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1.
Acta Biomed ; 93(2): e2022057, 2022 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1848015

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Dysregulation of iron metabolism and hyper-inflammation are two key points in the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Since high hepcidin levels and low serum iron can predict COVID-19 severity and mortality, we decided to investigate iron metabolism and inflammatory response in 32 COVID-19 adult patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 defined by a positive result of RT-PCR nasopharyngeal swab, and admitted to an Italian emergency department for acute respiratory failure at different degree. METHODS: Patients were stratified in 3 groups based on PaO2/FiO2 ratio at admission: 13 (41%) were normoxemic at rest and suffered from exertional dyspnea (group 1); 14 (44%) had a mild respiratory failure (group 2), and 5 (15%) a severe hypoxiemia (group 3). RESULTS: White blood cells were significantly higher in group 3, while lymphocytes and hemoglobin were significantly reduced. Serum iron, transferrin saturation, non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) and ferritin were significantly increased in group 2. All the groups showed high hepcidin levels, but in group 3 this parameter was significantly altered. It is noteworthy that in group 1 inflammatory and oxidative indices were both within the normal range. CONCLUSIONS: We are aware that our study has some limitations, the small number of enrolled patients and the short period of data collection, but few works have been performed in the Emergency Room. However, we strongly believe that our results confirm the pivotal role of both iron metabolism dysregulation and hyper-inflammatory response in the pathogenesis of tissue and organ damage in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hepcidins/metabolism , Homeostasis , Humans , Iron/metabolism , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292548

ABSTRACT

Dysregulation of iron metabolism and hyper-inflammation are two key points in the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Since high hepcidin levels and low serum iron can predict COVID-19 severity and mortality, we decided to investigate iron metabolism and inflammatory response in 32 COVID-19 adult patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 defined by a positive result of RT-PCR nasopharyngeal swab, and admitted to an Italian emergency department for acute respiratory failure at different degree. Patients were stratified in 3 groups based on PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratio at admission: 13 (41%) were normoxemic at rest and suffered from exertional dyspnea (group 1);14 (44%) had a mild respiratory failure (group 2), and 5 (15%) a severe hypoxiemia (group 3). White blood cells were significantly higher in group 3, while lymphocytes and hemoglobin were significantly reduced. Serum iron, transferrin saturation, non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) and ferritin were significantly increased in group 2. All the groups showed high hepcidin levels, but in group 3 this parameter was significantly altered. It is noteworthy that in group 1 inflammatory and oxidative indices were both within the normal range. We are aware that our study has some limitations, the small number of enrolled patients and the short period of data collection, but few works have been performed in the Emergency Room. However, we strongly believe that our results confirm the pivotal role of both iron metabolism dysregulation and hyper-inflammatory response in the pathogenesis of tissue and organ damage in COVID-19 patients.

3.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): e2020024, 2020 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-761235

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a systemic disease which can cause multiple organ failure and death primarly due to vascular endothelium injury. Severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the main cause of death: its management and treatment should be tailored to the individual COVID-19 patient's phenotype. Early diagnosis of COVID-19 is paramount for disease treatment and infection control. Naso-pharyngeal (NP) swab is commonly used as screening and diagnostic tool for COVID-19, but in some cases it can be resulted negative even in presence of clinical and epidemiological criteria, and typical radiological and laboratory findings of COVID-19, as we have observed. Here we report our experience in the first month of the Italian epidemic. We strongly recommend clinicians to maintain a high index of suspicion for COVID-19, regardless of the persistence negativity of NP swabs, and not to delay the initiation of therapy in presence of typical clinical, radiological and laboratory findings of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
4.
Clin Chim Acta ; 509: 135-138, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-591576

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The dramatic worldwide CoVID-19 infection requires the identification of a reliable and inexpensive tool to quickly discriminate patients with a more unfavorable outcome. METHODS: We performed routine laboratory tests suitable to identify tissue damage and inflammatory status in 123 consecutive CoVID-19 patients admitted to the Emergency Department of the hospital of Piacenza (Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy). The results were correlated with patients' respiratory function evaluated by the partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2/FiO2). RESULTS: The most common laboratory abnormalities were lymphocytopenia and elevated values of C-reactive protein (CRP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatine kinase (CK) were also increased. The respiratory performance (PaO2/FiO2) showed a strong inverse correlation with LDH (r = 0.62, r2 0.38, p value < 0.0001) and CRP (r = 0.55, r2 0.31, p value < 0.0001). PaO2/FiO2 values also showed a significant inverse correlation with age (r = -0.37, p < 0.0001), AST (r = -0.31, p < 0.01), WBC (r = -0.49, p < 0.0001), neutrophils count (r = -0.5, p < 0.001). ROC curves showed a sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 70% for the LDH cut-off value of 450 U/L and a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 71% for the CRP cut-off value of 11 mg/dl in identifying CoVID-19 with moderate-severe ARDS. CONCLUSIONS: LDH and CRP may be related to respiratory function (PaO2/FiO2) and be a predictor of respiratory failure in CoVID-19 patients. LDH and CRP should be considered a useful test for the early identification of patients who require closer respiratory monitoring and more aggressive supportive therapies to avoid poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Respiratory Insufficiency/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/trends , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Admission/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Predictive Value of Tests , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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