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Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 81:936, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2008887


Background: Mixed cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis (MCV) is an immune-complex-mediated systemic vasculitis characterized by heterogeneous clinical manifestations mainly involving skin, kidney and peripheral nervous system. Despite reassuring safety data from EULAR Coronavirus Vaccine (COVAX) physician-reported registry, a signifcant proportion of patients with autoimmune diseases reported unwillingness to get vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 infection in the preliminary results of the COVAD study, due to concerns about the lack of longterm safety data, and fear of associated side effects and disease fare. Objectives: Aims of this multicentre Italian study were to investigate the prevalence of vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 in Italian population of MCV patients, to explore the reason for the missed vaccination, and to investigate short and long-term side effects of the vaccine, including vasculitis fare. Methods: All MCV patients referring to 12 Italian centres were investigated about vaccination and possible both short-(within 48 hours) and long-term (within 30 days) adverse events (AE), classifed according to FDA Toxicity Grading Scale for preventive vaccine clinical trials, and possible disease fares. Patients with MCV related to lymphoproliferative disorders or connective tissue diseases were excluded from the study. The baseline variables were expressed as percentages or mean±standard deviation. The differences between continuous variables were analysed using the Mann-Whitney nonparametric test. The chi-squared test, or Fischer's exact when appropriate, were used for categorical variables (absolute numbers and percentages) regarding baseline characteristics. Results: A total of 416 patients, 69.2% females and 30.8% males, with a mean age of 70.4±11.7 years, were included in the study. Only 7.7% of patients were not vaccinated, mainly for fear of adverse events (50%) or for medical decision (18.8%). Corminaty was the vaccine most frequently used (80.5%). Interestingly, 6 patients (1.44%) were with a heterologous vaccination (usually AstraZeneca-Corminaty). Considering ongoing treatment, not vaccinated subjects were more frequently treated with chronic glucocorticoid therapy and/or Rituximab (p=0.049 and p=0.043 respectively). AE were recorded in 31.7% of cases, mainly mild and self-limiting (grade 1). More severe adverse events, such as fare of vasculitis, were observed in 5.3% of cases. AE were not associated with the kind of vaccine used and with the clinical manifestations of vasculitis. Patients with active MCV showed a lower frequency of short-term (within 48 hours) adverse events, but patients affected by peripheral neuropathies or skin vasculitis frequently showed a fare of their symptoms, recorded in 40% and 25% of cases, respectively. Finally, patients under glucocorticoid treatment were more prone to develop a vasculitis fare within a month after vaccination. Conclusion: Vaccination in MCV patients has been performed in a high percentage of patients showing a good safety. Other than patients' fear, treatments with rituximab and glucocorticoids are the main reasons for delaying vaccination, and it should be considered by the physician before starting therapy. Vasculitis fares were observed in about 5% of cases, in line with that observed in other autoimmune diseases. Specific attention should be reserved to people with purpura or peripheral neuropathy, for the increased risk of exacerbation of their symptoms.

Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 16(8): 751-770, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684487


INTRODUCTION: Main clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection are characterized by fever, dyspnea, and interstitial pneumonia, frequently evolving in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). AREAS COVERED: Features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) presents some common points with interstitial lung disease (ILD) both idiopathic and related to rheumatoid arthritis (RA), typically characterized by a chronic progression over time and possibly complicated by acute exacerbation (AE). The study of common pathogenetic mechanisms, such as the involvement of toll-like receptor 4, could contribute to the knowledge and treatment of idiopathic and RA-ILD. Moreover, hyperinflammation, mainly characterized by increase of effector T-cells and inflammatory cytokines, and activation of coagulation cascade, observed in COVID-19 related ARDS have been already shown in patients with AE of idiopathic and RA-ILD. A literature search was performed in PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science, together with a manual search in COVID-resource centers of the main journals. EXPERT OPINION: Despite the uncertainty about pathogenetic aspects about COVID-19- pneumonia, it could be a possible model for other forms of ILD and AE. The great amount of data from studies on COVID-19 could be helpful in proposing safe therapeutic approaches for RA-ILD, in understanding pathogenesis of usual interstitial pneumonia and to develop new therapeutic strategies for AE.

Arthritis, Rheumatoid/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/therapy , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Progression , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/therapy , Lung/pathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Flare Up , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism