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1.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 10(3): ofad091, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261547

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody tests have had limited recommended clinical application during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. To inform clinical practice, an understanding is needed of current perspectives of United States-based infectious disease (ID) physicians on the use, interpretation, and need for SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests. Methods: In March 2022, members of the Emerging Infections Network (EIN), a national network of practicing ID physicians, were surveyed on types of SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays ordered, interpretation of test results, and clinical scenarios for which antibody tests were considered. Results: Of 1867 active EIN members, 747 (40%) responded. Among the 583 who managed or consulted on COVID-19 patients, a majority (434/583 [75%]) had ordered SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests and were comfortable interpreting positive (452/578 [78%]) and negative (405/562 [72%]) results. Antibody tests were used for diagnosing post-COVID-19 conditions (61%), identifying prior SARS-CoV-2 infection (60%), and differentiating prior infection and response to COVID-19 vaccination (37%). Less than a third of respondents had used antibody tests to assess need for additional vaccines or risk stratification. Lack of sufficient evidence for use and nonstandardized assays were among the most common barriers for ordering tests. Respondents indicated that statements from professional societies and government agencies would influence their decision to order SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests for clinical decision making. Conclusions: Practicing ID physicians are using SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests, and there is an unmet need for clarifying the appropriate use of these tests in clinical practice. Professional societies and US government agencies can support clinicians in the community through the creation of appropriate guidance.

2.
Lancet ; 400(10353): 693-706, 2022 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284974

ABSTRACT

Annual seasonal influenza epidemics of variable severity caused by influenza A and B virus infections result in substantial disease burden worldwide. Seasonal influenza virus circulation declined markedly in 2020-21 after SARS-CoV-2 emerged but increased in 2021-22. Most people with influenza have abrupt onset of respiratory symptoms and myalgia with or without fever and recover within 1 week, but some can experience severe or fatal complications. Prevention is primarily by annual influenza vaccination, with efforts underway to develop new vaccines with improved effectiveness. Sporadic zoonotic infections with novel influenza A viruses of avian or swine origin continue to pose pandemic threats. In this Seminar, we discuss updates of key influenza issues for clinicians, in particular epidemiology, virology, and pathogenesis, diagnostic testing including multiplex assays that detect influenza viruses and SARS-CoV-2, complications, antiviral treatment, influenza vaccines, infection prevention, and non-pharmaceutical interventions, and highlight gaps in clinical management and priorities for clinical research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A virus , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Swine
3.
Nat Rev Microbiol ; 2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2255058

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused substantial global morbidity and deaths, leading governments to turn to non-pharmaceutical interventions to slow down the spread of infection and lessen the burden on health care systems. These policies have evolved over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, including after the availability of COVID-19 vaccines, with regional and country-level differences in their ongoing use. The COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with changes in respiratory virus infections worldwide, which have differed between virus types. Reductions in respiratory virus infections, including by influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus, were most notable at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic and continued in varying degrees through subsequent waves of SARS-CoV-2 infections. The decreases in community infection burden have resulted in reduced hospitalizations and deaths associated with non-SARS-CoV-2 respiratory infections. Respiratory virus evolution relies on the maintaining of a diverse genetic pool, but evidence of genetic bottlenecking brought on by case reduction during the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in reduced genetic diversity of some respiratory viruses, including influenza virus. By describing the differences in these changes between viral species across different geographies over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, we may better understand the complex factors involved in community co-circulation of respiratory viruses.

4.
Crit Care Explor ; 5(1): e0827, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252114

ABSTRACT

Vascular dysfunction and capillary leak are common in critically ill COVID-19 patients, but identification of endothelial pathways involved in COVID-19 pathogenesis has been limited. Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) is a protein secreted in response to hypoxic and nutrient-poor conditions that has a variety of biological effects including vascular injury and capillary leak. OBJECTIVES: To assess the role of ANGPTL4 in COVID-19-related outcomes. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred twenty-five COVID-19 ICU patients were enrolled from April 2020 to May 2021 in a prospective, multicenter cohort study from three different medical centers, University of Washington, University of Southern California and New York University. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Plasma ANGPTL4 was measured on days 1, 7, and 14 after ICU admission. We used previously published tissue proteomic data and lung single nucleus RNA (snRNA) sequencing data from specimens collected from COVID-19 patients to determine the tissues and cells that produce ANGPTL4. RESULTS: Higher plasma ANGPTL4 concentrations were significantly associated with worse hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio per log2 increase, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.17-2.00; p = 0.002). Higher ANGPTL4 concentrations were also associated with higher proportions of venous thromboembolism and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Longitudinal ANGPTL4 concentrations were significantly different during the first 2 weeks of hospitalization in patients who subsequently died compared with survivors (p for interaction = 8.1 × 10-5). Proteomics analysis demonstrated abundance of ANGPTL4 in lung tissue compared with other organs in COVID-19. ANGPTL4 single-nuclear RNA gene expression was significantly increased in pulmonary alveolar type 2 epithelial cells and fibroblasts in COVID-19 lung tissue compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: ANGPTL4 is expressed in pulmonary epithelial cells and fibroblasts and is associated with clinical prognosis in critically ill COVID-19 patients.

5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 1099408, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2239423

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Definitive vertical transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been rarely reported. We present a case of a third trimester pregnancy with fetal distress necessitating cesarean section that demonstrated maternal, placental, and infant infection with the SARS-CoV-2 Alpha variant/B.1.1.7. Methods: CDC's Influenza SARS-CoV-2 Multiplex RT-PCR Assay was used to test for SARS-CoV-2 in a maternal NP swab, maternal plasma, infant NP swab, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) placental tissue specimens. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on maternal plasma, infant, and placental specimens to determine the SARS-CoV-2 genotype. Histopathological evaluation, SARS-CoV-2 immunohistochemistry testing (IHC), and electron microscopy (EM) analysis were performed on placenta, umbilical cord, and membrane FFPE blocks. Results: All specimens tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR. WGS further revealed identical SARS-CoV-2 sequences from clade 20I/501Y.V1 (lineage Alpha/B.1.1.7) in maternal plasma, infant, and placental specimens. Histopathologic evaluation of the placenta showed histiocytic and neutrophilic intervillositis with fibrin deposition and trophoblast necrosis with positive SARS-CoV-2 immunostaining in the syncytiotrophoblast and electron microscopy evidence of coronavirus. Discussion: These findings suggest vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2, supported by clinical course timing, identical SARS-CoV-2 genotypes from maternal, placental, and infant samples, and IHC and EM evidence of placental infection. However, determination of the timing or distinction between prepartum and peripartum SARS-CoV-2 transmission remains unclear.

6.
Crit Care Med ; 51(4): 445-459, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2238702

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic threatened standard hospital operations. We sought to understand how this stress was perceived and manifested within individual hospitals and in relation to local viral activity. DESIGN: Prospective weekly hospital stress survey, November 2020-June 2022. SETTING: Society of Critical Care Medicine's Discovery Severe Acute Respiratory Infection-Preparedness multicenter cohort study. SUBJECTS: Thirteen hospitals across seven U.S. health systems. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We analyzed 839 hospital-weeks of data over 85 pandemic weeks and five viral surges. Perceived overall hospital, ICU, and emergency department (ED) stress due to severe acute respiratory infection patients during the pandemic were reported by a mean of 43% ( sd , 36%), 32% (30%), and 14% (22%) of hospitals per week, respectively, and perceived care deviations in a mean of 36% (33%). Overall hospital stress was highly correlated with ICU stress (ρ = 0.82; p < 0.0001) but only moderately correlated with ED stress (ρ = 0.52; p < 0.0001). A county increase in 10 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 cases per 100,000 residents was associated with an increase in the odds of overall hospital, ICU, and ED stress by 9% (95% CI, 5-12%), 7% (3-10%), and 4% (2-6%), respectively. During the Delta variant surge, overall hospital stress persisted for a median of 11.5 weeks (interquartile range, 9-14 wk) after local case peak. ICU stress had a similar pattern of resolution (median 11 wk [6-14 wk] after local case peak; p = 0.59) while the resolution of ED stress (median 6 wk [5-6 wk] after local case peak; p = 0.003) was earlier. There was a similar but attenuated pattern during the Omicron BA.1 subvariant surge. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, perceived care deviations were common and potentially avoidable patient harm was rare. Perceived hospital stress persisted for weeks after surges peaked.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Cohort Studies , Prospective Studies , Hospitals
7.
Lancet Reg Health Am ; 15: 100348, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2228942

