecedented burden on the region's already overburdened health systems, another major public health concern is the clinical similarities between COVID-19 and TB, making TB diagnosis increasingly challenging, which may lead to poor prognosis, especially in people with TB and COVID-19 co-infection. A likely implication is that TB patients may stop attending health-care facilities due to fear of contracting or being diagnosed with COVID-19 or to avoid being stigmatized, invariably resulting in a disruption in their access to health-care services. Therefore, massive global support should be provided for TB endemic countries to respond synergistically and strongly to the thousands of TB cases as well as the COVID-19 pandemic.

16.
Postgrad Med J ; 98(1162): 569-571, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874640

ABSTRACT

The conflict between Ukraine and Russia significantly influences the healthcare sector. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the armed conflict have badly devastated the established healthcare system. Only 36.08% of the Ukrainian population has received the COVID-19 vaccination, with the majority receiving two doses, and currently, Ukraine records the highest mortality rate in the world. In addition to the conflict injuries, increased susceptible deaths to COVID-19 can be found due to inadequate vaccination rates for the disease. To save their lives and for their well-being, many individuals have been relocating to the underground metro stations, other cities, nearby towns and countries. In these settings, social distancing, hand sanitation and wearing masks are not prioritised. In the current circumstances, the broken healthcare system needs to be rebuilt, and the Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), doctors and all the front-line workers should extend their humanitarian support to the Ukrainian population. Conclusion: It is an arduous task for healthcare organisations to supply vaccines and medicines in this 'armed conflict' between Russia and Ukraine. This can only happen when both parties extend their support to rebuild the shattered healthcare infrastructure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Ukraine/epidemiology
17.
Clin Epidemiol Glob Health ; 16: 101073, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866946

ABSTRACT

Poliomyelitis is the leading infectious cause of acute flaccid paralysis among children under five years of age, caused by the Wild Poliovirus, with no medical cure other than prevention through vaccination. The advent of mass vaccination campaigns against polio disease worldwide has greatly decreased the number of global cases and limited the rate of transmission. However, the emergence of Vaccine-derived Poliovirus due to genetic reversions in the live attenuated oral polio vaccine has posed a significant impediment to global polio eradication efforts. Therefore, There is a need to modify the vaccination regimen by utilizing more doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine or adopting the bivalent oral polio vaccine in order to eliminate the transmission of Vaccine-derived Poliovirus. In addition, collective efforts from governments, health policymakers, vaccination groups and health-related bodies are required to improve vaccine coverage and suppress the circulation of Vaccine-derived Poliovirus.

19.
Trop Med Health ; 49(1): 102, 2021 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724603

ABSTRACT

Globally, the prevailing COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented clinical and public health concerns with increasing morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, the burden of COVID-19 in Africa has been further exacerbated by the simultaneous epidemics of Ebola virus disease (EVD) and Lassa Fever (LF) which has created a huge burden on African healthcare systems. As Africa struggles to contain the spread of the second (and third) waves of the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of reported cases of LF is also increasing, and recently, new outbreaks of EVD. Before the pandemic, many of Africa's frail healthcare systems were already overburdened due to resource limitations in staffing and infrastructure, and also, multiple endemic tropical diseases. However, the shared epidemiological and pathophysiological features of COVID-19, EVD and LF as well their simultaneous occurrence in Africa may result in misdiagnosis at the onset of infection, an increased possibility of co-infection, and rapid and silent community spread of the virus(es). Other challenges include high population mobility across porous borders, risk of human-to-animal transmission and reverse zoonotic spread, and other public health concerns. This review highlights some major clinical and public health challenges toward responses to the COVID-19 pandemic amidst the deuce-ace of recurrent LF and EVD epidemics in Africa. Applying the One Health approach in infectious disease surveillance and preparedness is essential in mitigating emerging and re-emerging (co-)epidemics in Africa and beyond.

20.
Afr J Emerg Med ; 12(2): 117-120, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706220

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, millions have suffered globally and as a result, attention and resources for other diseases, such as Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF), has declined. Despite a significantly lower incidence rate compared to COVID-19, CCHF has a considerably higher mortality rate at approximately 30%. Both diseases share symptoms such as headache, fever, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, sore throat, however they have different modes of transmission, mortality rates, and incubation periods. Public health professionals have faced several challenges when attempting to prevent and control the spread of both diseases and despite their differences, many of the prevention methods remain the same. These include increasing public awareness regarding avoiding contact with infected individuals and animals, training healthcare professionals in emergency and preparedness for disease outbreaks and increasing the investment in medical supplies and treatment to control the spread of both diseases.

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