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1.
Journal of Clinical Medicine ; 12(1):133, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2166633

ABSTRACT

Aero-medical evacuation has been considered as a feasible and safe treatment option during COVID pandemic, particularly when the needs of affected patients exceed what local clinics and hospitals are supposed to provide. In this article, we analyzed the clinical course of 17 patients medically evacuated to the 'L. Spallanzani';Institute in Rome, Italy from foreign countries, mainly Africa and Eastern Europe, who had COVID-19 pneumonia with, or without, coinfections such as malaria, HIV, tuberculosis and microbiologically confirmed sepsis syndrome. The aero-medical evacuation of patients with infectious diseases has become one of the greatest medical achievements we have reached during this pandemic;in fact, only two patients with life threatening coinfections have died. Although logistically difficult and cost consuming, medical evacuation should be considered as a treatment option more than a single extraordinary measure, especially among complex cases that require specific technical and human resources.

2.
J Med Virol ; : e28186, 2022 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2047791

ABSTRACT

The efficacy on the Omicron variant of the approved early coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) therapies, especially monoclonal antibodies, has been challenged by in vitro neutralization data, while data on in vivo antiviral activity are lacking. We assessed potential decrease from Day 1 to Day 7 viral load (VL) in nasopharyngeal swabs of outpatients receiving Sotrovimab, Molnupiravir, Remdesivir, or Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir for mild-to-moderate COVID-19 due to sublineages BA.1 or BA.2, and average treatment effect by weighted marginal linear regression models. A total of 521 patients (378 BA.1 [73%], 143 [27%] BA.2) received treatments (Sotrovimab 202, Molnupiravir 117, Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir 84, and Remdesivir 118): median age 66 years, 90% vaccinated, median time from symptoms onset 3 days. Day 1 mean VL was 4.12 log2 (4.16 for BA.1 and 4.01 for BA.2). The adjusted analysis showed that Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir significantly reduced VL compared to all the other drugs, except versus Molnupiravir in BA.2. Molnupiravir was superior to Remdesivir in both BA.1 and BA.2, and to Sotrovimab in BA.2. Sotrovimab had better activity than Remdesivir only against BA.1. Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir showed the greatest antiviral activity against Omicron variant, comparable to Molnupiravir only in the BA.2 subgroup. VL decrease could be a valuable surrogate of drug activity in the context of the high prevalence of vaccinated people and low probability of hospital admission.

3.
NPJ Vaccines ; 7(1): 111, 2022 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042324

ABSTRACT

Despite the successful deployment of efficacious vaccines and therapeutics, the development of novel vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 remains a major goal to increase vaccine doses availability and accessibility for lower income setting. We report here on the kinetics of Spike-specific humoral and T-cell response in young and old volunteers over 6 months follow-up after a single intramuscular administration of GRAd-COV2, a gorilla adenoviral vector-based vaccine candidate currently in phase-2 of clinical development. At all three tested vaccine dosages, Spike binding and neutralizing antibodies were induced and substantially maintained up to 3 months, to then contract at 6 months. Potent T-cell responses were readily induced and sustained throughout the study period, with only minor decline. No major differences in immune response to GRAd-COV2 vaccination were observed in the two age cohorts. In light of its favorable safety and immunogenicity, GRAd-COV2 is a valuable candidate for further clinical development and potential addition to the COVID-19 vaccine toolbox to help fighting SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

4.
J Clin Virol ; 157: 105299, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 has evolved, leading to the emergence of new Variants Of Concern (VOCs) with significant impact on transmissibility. Although the transmission process is complex, higher nasopharyngeal viral load (NP-VL) can be considered as a proxy for greater transmissibility. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this analysis was to compare NP-VL across a set of representative VOCs observed in mildly symptomatic patients. STUDY DESIGN: Observational single-center comparative analysis of patients with early mild-to-moderate COVID-19, enrolled within the early treatment access program of Lazzaro Spallanzani Institute (March 2021-March 2022). NP-VL before drug administration was estimated through RT-PCR, based on cycle threshold values (CTs); VOCs were identified by Sanger sequencing. VOCs' average treatment effect (ATE) was estimated on the CTs fitted in the log2 scale, controlling for potential confounders. RESULTS: A total of 707 patients were included. VOCs were: 10% Alpha, 3% Gamma, 34% Delta, 34% BA.1, 19% BA.2. Mean CTs for BA.1 and BA.2 were lower than Delta and BA.1, respectively. After adjusting for calendar time, age, immunodeficiency and vaccination, CTs for Gamma were lower than those seen for Alpha and higher than Delta, for Delta were similar to BA.1, for BA.2 were lower than Delta and BA.1. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis shows higher NP-VL of BA.2 compared to previously circulating VOCs, even after controlling for factors potentially contributing to the amount of nasopharyngeal viral RNA, included vaccination, supporting the increased transmissibility of BA.2. Further studies are necessary to clarify this mechanism and to provide guidance for public health measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Viral Load , Nasopharynx , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/analysis
5.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(9)2022 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032878

ABSTRACT

We report two cases of SARS-CoV-2 recombinant variant XE detected in nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) of hospitalized patients with no evident epidemiological link in Lazio, Central Italy. Whole-Genome Sequencing (WGS) performed on an Ion Torrent GSS5 platform according to Italian flash surveys showed genomes corresponding to the PANGOLIN unclassified lineage and the Nextclade XE clade. Further analyses were then carried out to investigate more deeply the genetic characteristics of these XE-like sequences. When phylogenetic trees, by using IQ-TREE, were built splitting the genome into two regions according to the putative XE recombination site, the upstream and downstream regions were seen to be clustered near BA.1 and BA.2 sequences, respectively. However, our XE-like sequences clustered separately, with a significant bootstrap, from the classified European and Italian XE strains, although the recombination site between BA.1 and BA.2 was identified at the nucleotide site 11556 by RDP4 software, consistent with the putative XE breakpoint. These findings show the risk of the introduction of novel recombinant variants of SARS-CoV-2 and the existence of XE-like strains, phylogenetically separated, that could make their exact taxonomy difficult. It follows the need for continued SARS-CoV-2 surveillance by WGS.

6.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(12): 1636-1643, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2027990

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The adenovirus-based vaccine Gam-COVID-Vac (Sputnik V) showed promising effectiveness in a phase 3 clinical trial; however, data concerning its impact at a population level are scarce. The Republic of San Marino (RSM) conducted a SARS-CoV-2 vaccination programme mainly based (>80%) on Gam-COVID-Vac. Our aims were to investigate the impact of Gam-COVID-Vac vaccination programme and its effectiveness in a retrospective observational study based on the entire RSM population aged ≥12 years. METHODS: We calculated the incidence rate and the vaccine effectiveness (VE) in the entire RSM population not previously infected, against SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19-related hospitalization, from 25 February to 1 October 2021, considering any vaccine and separately according to the vaccine used. Vaccine effectiveness was calculated using a multivariable negative binomial regression model as 1-Incidence Rate Ratio. RESULTS: During the study period, 21 568/28 791 (74.9%) not previously infected subjects received at least one dose of the Gam-COVID-Vac (84%) or BNT162b2, vaccines with 98% completing the vaccination schedule. Overall, 1634 SARS-CoV-2 infections and 166 COVID-19-related hospitalizations were observed with 17 COVID-19-related deaths reported. Incidence rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19-related hospitalization were 7.11 and 0.49/100 000 person-days in the fully vaccinated population, respectively. The adjusted overall VE was 67.6% (95% CI: 61.8-72.5) against SARS-CoV-2 infection and 87.9% (95% CI: 77.4-93.5) against COVID-19-related hospitalizations. Gam-COVID-Vac against SARS-CoV-2 infection VE peaked 91.8% (95% CI: 86.3-95.1) in the first bimester from the second dose, declining to 57.8% (95% CI: 42.2-69.2) at 6 months. Protection against hospitalization with COVID-19 was overall 91.6% (95% CI: 81.5-96.2), with no relevant waning trend over time. DISCUSSION: Our study demonstrated the effectiveness of overall vaccination (Gam-COVID-Vac [84%] and BNT162b2 [16%]) in the prevention SARS-CoV-2 infection (pre-Omicron variant), waning over time but still with sustainable effectiveness against COVID-19-related hospitalization in the Republic of San Marino.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , BNT162 Vaccine , San Marino , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 124: 11-13, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007752

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the trend of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in saliva samples from children attending nine schools in Rome in the local surveillance unit RM3 during the period of September 2021-March 2022, in parallel with the trend of SARS-CoV-2 RNA observed in nasopharyngeal swabs (NPSs) from the population in the same catchment area that was routinely tested at our laboratory in the same period. METHODS: Saliva samples were collected using the Copan LolliSpongeTM device and analyzed by Aptima® SARS-CoV-2 Assay on the Panther® System. NPSs were tested using either Aptima® SARS-CoV-2 Assay or Alinity m SARS-CoV-2 Assay. RESULTS: The percentage of positivity in the two populations was different; of the 2222 saliva samples from students, 0.99% had positive results, whereas the percentage was higher (33.43%) in the 8994 NPSs representing the population from local surveillance unit RM3. Interestingly, the trend of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in saliva samples from students was consistent with that observed in NPSs from the population in same catchment area, although with peaks slightly anticipated. CONCLUSION: Overall, screening of saliva in the schools represents a good system to monitor SARS-CoV-2 circulation in the population, allowing early detection and quick isolation of students who are asymptomatic with positive test results and thus prevention of virus transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva , RNA, Viral/genetics , Rome/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Specimen Handling/methods , Nasopharynx
8.
Journal of Anesthesia, Analgesia and Critical Care ; 2(1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1999514

ABSTRACT

Background COVID‑19 is a novel cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that leads patients to intensive care unit (ICU) admission requiring invasive ventilation, who consequently are at risk of developing of ventilator‑associated pneumonia (VAP). The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, antimicrobial resistance, risk factors, and outcome of VAP in ICU COVID-19 patients in invasive mechanical ventilation (MV). Methods Observational prospective study including adult ICU admissions between January 1, 2021, and June 31, 2021, with confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis were recorded daily, including demographics, medical history, ICU clinical data, etiology of VAPs, and the outcome. The diagnosis of VAP was based on multi-criteria decision analysis which included a combination of radiological, clinical, and microbiological criteria in ICU patients in MV for at least 48 h. Results Two hundred eighty-four COVID-19 patients in MV were admitted in ICU. Ninety-four patients (33%) had VAP during the ICU stay, of which 85 had a single episode of VAP and 9 multiple episodes. The median time of onset of VAP from intubation were 8 days (IQR, 5–13). The overall incidence of VAP was of 13.48 episodes per 1000 days in MV. The main etiological agent was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (39.8% of all VAPs) followed by Klebsiella spp. (16.5%);of them, 41.4% and 17.6% were carbapenem resistant, respectively. Patients during the mechanical ventilation in orotracheal intubation (OTI) had a higher incidence than those in tracheostomy, 16.46 and 9.8 episodes per 1000-MV day, respectively. An increased risk of VAP was reported in patients receiving blood transfusion (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.26–3.59, p = 0.005) or therapy with Tocilizumab/Sarilumab (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.12–3.84, p = 0.02). The pronation and PaO2/FiO2 ratio at ICU admission were not significantly associated with the development of VAPs. Furthermore, VAP episodes did not increase the risk of death in ICU COVID-19 patients. Conclusions COVID-19 patients have a higher incidence of VAP compared to the general ICU population, but it is similar to that of ICU ARDS patients in the pre-COVID-19 period. Interleukin-6 inhibitors and blood transfusions may increase the risk of VAP. The widespread use of empirical antibiotics in these patients should be avoided to reduce the selecting pressure on the growth of multidrug-resistant bacteria by implementing infection control measures and antimicrobial stewardship programs even before ICU admission. Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s44158-022-00065-4.

9.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4922, 2022 08 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000884

ABSTRACT

In order to investigate safety and immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine third dose in people living with HIV (PLWH), we analyze anti-RBD, microneutralization assay and IFN-γ production in 216 PLWH on ART with advanced disease (CD4 count <200 cell/mm3 and/or previous AIDS) receiving the third dose of a mRNA vaccine (BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273) after a median of 142 days from the second dose. Median age is 54 years, median CD4 nadir 45 cell/mm3 (20-122), 93% HIV-RNA < 50 c/mL. In 68% of PLWH at least one side-effect, generally mild, is recorded. Humoral response after the third dose was strong and higher than that achieved with the second dose (>2 log2 difference), especially when a heterologous combination with mRNA-1273 as third shot is used. In contrast, cell-mediated immunity remain stable. Our data support usefulness of third dose in PLWH currently receiving suppressive ART who presented with severe immune dysregulation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(8)2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987888

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel cause of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is widely used in patients with ARDS across several etiologies. Indeed, with the increase of ARDS cases due to the COVID-19 pandemic, its use has grown significantly in hospital wards. However, there is a lack of evidence to support the efficacy of NIV in patients with COVID-19 ARDS. Materials and Methods: We conducted an observational cohort study including adult ARDS COVID-19 patients admitted in a third level COVID-center in Rome, Italy. The study analyzed the rate of NIV failure defined by the occurrence of orotracheal intubation and/or death within 28 days from starting NIV, its effectiveness, and the associated relative risk of death. The factors associated with the outcomes were identified through logistic regression analysis. Results: During the study period, a total of 942 COVID-19 patients were admitted to our hospital, of which 307 (32.5%) presented with ARDS at hospitalization. During hospitalization 224 (23.8%) were treated with NIV. NIV failure occurred in 84 (37.5%) patients. At 28 days from starting NIV, moderate and severe ARDS had five-fold and twenty-fold independent increased risk of NIV failure (adjusted odds ratio, aOR = 5.01, 95% CI 2.08-12.09, and 19.95, 95% CI 5.31-74.94), respectively, compared to patients with mild ARDS. A total of 128 patients (13.5%) were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). At 28-day from ICU admission, intubated COVID-19 patients treated with early NIV had 40% lower mortality (aOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.25-1.46, p = 0.010) compared with patients that underwent orotracheal intubation without prior NIV. Conclusions: These findings show that NIV failure was independently correlated with the severity category of COVID-19 ARDS. The start of NIV in COVID-19 patients with mild ARDS (P/F > 200 mmHg) appears to increase NIV effectiveness and reduce the risk of orotracheal intubation and/or death. Moreover, early NIV (P/F > 200 mmHg) treatment seems to reduce the risk of ICU mortality at 28 days from ICU admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology
11.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969515

ABSTRACT

The aim was to measure neutralizing antibody levels against the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (BA.1) variant in serum samples obtained from vaccinated PLWH and healthcare workers (HCW) and compare them with those against the Wuhan-D614G (W-D614G) strain, before and after the third dose of a mRNA vaccine. We included 106 PLWH and 28 HCWs, for a total of 134 participants. Before the third dose, the proportion of participants with undetectable nAbsT against BA.1 was 88% in the PLWH low CD4 nadir group, 80% in the high nadir group and 100% in the HCW. Before the third dose, the proportion of participants with detectable nAbsT against BA.1 was 12% in the PLWH low nadir group, 20% in the high nadir group and 0% in HCW, respectively. After 2 weeks from the third dose, 89% of the PLWH in the low nadir group, 100% in the high nadir group and 96% of HCW elicited detectable nAbsT against BA.1. After the third dose, the mean log2 nAbsT against BA.1 in the HCW and PLWH with a high nadir group was lower than that seen against W-D614G (6.1 log2 (±1.8) vs. 7.9 (±1.1) and 6.4 (±1.3) vs. 8.6 (±0.8)), respectively. We found no evidence of a different level of nAbsT neutralization by BA.1 vs. W-D614G between PLWH with a high CD4 nadir and HCW (0.40 (-1.64, 2.43); p = 0.703). Interestingly, in PLWH with a low CD4 nadir, the mean log2 difference between nAbsT against BA.1 and W-D614G was smaller in those with current CD4 counts 201-500 vs. those with CD4 counts < 200 cells/mm3 (-0.80 (-1.52, -0.08); p = 0.029), suggesting that in this target population with a low CD4 nadir, current CD4 count might play a role in diversifying the level of SARS-CoV-2 neutralization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
12.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957452

ABSTRACT

With SARS-CoV-2 infection, pregnant women may be at a high risk of severe disease and adverse perinatal outcomes. A COVID-19 vaccination campaign represents the key strategy to combat the pandemic; however, public acceptance of maternal immunization has to be improved, which may be achieved by highlighting the promising mechanism of passive immunity as a strategy for protecting newborns against SARS-CoV-2 infection. We tested the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody response following COVID-19 full-dose vaccination in the serum and amniotic fluid of two pregnant women who presented between April and June 2021, at the Center for the Treatment and Prevention of Infections in Pregnancy of the National Institute for Infectious Diseases "L. Spallanzani", for antenatal consultancy. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG was found in residual samples of amniotic fluid collected from both women at the 18th week of gestation (63 and 131 days after the second dose's administration). Titers in amniotic fluid mirrored the levels detected in serum and were inversely linked to the time from vaccination. Our results suggest that antibodies elicited by COVID-19 vaccination can cross the placenta and reach the fetus; therefore, they may offer passive immunity at birth. It is critical to fully understand the kinetics of the maternal response to vaccination, the efficiency of IgG transfer, and the persistence of antibodies in infants to optimize maternal immunization regimens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Amniotic Fluid , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
13.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928683

ABSTRACT

The new Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2, first identified in November 2021, is rapidly spreading all around the world. Omicron has become the dominant variant of SARS-CoV-2. There are many ongoing studies evaluating the effectiveness of existing vaccines. Studies on the neutralizing activity of vaccinated sera against the Omicron variant are currently being carried out in many laboratories. In this study, we have shown the neutralizing activity of sera against the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant compared to the reference Wuhan D614G variant in individuals vaccinated with two doses of Sputnik V up to 6 months after vaccination and in individuals who experienced SARS-CoV-2 infection either before or after vaccination. As a control to our study we also measured neutralizing antibody titers in individuals vaccinated with two doses of BNT162b2. The decrease in NtAb titers to the Omicron variant was 8.1-fold for the group of Sputnik V-vaccinated individuals. When the samples were stratified for the time period after vaccination, a 7.6-fold or 8.8-fold decrease in NtAb titers was noticed after up to 3 and 3-to-6 months after vaccination. We observed a 6.7- and 5-fold decrease in Sputnik V-vaccinated individuals experiencing asymptomatic or symptomatic infection, respectively. These results highlight the observation that the decrease in NtAb to the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant compared to the Wuhan variant occurs for different COVID-19 vaccines in use, with some showing no neutralization at all, confirming the necessity of a third booster vaccination.