ABSTRACT

Background: The circulation of respiratory viruses poses a significant health risk among those residing in congregate settings. Data are limited on seasonal human coronavirus (HCoV) infections in homeless shelter settings. Methods: We analysed data from a clinical trial and SARS-CoV-2 surveillance study at 23 homeless shelter sites in King County, Washington between October 2019-May 2021. Eligible participants were shelter residents aged ≥3 months with acute respiratory illness. We collected enrolment data and nasal samples for respiratory virus testing using multiplex RT-PCR platform including HCoV. Beginning April 1, 2020, eligibility expanded to shelter residents and staff regardless of symptoms. HCoV species was determined by RT-PCR with species-specific primers, OpenArray assay or genomic sequencing for samples with an OpenArray relative cycle threshold <22. Findings: Of the 14,464 samples from 3281 participants between October 2019-May 2021, 107 were positive for HCoV from 90 participants (median age 40 years, range: 0·9-81 years, 38% female). HCoV-HKU1 was the most common species identified before and after community-wide mitigation. No HCoV-positive samples were identified between May 2020-December 2020. Adults aged ≥50 years had the highest detection of HCoV (11%) among virus-positive samples among all age-groups. Species and sequence data showed diversity between and within HCoV species over the study period. Interpretation: HCoV infections occurred in all congregate homeless shelter site age-groups with the greatest proportion among those aged ≥50 years. Species and sequencing data highlight the complexity of HCoV epidemiology within and between shelters sites. Funding: Gates Ventures, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute of Health.

8.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 17(1): e13092, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2213680

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Persons experiencing homelessness face increased risk of influenza as overcrowding in congregate shelters can facilitate influenza virus spread. Data regarding on-site influenza testing and antiviral treatment within homeless shelters remain limited. METHODS: We conducted a cluster-randomized stepped-wedge trial of point-of-care molecular influenza testing coupled with antiviral treatment with baloxavir or oseltamivir in residents of 14 homeless shelters in Seattle, WA, USA. Residents ≥3 months with cough or ≥2 acute respiratory illness (ARI) symptoms and onset <7 days were eligible. In control periods, mid-nasal swabs were tested for influenza by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The intervention period included on-site rapid molecular influenza testing and antiviral treatment for influenza-positives if symptom onset was <48 h. The primary endpoint was monthly influenza virus infections in the control versus intervention periods. Influenza whole genome sequencing was performed to assess transmission and antiviral resistance. RESULTS: During 11/15/2019-4/30/2020 and 11/2/2020-4/30/2021, 1283 ARI encounters from 668 participants were observed. Influenza virus was detected in 51 (4%) specimens using RT-PCR (A = 14; B = 37); 21 influenza virus infections were detected from 269 (8%) intervention-eligible encounters by rapid molecular testing and received antiviral treatment. Thirty-seven percent of ARI-participant encounters reported symptom onset < 48 h. The intervention had no effect on influenza virus transmission (adjusted relative risk 1.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50-6.00). Of 23 influenza genomes, 86% of A(H1N1)pdm09 and 81% of B/Victoria sequences were closely related. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest feasibility of influenza test-and-treat strategies in shelters. Additional studies would help discern an intervention effect during periods of increased influenza activity.


Subject(s)
Ill-Housed Persons , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/drug therapy
9.
Frontiers in medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2207442

ABSTRACT

Introduction Definitive vertical transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been rarely reported. We present a case of a third trimester pregnancy with fetal distress necessitating cesarean section that demonstrated maternal, placental, and infant infection with the SARS-CoV-2 Alpha variant/B.1.1.7. Methods CDC's Influenza SARS-CoV-2 Multiplex RT-PCR Assay was used to test for SARS-CoV-2 in a maternal NP swab, maternal plasma, infant NP swab, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) placental tissue specimens. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on maternal plasma, infant, and placental specimens to determine the SARS-CoV-2 genotype. Histopathological evaluation, SARS-CoV-2 immunohistochemistry testing (IHC), and electron microscopy (EM) analysis were performed on placenta, umbilical cord, and membrane FFPE blocks. Results All specimens tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR. WGS further revealed identical SARS-CoV-2 sequences from clade 20I/501Y.V1 (lineage Alpha/B.1.1.7) in maternal plasma, infant, and placental specimens. Histopathologic evaluation of the placenta showed histiocytic and neutrophilic intervillositis with fibrin deposition and trophoblast necrosis with positive SARS-CoV-2 immunostaining in the syncytiotrophoblast and electron microscopy evidence of coronavirus. Discussion These findings suggest vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2, supported by clinical course timing, identical SARS-CoV-2 genotypes from maternal, placental, and infant samples, and IHC and EM evidence of placental infection. However, determination of the timing or distinction between prepartum and peripartum SARS-CoV-2 transmission remains unclear.

