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1.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957458

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 infection induced lung inflammation characterized by cytokine storm and fulminant immune response of both resident and migrated immune cells, accelerating alveolar damage. In this work we identified members of the matrix metalloprotease (MMPs) family associated with lung extra-cellular matrix (ECM) destruction using K18-hACE2-transgenic mice (K18-hACE2) infected intranasally with SARS-CoV-2. Five days post infection, the lungs exhibited overall alveolar damage of epithelial cells and massive leukocytes infiltration. A substantial pulmonary increase in MMP8, MMP9, and MMP14 in the lungs post SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with degradation of ECM components including collagen, laminin, and proteoglycans. The process of tissue damage and ECM degradation during SARS-CoV-2 lung infection is suggested to be associated with activity of members of the MMPs family, which in turn may be used as a therapeutic intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Lung/pathology , Melphalan , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , gamma-Globulins
2.
Viruses ; 14(4), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1801049

ABSTRACT

Plague pandemics and outbreaks have killed millions of people during the history of humankind. The disease, caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis, is currently treated effectively with antibiotics. However, in the case of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, alternative treatments are required. Bacteriophage (phage) therapy has shown efficient antibacterial activity in various experimental animal models and in human patients infected with different MDR pathogens. Here, we evaluated the efficiency of фA1122 and PST phage therapy, alone or in combination with second-line antibiotics, using a well-established mouse model of pneumonic plague. Phage treatment significantly delayed mortality and limited bacterial proliferation in the lungs. However, the treatment did not prevent bacteremia, suggesting that phage efficiency may decrease in the circulation. Indeed, in vitro phage proliferation assays indicated that blood exerts inhibitory effects on lytic activity, which may be the major cause of treatment inefficiency. Combining phage therapy and second-line ceftriaxone treatment, which are individually insufficient, provided protection that led to the survival of all infected animals—a synergistic protective effect that represents a proof of concept for efficient combinatorial therapy in an emergency event of a plague outbreak involving MDR Y. pestis strains.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-304759

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic1. The continued spread of SARS-CoV-2 along with the imminent flu season increase the probability of influenza-SARS-CoV-2 dual infection which might result in a severe disease. In this study, we examined the disease outcome of influenza A virus (IAV) and SARS-CoV-2 co-infection in K18-hACE2 mice. Our data indicates that IAV-infected mice are more susceptible to develop severe disease upon co-infection with SARS-CoV-2 two days post influenza infection. This co-infection results in severe morbidity and nearly uniform fatality as compared to the non-fatal influenza disease, or the partial fatality of SARS-CoV-2 alone. Co-infection was associated with elevated influenza viral load in respiratory organs. Remarkably, prior immunity to influenza, but not to SARS-CoV-2, prevented the severe disease and mortality. These data provide an experimental support that flu intervention by prior vaccination may be valuable in reducing the risk of sever Flu - SARS-CoV-2 comorbidity, and highlight the importance of vaccination.

4.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 9: 737627, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477802

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic initiated a worldwide race toward the development of treatments and vaccines. Small animal models included the Syrian golden hamster and the K18-hACE2 mice infected with SARS-CoV-2 to display a disease state with some aspects of human COVID-19. A group activity of animals in their home cage continuously monitored by the HCMS100 (Home cage Monitoring System 100) was used as a sensitive marker of disease, successfully detecting morbidity symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection in hamsters and in K18-hACE2 mice. COVID-19 convalescent hamsters rechallenged with SARS-CoV-2 exhibited minor reduction in group activity compared to naive hamsters. To evaluate the rVSV-ΔG-spike vaccination efficacy against SARS-CoV-2, we used the HCMS100 to monitor the group activity of hamsters in their home cage. A single-dose rVSV-ΔG-spike vaccination of the immunized group showed a faster recovery than the nonimmunized infected hamsters, substantiating the efficacy of rVSV-ΔG-spike vaccine. HCMS100 offers nonintrusive, hands-free monitoring of a number of home cages of hamsters or mice modeling COVID-19.

5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5819, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454763

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The continued spread of SARS-CoV-2 increases the probability of influenza/SARS-CoV-2 coinfection, which may result in severe disease. In this study, we examine the disease outcome of influenza A virus (IAV) and SARS-CoV-2 coinfection in K18-hACE2 mice. Our data indicate enhance susceptibility of IAV-infected mice to developing severe disease upon coinfection with SARS-CoV-2 two days later. In contrast to nonfatal influenza and lower mortality rates due to SARS-CoV-2 alone, this coinfection results in severe morbidity and nearly complete mortality. Coinfection is associated with elevated influenza viral loads in respiratory organs. Remarkably, prior immunity to influenza, but not to SARS-CoV-2, prevents severe disease and mortality. This protection is antibody-dependent. These data experimentally support the necessity of seasonal influenza vaccination for reducing the risk of severe influenza/COVID-19 comorbidity during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/immunology , Coinfection/virology , Immunity , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Line , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Up-Regulation/genetics , Viral Load/immunology
6.
JCI Insight ; 6(12)2021 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223641

ABSTRACT

Mice are normally unaffected by SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection since the virus does not bind effectively to the murine version of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor molecule. Here, we report that induced mild pulmonary morbidities rendered SARS-CoV-2-refractive CD-1 mice susceptible to this virus. Specifically, SARS-CoV-2 infection after application of low doses of the acute lung injury stimulants bleomycin or ricin caused severe disease in CD-1 mice, manifested by sustained body weight loss and mortality rates greater than 50%. Further studies revealed markedly higher levels of viral RNA in the lungs, heart, and serum of low-dose ricin-pretreated mice compared with non-pretreated mice. Furthermore, lung extracts prepared 2-3 days after viral infection contained subgenomic mRNA and virus particles capable of replication only when derived from the pretreated mice. The deleterious effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection were effectively alleviated by passive transfer of polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies generated against the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD). Thus, viral cell entry in the sensitized mice seems to depend on viral RBD binding, albeit by a mechanism other than the canonical ACE2-mediated uptake route. This unique mode of viral entry, observed over a mildly injured tissue background, may contribute to the exacerbation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathologies in patients with preexisting morbidities.


Subject(s)
Bleomycin/toxicity , COVID-19/pathology , Lung Injury , Ricin/toxicity , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Comorbidity , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Lung Injury/chemically induced , Lung Injury/virology , Mice , Vero Cells , Virus Attachment , Virus Internalization/drug effects
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6402, 2020 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983658

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 imposes an urgent need for rapid development of an efficient and cost-effective vaccine, suitable for mass immunization. Here, we show the development of a replication competent recombinant VSV-∆G-spike vaccine, in which the glycoprotein of VSV is replaced by the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. In-vitro characterization of this vaccine indicates the expression and presentation of the spike protein on the viral membrane with antigenic similarity to SARS-CoV-2. A golden Syrian hamster in-vivo model for COVID-19 is implemented. We show that a single-dose vaccination results in a rapid and potent induction of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies. Importantly, vaccination protects hamsters against SARS-CoV-2 challenge, as demonstrated by the abrogation of body weight loss, and  alleviation of the extensive tissue damage and viral loads in lungs and nasal turbinates. Taken together, we suggest the recombinant VSV-∆G-spike as a safe, efficacious and protective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Body Weight , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Genome, Viral , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mutation/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/ultrastructure , Vaccination , Viral Load
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