14.
EClinicalMedicine ; 48: 101450, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926373

ABSTRACT

Background: Current available therapeutic options for Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) are primarily focused on treating hospitalized patients, and there is a lack of oral therapeutic options to treat mild to moderate outpatient COVID-19 and prevent clinical progression. Raloxifene was found as a promising molecule to treat COVID-19 due to its activity to modulate the replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and act as an immunomodulator to decrease proinflammatory cytokines. Methods: This was a phase 2 multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of raloxifene in adult patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 between October 2020 to June 2021 in five centers located in Italy. This was a planned 2/3 adaptive study, but due to operational difficulties, the study was discontinued during the phase 2 study segment. Participants were randomized 1:1:1 to receive oral placebo, raloxifene 60 mg, or raloxifene 120 mg by self-administration for a maximum of two weeks. The primary outcomes were the proportion of patients with undetectable SARS-CoV-2 via nasopharyngeal swabs at day 7 and the proportion of patients who did not require supplemental oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation on day 14. Safety was assessed. The trial is registered (EudraCT 2021-002,476-39, and ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT05172050). Findings: A total of 68 participants were enrolled and randomized to placebo (n = 21), raloxifene 60 mg (n = 24), and raloxifene 120 mg (n = 23). The proportion of participants with undetectable SARS-CoV-2 after seven days of treatment with raloxifene 60 mg [36.8%, 7/19 vs. 0.0%, 0/14] and 120 mg [22.2%, 4/18 vs. 0.0%, 0/14] was better compared to placebo, [risk difference (RD) = 0·37 (95% C.I.:0·09-0·59)] and [RD = 0·22 (95% C.I.: -0·03-0·45)], respectively. There was no evidence of effect for requirement of supplemental oxygen and/or mechanical ventilation with effects for raloxifene 60 mg and raloxifene 120 mg over placebo, [RD = 0·09 (95% C.I.: -0·22-0·37)], and [RD = 0·03 (95% C.I.: -0·28-0·33)], respectively. Raloxifene was well tolerated at both doses, and there was no evidence of any difference in the occurrence of serious adverse events. Interpretation: Raloxifene showed evidence of effect in the primary virologic endpoint in the treatment of early mild to moderate COVID-19 patients shortening the time of viral shedding. The safety profile was consistent with that reported for other indications. Raloxifene may represent a promising pharmacological option to prevent or mitigate COVID-19 disease progression. Funding: The study was funded by Dompé Farmaceutici SpA and supported by the funds from the European Commission - Health and Consumers Directorate General, for the Action under the Emergency Support Instrument- Grant to support clinical testing of repurposed medicines to treat SARS-COV-2 patients (PPPA-ESI-CTRM-2020-SI2.837140), and by the COVID-2020-12,371,675 Ricerca finalizzata and line 1 Ricerca Corrente COVID both funded by Italian Ministry of Health.

15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e552-e563, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on SARS-CoV-2 vaccine immunogenicity in PLWH are currently limited. Aim of the study was to investigate immunogenicity according to current CD4 T-cell count. METHODS: PLWH on ART attending a SARS-CoV-2 vaccination program, were included in a prospective immunogenicity evaluation after receiving BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273. Participants were stratified by current CD4 T-cell count (poor CD4 recovery, PCDR: <200/mm3; intermediate CD4 recovery, ICDR: 200-500/mm3; high CD4 recovery, HCDR: >500/mm3). RBD-binding IgG, SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) and IFN-γ release were measured. As control group, HIV-negative healthcare workers (HCWs) were used. FINDINGS: Among 166 PLWH, after 1 month from the booster dose, detectable RBD-binding IgG were elicited in 86.7% of PCDR, 100% of ICDR, 98.7% of HCDR, and a neutralizing titre ≥1:10 elicited in 70.0%, 88.2%, and 93.1%, respectively. Compared to HCDR, all immune response parameters were significantly lower in PCDR. After adjusting for confounders, current CD4 T-cell <200/mm3 significantly predicted a poor magnitude of anti-RDB, nAbs and IFN-γ response. As compared with HCWs, PCDR elicited a consistently reduced immunogenicity for all parameters, ICDR only a reduced RBD-binding antibody response, whereas HCDR elicited a comparable immune response for all parameters. CONCLUSION: Humoral and cell-mediated immune response against SARS-CoV-2 were elicited in most of PLWH, albeit significantly poorer in those with CD4 T-cell <200/mm3 versus those with >500 cell/mm3 and HIV-negative controls. A lower RBD-binding antibody response than HCWs was also observed in PLWH with CD4 T-cell 200-500/mm3, whereas immune response elicited in PLWH with a CD4 T-cell >500/mm3 was comparable to HIV-negative population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , HIV , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunoglobulin G , Lymphocyte Count , Prospective Studies , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 121: 24-30, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1859786

