Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 48
Filter
1.
J Med Virol ; 95(6): e28831, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239959

ABSTRACT

Despite the higher transmissibility of Omicron Variant of Concern (VOC), several reports have suggested lower risk for hospitalization and severe outcomes compared to previous variants of SARS-CoV-2. This study, enrolling all COVID-19 adults admitted to a reference hospital who underwent both the S-gene-target-failure test and VOC identification by Sanger sequencing, aimed to describe the evolving prevalence of Delta and Omicron variants and to compare the main in-hospital outcomes of severity, during a trimester (December 2021 to March 2022) of VOCs' cocirculation. Factors associated with clinical progression to noninvasive ventilation (NIV)/mechanical ventilation (MV)/death within 10 days and to MV/admission to intensive care unit (ICU)/death within 28 days, were investigated through multivariable logistic regressions. Overall, VOCs were: Delta n = 130/428, Omicron n = 298/428 (sublineages BA.1 n = 275 and BA.2 n = 23). Until mid-February, Delta predominance shifted to BA.1, which was gradually displaced by BA.2 until mid-March. Participants with Omicron VOC were more likely to be older, fully vaccinated, with multiple comorbidities and to have a shorter time from symptoms' onset, and less likely to have systemic symptoms and respiratory complications. Although the need of NIV within 10 days and MV within 28 days from hospitalization and the admission to ICU were less frequent for patients with Omicron compared to those with Delta infections, mortality was similar between the two VOCs. In the adjusted analysis, multiple comorbidities and a longer time from symptoms' onset predicted 10-day clinical progression, while complete vaccination halved the risk. Multimorbidity was the only risk factor associated with 28-day clinical progression. In our population, in the first trimester of 2022, Omicron rapidly displaced Delta in COVID-19 hospitalized adults. Clinical profile and presentation differed between the two VOCs and, although Omicron infections showed a less severe clinical picture, no substantial differences for clinical progression were found. This finding suggests that any hospitalization, especially in more vulnerable individuals, may be at risk for severe progression, which is more related to the underlying frailty of patients than to the intrinsic severity of the viral variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals , Disease Progression
2.
J Infect Public Health ; 16(7): 1045-1047, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2308760

ABSTRACT

The overall probability of infection with RSV, influenza virus, or SARS-CoV-2 in the general population is assessed as high by the ECDC. A high level of respiratory virus circulation increases hospitalizations and places significant pressure on healthcare systems. Here we describe the case of a 52-year-old woman who recovered from pneumonia with a triple infection with SARS-CoV-2, RSV, and Influenza virus. We suggest searching for antigenic or molecular detection of VSR and influenza viruses, together with SARS-CoV-2, in patients with respiratory symptoms during this epidemic period, whereas all three viruses are present right now.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Influenza, Human , Orthomyxoviridae , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitalization , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis
3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 130 Suppl 1: S34-S42, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300688

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the plasma immune profile of patients with tuberculosis (TB)-COVID-19 compared with COVID-19, TB, or healthy controls and to evaluate in vitro the specific responses to SARS-CoV-2 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-antigens. METHODS: We enrolled 119 subjects: 14 TB-COVID-19, 47 COVID-19, 38 TB, and 20 controls. The plasmatic levels of 27 immune factors were measured at baseline using a multiplex assay. The specific response to SARS-CoV-2 and Mtb antigens was evaluated using a home-made whole blood platform and QuantiFERON-Plus tubes, respectively. RESULTS: We found an immune signature (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, macrophage inflammatory protein-1ß, and interleukin [IL]-9) associated with TB-COVID-19 coinfection compared with COVID-19 (P <0.05), and TNF-α showed the highest discriminant power. We also found another signature (TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-17A, IL-5, fibroblast growth factor-basic, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF]) in coinfected patients compared with patients with TB (P <0.05), and among them, TNF-α and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor showed a non-negligible discriminating ability. Moreover, coinfected patients showed a significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2-specific response compared with COVID-19 for several pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines, anti-inflammatory cytokines, and growth factors (P ≤0.05). Furthermore, coinfection negatively affected the Mtb-specific response (P ≤0.05). CONCLUSION: We found immune signatures associated with TB-COVID-19 coinfection and observed a major impairment of SARS-CoV-2-specific and, to a lesser extent, the Mtb-specific immune responses. These findings further advance our knowledge of the immunopathology of TB-COVID-19 coinfection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis , Humans , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Cytokines
4.
International journal of molecular sciences ; 24(5), 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2252657