10.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(13): S26-S33, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162885

ABSTRACT

A network of global respiratory disease surveillance systems and partnerships has been built over decades as a direct response to the persistent threat of seasonal, zoonotic, and pandemic influenza. These efforts have been spearheaded by the World Health Organization, country ministries of health, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, nongovernmental organizations, academic groups, and others. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention worked closely with ministries of health in partner countries and the World Health Organization to leverage influenza surveillance systems and programs to respond to SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Countries used existing surveillance systems for severe acute respiratory infection and influenza-like illness, respiratory virus laboratory resources, pandemic influenza preparedness plans, and ongoing population-based influenza studies to track, study, and respond to SARS-CoV-2 infections. The incorporation of COVID-19 surveillance into existing influenza sentinel surveillance systems can support continued global surveillance for respiratory viruses with pandemic potential.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , World Health Organization
11.
Crit Care Explor ; 4(10): e0773, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087871

ABSTRACT

Respiratory virus infections cause significant morbidity and mortality ranging from mild uncomplicated acute respiratory illness to severe complications, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, multiple organ failure, and death during epidemics and pandemics. We present a protocol to systematically study patients with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI), including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, due to respiratory viral pathogens to evaluate the natural history, prognostic biomarkers, and characteristics, including hospital stress, associated with clinical outcomes and severity. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Multicenter cohort of patients admitted to an acute care ward or ICU from at least 15 hospitals representing diverse geographic regions across the United States. PATIENTS: Patients with SARI caused by infection with respiratory viruses that can cause outbreaks, epidemics, and pandemics. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Measurements include patient demographics, signs, symptoms, and medications; microbiology, imaging, and associated tests; mechanical ventilation, hospital procedures, and other interventions; and clinical outcomes and hospital stress, with specimens collected on days 0, 3, and 7-14 after enrollment and at discharge. The primary outcome measure is the number of consecutive days alive and free of mechanical ventilation (VFD) in the first 30 days after hospital admission. Important secondary outcomes include organ failure-free days before acute kidney injury, shock, hepatic failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, 28-day mortality, adaptive immunity, as well as immunologic and microbiologic outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: SARI-Preparedness is a multicenter study under the collaboration of the Society of Critical Care Medicine Discovery, Resilience Intelligence Network, and National Emerging Special Pathogen Training and Education Center, which seeks to improve understanding of prognostic factors associated with worse outcomes and increased resource utilization. This can lead to interventions to mitigate the clinical impact of respiratory virus infections associated with SARI.

12.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(11): 2343-2347, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054907

ABSTRACT

To determine the epidemiology of human parainfluenza virus in homeless shelters during the COVID-19 pandemic, we analyzed data and sequences from respiratory specimens collected in 23 shelters in Washington, USA, during 2019-2021. Two clusters in children were genetically similar by shelter of origin. Shelter-specific interventions are needed to reduce these infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ill-Housed Persons , Paramyxoviridae Infections , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Washington/epidemiology , Paramyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology
14.
J Infect Dis ; 226(Suppl 3): S304-S314, 2022 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908832

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rhinovirus (RV) is a common cause of respiratory illness in all people, including those experiencing homelessness. RV epidemiology in homeless shelters is unknown. METHODS: We analyzed data from a cross-sectional homeless shelter study in King County, Washington, October 2019-May 2021. Shelter residents or guardians aged ≥3 months reporting acute respiratory illness completed questionnaires and submitted nasal swabs. After 1 April 2020, enrollment expanded to residents and staff regardless of symptoms. Samples were tested by multiplex RT-PCR for respiratory viruses. A subset of RV-positive samples was sequenced. RESULTS: There were 1066 RV-positive samples with RV present every month of the study period. RV was the most common virus before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic (43% and 77% of virus-positive samples, respectively). Participants from family shelters had the highest prevalence of RV. Among 131 sequenced samples, 33 RV serotypes were identified with each serotype detected for ≤4 months. CONCLUSIONS: RV infections persisted through community mitigation measures and were most prevalent in shelters housing families. Sequencing showed a diversity of circulating RV serotypes, each detected over short periods of time. Community-based surveillance in congregate settings is important to characterize respiratory viral infections during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT04141917.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Enterovirus Infections , Ill-Housed Persons , Viruses , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology , Genomics , Humans , Pandemics , Rhinovirus/genetics , Washington/epidemiology
15.
J Infect Dis ; 226(2): 217-224, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758748