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We assessed vaccination-induced antibody and cellular responses against spike from the ancestral strain and from the delta (δ) SARS-CoV-2 variant in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) on immunosuppressive therapy in comparison with immunocompetent subjects. METHODS: We enrolled patients with IMID and immunocompetent subjects who completed the vaccination schedule within 4-6 months from the first dose. The interferon (IFN)-γ-response to spike peptides that were derived from the ancestral and the δ SARS-CoV-2 were measured by ELISA. Anti-Receptor Binding Domain IgG antibodies were also evaluated. RESULTS: We enrolled 43 patients with IMID and nine immunocompetent subjects. No significant differences were found after comparing the specific immune response (IFN-γ) between patients with IMID and immunocompetent subjects to the ancestral (p = 0.36) or δ peptide pool (p = 0.51). Nevertheless, IFN-γ-specific responses to the ancestral or to the δ pools were reduced in subjects taking CTLA4-IgG or TNF-α inhibitors compared with subjects treated with IL-6 inhibitors or Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs. Regarding the antibody response, no significant differences were observed between patients with IMID and immunocompetent individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Cellular responses to δ SARS-CoV-2 variant remain largely intact in patients with IMID. However, the magnitude of these responses is dependent on the specific IMID immunosuppressive regimen. Serological response was also similar between the IMID and control groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G
17.
EClinicalMedicine ; 48:101450-101450, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1843017

ABSTRACT

Background Current available therapeutic options for Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) are primarily focused on treating hospitalized patients, and there is a lack of oral therapeutic options to treat mild to moderate outpatient COVID-19 and prevent clinical progression. Raloxifene was found as a promising molecule to treat COVID-19 due to its activity to modulate the replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and act as an immunomodulator to decrease proinflammatory cytokines. Methods This was a phase 2 multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of raloxifene in adult patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 between October 2020 to June 2021 in five centers located in Italy. This was a planned 2/3 adaptive study, but due to operational difficulties, the study was discontinued during the phase 2 study segment. Participants were randomized 1:1:1 to receive oral placebo, raloxifene 60 mg, or raloxifene 120 mg by self-administration for a maximum of two weeks. The primary outcomes were the proportion of patients with undetectable SARS-CoV-2 via nasopharyngeal swabs at day 7 and the proportion of patients who did not require supplemental oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation on day 14. Safety was assessed. The trial is registered (EudraCT 2021–002,476–39, and ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT05172050). Findings A total of 68 participants were enrolled and randomized to placebo (n = 21), raloxifene 60 mg (n = 24), and raloxifene 120 mg (n = 23). The proportion of participants with undetectable SARS-CoV-2 after seven days of treatment with raloxifene 60 mg [36.8%, 7/19 vs. 0.0%, 0/14] and 120 mg [22.2%, 4/18 vs. 0.0%, 0/14] was better compared to placebo, [risk difference (RD) = 0·37 (95% C.I.:0·09–0·59)] and [RD = 0·22 (95% C.I.: -0·03–0·45)], respectively. There was no evidence of effect for requirement of supplemental oxygen and/or mechanical ventilation with effects for raloxifene 60 mg and raloxifene 120 mg over placebo, [RD = 0·09 (95% C.I.: -0·22–0·37)], and [RD = 0·03 (95% C.I.: -0·28–0·33)], respectively. Raloxifene was well tolerated at both doses, and there was no evidence of any difference in the occurrence of serious adverse events. Interpretation Raloxifene showed evidence of effect in the primary virologic endpoint in the treatment of early mild to moderate COVID-19 patients shortening the time of viral shedding. The safety profile was consistent with that reported for other indications. Raloxifene may represent a promising pharmacological option to prevent or mitigate COVID-19 disease progression. Funding The study was funded by Dompé Farmaceutici SpA and supported by the funds from the European Commission – Health and Consumers Directorate General, for the Action under the Emergency Support Instrument- Grant to support clinical testing of repurposed medicines to treat SARS-COV-2 patients (PPPA-ESI-CTRM-2020-SI2.837140), and by the COVID-2020–12,371,675 Ricerca finalizzata and line 1 Ricerca Corrente COVID both funded by Italian Ministry of Health.

