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Borneo Journal of Pharmacy ; 5(2):161-178, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067634


In the era of emerging microbial and non-communicable diseases and re-emerging microbial infections, the medical fraternity and the public are plagued by under-preparedness. It is evident by the severity of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic that novel microbial diseases are a challenge and are challenging to control. This is mainly attributed to the lack of complete knowledge of the novel microbe’s biology and pathogenesis and the unavailability of therapeutic drugs and vaccines to treat and control the disease. Clinical research is the only answer utilizing which can handle most of these circumstances. In this review, we highlight the importance of computer-assisted drug designing (CADD) and the aspects of molecular docking, molecular superimposition, 3D-pharmacophore technology, ethics, and good clinical practice (GCP) for the development of therapeutic drugs, devices, and vaccines.

Micro and Nanosystems ; 14(2):156-165, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1875264


The novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that has emerged and spread throughout the world causing CoV disease-19 (COVID-19) has since its discovery affected not only humans and animals but also the environment. Because of the highly infectious nature of the virus, and the respiratory aerosol transmission route, face masks and personal protective equipment have become mandatory for public and healthcare workers, respectively. Also, the complex nature of the pathogenicity of the virus, wherein, it has been associated with mild, moderate, and severe life-threatening infections, has warranted increased laboratory testing and placing the infected people in isolation and under constant observation in quarantine centers or at dedicated hospitals. Some infected people, who are generally healthy, and do not show symptoms have been placed in home quarantines. At this juncture, there has been increased amount of Biomedical Waste (BMW), and infectious general waste along with plastic disposable recyclable and non-recyclable waste. The increased BMW along with the potentially hazardous plastic waste collection, segregation, transport, and disposal has assumed increased significance during the ongoing pandemic. Therefore, this review attempts to investigate the current scenario of BMW management and strategies to minimize BMW and prevent potential environmental pollution. © 2022 Bentham Science Publishers.

Borneo Journal of Pharmacy ; 4(4):311-323, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1649899


Because of the frequent emergence of novel microbial species and the re-emergence of genetic variants of hitherto known microbes, the global healthcare system, and human health has been thrown into jeopardy. Also, certain microbes that possess the ability to develop multi-drug resistance (MDR) have limited the treatment options in cases of serious infections, and increased hospital and treatment costs, and associated morbidity and mortality. The recent discovery of the novel Coronavirus (n-CoV), the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2) that is causing the CoV Disease-19 (COVID-19) has resulted in severe morbidity and mortality throughout the world affecting normal human lives. The major concern with the current pandemic is the non-availability of specific drugs and an incomplete understanding of the pathobiology of the virus. It is therefore important for pharmaceutical establishments to envisage the discovery of therapeutic interventions and potential vaccines against the novel and MDR microbes. Therefore, this review is attempted to update and explore the current perspectives in microbes, clinical research, drug discovery, and vaccine development to effectively combat the emerging novel and re-emerging genetic variants of microbes.