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Residents and staff of emergency shelters for people experiencing homelessness (PEH) are at high risk of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The importance of shelter-related transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in this population remains unclear. It is also unknown whether there is significant spread of shelter-related viruses into surrounding communities. METHODS: We analyzed genome sequence data for 28 SARS-CoV-2-positive specimens collected from 8 shelters in King County, Washington between March and October, 2020. RESULTS: We identified at least 12 separate SARS-CoV-2 introduction events into these 8 shelters and estimated that 57% (16 of 28) of the examined cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection were the result of intrashelter transmission. However, we identified just a few SARS-CoV-2 specimens from Washington that were possible descendants of shelter viruses. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that SARS-CoV-2 spread in shelters is common, but we did not observe evidence of widespread transmission of shelter-related viruses into the general population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ill-Housed Persons , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Shelter , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
16.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(3): 510-517, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686417

ABSTRACT

Severe coronavirus disease in neonates is rare. We analyzed clinical, laboratory, and autopsy findings from a neonate in the United States who was delivered at 25 weeks of gestation and died 4 days after birth; the mother had asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and preeclampsia. We observed severe diffuse alveolar damage and localized SARS-CoV-2 by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and electron microscopy of the lungs of the neonate. We localized SARS-CoV-2 RNA in neonatal heart and liver vascular endothelium by using in situ hybridization and detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA in neonatal and placental tissues by using reverse transcription PCR. Subgenomic reverse transcription PCR suggested viral replication in lung/airway, heart, and liver. These findings indicate that in utero SARS-CoV-2 transmission contributed to this neonatal death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Autopsy , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Lung , Placenta , Pregnancy , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 70(4): 960-967, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685361

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adult residents of skilled nursing facilities (SNF) have experienced high morbidity and mortality from SARS-CoV-2 infection and are at increased risk for severe COVID-19 disease. Use of monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment improves clinical outcomes among high-risk outpatients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19, but information on mAb effectiveness in SNF residents with COVID-19 is limited. We assessed outcomes in SNF residents with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 associated with an outbreak in Arizona during January-February 2021 that did and did not receive a mAb. METHODS: Medical records were reviewed to describe the effect of bamlanivimab therapy on COVID-19 mortality. Secondary outcomes included referral to an acute care setting and escalation of medical therapies at the SNF (e.g., new oxygen requirements). Residents treated with bamlanivimab were compared to residents who were eligible for treatment under the FDA's Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) but were not treated. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine association between outcomes and treatment status. RESULTS: Seventy-five residents identified with COVID-19 during this outbreak met eligibility for mAb treatment, of whom 56 received bamlanivimab. Treated and untreated groups were similar in age and comorbidities associated with increased risk of severe COVID-19 disease. Treatment with bamlanivimab was associated with reduced 21-day mortality (adjusted OR = 0.06; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.39) and lower odds of initiating oxygen therapy (adjusted OR = 0.07; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.34). Referrals to acute care were not significantly different between treated and untreated residents. CONCLUSIONS: mAb therapy was successfully administered to SNF residents with COVID-19 in a large outbreak setting. Treatment with bamlanivimab reduced 21-day mortality and reduced initiation of oxygen therapy. As the COVID-19 pandemic evolves and newer immunotherapies gain FDA authorization, more studies of the effectiveness of mAb therapies for treating emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern in high-risk congregate settings are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Arizona , Humans , Immunotherapy , Pandemics , Skilled Nursing Facilities
18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4411-e4418, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561635