18.
Front Immunol ; 13: 868020, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834408

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Comparative analysis between different monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 are lacking. We present an emulation trial from observational data to compare effectiveness of Bamlanivimab/Etesevimab (BAM/ETE) and Casirivimab/Imdevimab (CAS/IMD) in outpatients with early mild-to-moderate COVID-19 in a real-world scenario of variants of concern (VoCs) from Alpha to Delta. Methods: Allocation to treatment was subject to mAbs availability, and the measured factors were not used to determine which combination to use. Patients were followed through day 30. Viral load was measured by cycle threshold (CT) on D1 (baseline) and D7.Primary outcome was time to COVID-19-related hospitalization or death from any cause over days 0-30. Weighted pooled logistic regression and marginal structural Cox model by inverse probability weights were used to compare BAM/ETE vs. CAS/IMD. ANCOVA was used to compare mean D7 CT values by intervention. Models were adjusted for calendar month, MASS score and VoCs. We evaluated effect measure modification by VoCs, vaccination, D1 CT levels and enrolment period. Results: COVID19-related hospitalization or death from any cause occurred in 15 of 237 patients in the BAM/ETE group (6.3%) and in 4 of 196 patients in the CAS/IMD group (2.0%) (relative risk reduction [1 minus the relative risk] 72%; p=0.024). Subset analysis carried no evidence that the effect of the intervention was different across stratification factors. There was no evidence in viral load reduction from baseline through day 7 across the two groups (+0.17, 95% -1.41;+1.74, p=0.83). Among patients who experienced primary outcome, none showed a negative RT-PCR test in nasopharyngeal swab (p=0.009) and 82.4% showed still high viral load (p<0.001) on D7. Conclusions: In a pre-Omicron epidemiologic scenario, CAS/IMD reduced risk of clinical progression of COVID-19 compared to BAM/ETE. This effect was not associated with a concomitant difference in virological response.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Observation , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Clin Med ; 11(9)2022 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820313

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Although COVID-19 is largely a respiratory disease, it is actually a systemic disease that has a wide range of effects that are not yet fully known. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, predictors and outcome of non-hepatic hyperammonemia (NHH) in COVID-19 in intensive care unit (ICU); (2) Methods: This is a 3-month prospective observational study in a third-level COVID-19 hospital. The authors collected demographic, clinical, severity score and outcome data. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of NHH; (3) Results: 156 COVID-19 patients were admitted to the ICU. The incidence of NHH was 12.2% (19 patients). The univariate analysis showed that invasive mechanical ventilation had a 6.6-fold higher risk (OR 6.66, 95% CI 0.86-51.6, p = 0.039) for NHH, while in the multiple regression analysis, there was a 7-fold higher risk for NHH-but it was not statistically significant (OR 7.1, 95% CI 0.90-56.4, p = 0.062). Demographics, clinical characteristics and mortality in the ICU at 28 days did not show a significant association with NHH. (4) Conclusions: The incidence of NHH in ICU COVID-19 patients was not low. NHH did not appear to significantly increase mortality, and all patients with non-hepatic hyperammonemia were successfully treated without further complications. However, the pathogenesis of NHH in ICU patients with COVID-19 remains a topic to be explored with further research.

20.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2263, 2022 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815533

ABSTRACT

The emerging threat represented by SARS-CoV-2 variants, demands the development of therapies for better clinical management of COVID-19. MAD0004J08 is a potent Fc-engineered monoclonal antibody (mAb) able to neutralize in vitro all current SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VoCs) including the omicron variant even if with significantly reduced potency. Here we evaluated data obtained from the first 30 days of a phase 1 clinical study (EudraCT N.: 2020-005469-15 and ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04932850). The primary endpoint evaluated the percentage of severe adverse events. Secondary endpoints evaluated pharmacokinetic and serum neutralization titers. A single dose administration of MAD0004J08 via intramuscular (i.m.) route is safe and well tolerated, resulting in rapid serum distribution and sera neutralizing titers higher than COVID-19 convalescent and vaccinated subjects. A single dose administration of MAD0004J08 is also sufficient to effectively neutralize major SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (alpha, beta, gamma and delta). MAD0004J08 can be a major advancement in the prophylaxis and clinical management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal/blood , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , Humans , Injections, Intramuscular , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
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