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Noninfluenza respiratory viruses are responsible for a substantial burden of disease in the United States. Household transmission is thought to contribute significantly to subsequent transmission through the broader community. In the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, contactless surveillance methods are of particular importance. METHODS: From November 2019 to April 2020, 303 households in the Seattle area were remotely monitored in a prospective longitudinal study for symptoms of respiratory viral illness. Enrolled participants reported weekly symptoms and submitted respiratory samples by mail in the event of an acute respiratory illness (ARI). Specimens were tested for 14 viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Participants completed all study procedures at home without physical contact with research staff. RESULTS: In total, 1171 unique participants in 303 households were monitored for ARI. Of participating households, 128 (42%) included a child aged <5 years and 202 (67%) included a child aged 5-12 years. Of the 678 swabs collected during the surveillance period, 237 (35%) tested positive for 1 or more noninfluenza respiratory viruses. Rhinovirus, common human coronaviruses, and respiratory syncytial virus were the most common. Four cases of SARS-CoV-2 were detected in 3 households. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the circulation of respiratory viruses within households during the winter months during the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Contactless methods of recruitment, enrollment, and sample collection were utilized throughout this study and demonstrate the feasibility of home-based, remote monitoring for respiratory infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Viruses , Child , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4141-e4151, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561160

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) can cause severe illness and death. Predictors of poor outcome collected on hospital admission may inform clinical and public health decisions. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational cohort investigation of 297 adults admitted to 8 academic and community hospitals in Georgia, United States, during March 2020. Using standardized medical record abstraction, we collected data on predictors including admission demographics, underlying medical conditions, outpatient antihypertensive medications, recorded symptoms, vital signs, radiographic findings, and laboratory values. We used random forest models to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for predictors of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and death. RESULTS: Compared with age <45 years, ages 65-74 years and ≥75 years were predictors of IMV (aORs, 3.12 [95% CI, 1.47-6.60] and 2.79 [95% CI, 1.23-6.33], respectively) and the strongest predictors for death (aORs, 12.92 [95% CI, 3.26-51.25] and 18.06 [95% CI, 4.43-73.63], respectively). Comorbidities associated with death (aORs, 2.4-3.8; P < .05) included end-stage renal disease, coronary artery disease, and neurologic disorders, but not pulmonary disease, immunocompromise, or hypertension. Prehospital use vs nonuse of angiotensin receptor blockers (aOR, 2.02 [95% CI, 1.03-3.96]) and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (aOR, 1.91 [95% CI, 1.03-3.55]) were associated with death. CONCLUSIONS: After adjustment for patient and clinical characteristics, older age was the strongest predictor of death, exceeding comorbidities, abnormal vital signs, and laboratory test abnormalities. That coronary artery disease, but not chronic lung disease, was associated with death among hospitalized patients warrants further investigation, as do associations between certain antihypertensive medications and death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Hospitalization , Humans , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
20.
Vaccine ; 40(1): 122-132, 2022 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550126

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Little is known about COVID-19 vaccination intent among people experiencing homelessness. This study assesses surveyed COVID-19 vaccination intent among adult homeless shelter residents and staff and identifies factors associated with vaccine deliberation (responded "undecided") and reluctance (responded "no"), including time trends. METHODS: From 11/1/2020-2/28/21, we conducted repeated cross-sectional surveys at nine shelters in King County, WA as part of ongoing community-based SARS-CoV-2 surveillance. We used a multinomial model to identify characteristics associated with vaccine deliberation and reluctance. RESULTS: A total of 969 unique staff (n = 297) and residents (n = 672) participated and provided 3966 survey responses. Among residents, 53.7% (n = 361) were vaccine accepting, 28.1% reluctant, 17.6% deliberative, and 0.6% already vaccinated, whereas among staff 56.2% were vaccine accepting, 14.1% were reluctant, 16.5% were deliberative, and 13.1% already vaccinated at their last survey. We observed higher odds of vaccine deliberation or reluctance among Black/African American individuals, those who did not receive a seasonal influenza vaccine, and those with lower educational attainment. There was no significant trend towards vaccine acceptance. CONCLUSIONS: Strong disparities in vaccine intent based on race, education, and prior vaccine history were observed. Increased vaccine intent over the study period was not detected. An intersectional, person-centered approach to addressing health inequities by public health authorities planning vaccination campaigns in shelters is recommended. Clinical Trial Registry Number: NCT04141917.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ill-Housed Persons , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Inequities , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Washington
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