ABSTRACT

To compare the detection of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant in nasopharyngeal-swab (NPS) and oral saliva samples. 255 samples were obtained from 85 Omicron-infected patients. SARS-CoV-2 load was measured in the NPS and saliva samples by using Simplexa™ COVID-19 direct and Alinity m SARS-CoV-2 AMP assays. Results obtained with the two diagnostic platforms showed very good inter-assay concordance (91.4 and 82.4% for saliva and NPS samples, respectively) and a significant correlation among cycle threshold (Ct) values. Both platforms revealed a highly significant correlation among Ct obtained in the two matrices. Although the median Ct value was lower in NPS than in saliva samples, the Ct drop was comparable in size for both types of samples after 7 days of antiviral treatment of the Omicron-infected patients. Our result demonstrates that the detection of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant is not influenced by the type of sample used for PCR analysis, and that saliva can be used as an alternative specimen for detection and follow-up of Omicron-infected patients.

5.
EClinicalMedicine ; 57: 101895, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2271213

ABSTRACT

Background: Among interleukin-6 inhibitors suggested for use in COVID-19, there are few robust evidences for the efficacy of sarilumab. Herein, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of sarilumab in severe COVID-19. Methods: In this phase 3, open-labeled, randomized clinical trial, conducted at 5 Italian hospitals, adults with severe COVID-19 pneumonia (excluding mechanically ventilated) were randomized 2:1 to receive intravenous sarilumab (400 mg, repeatable after 12 h) plus standard of care (SOC) (arm A) or to continue SOC (arm B). Randomization was web-based. As post-hoc analyses, the participants were stratified according to baseline inflammatory parameters. The primary endpoint was analysed on the modified Intention-To-Treat population, including all the randomized patients who received any study treatment (sarilumab or SOC). It was time to clinical improvement of 2 points on a 7-points ordinal scale, from baseline to day 30. We used Kaplan Meier method and log-rank test to compare the primary outcome between two arms, and Cox regression stratified by clinical center and adjusted for severity of illness, to estimate the hazard ratio (HR). The trial was registered with EudraCT (2020-001390-76). Findings: Between May 2020 and May 2021, 191 patients were assessed for eligibility, of whom, excluding nine dropouts, 176 were assigned to arm A (121) and B (55). At day 30, no significant differences in the primary endpoint were found (88% [95% CI 81-94] in arm A vs 85% [74-93], HR 1.07 [0.8-1.5] in arm B; log-rank p = 0.50). After stratifying for inflammatory parameters, arm A showed higher probability of improvement than B without statistical significance in the strata with C reactive protein (CRP) < 7 mg/dL (88% [77-96] vs 79% [63-91], HR 1.55 [0.9-2.6]; log-rank p = 0.049) and in the strata with lymphocytes <870/mmc (90% [79-96]) vs (73% [55-89], HR 1.53 [0.9-2.7]; log-rank p = 0.058). Overall, 39/121 (32%) AEs were reported in arm A and 14/55 (23%) in B (p = 0.195), while serious AEs were 22/121 (18%) and 7/55 (11%), respectively (p = 0.244). There were no treatment-related deaths. Interpretation: The efficacy of sarilumab in severe COVID-19 was not demonstrated both in the overall and in the stratified for severity analysis population. Exploratory analyses suggested that subsets of patients with lower CRP values or lower lymphocyte counts might have had benefit with sarilumab treatment, but this finding would require replication in other studies. The relatively low rate of concomitant corticosteroid use, could partially explain our results. Funding: This study was supported by INMI "Lazzaro Spallanzani" Ricerca Corrente Linea 1 on emerging and reemerging infections, funded by Italian Ministry of Health.

6.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 21(1): 28, 2023 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2271212

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: After the acute phase, symptoms or sequelae related to post-COVID-19 syndrome may persist for months. In a population of patients, previously hospitalized and not, followed up to 12 months after the acute infection, we aim to assess whether and to what extent post-COVID-19 syndrome may have an impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and to investigate influencing factors. METHODS: We present the cross-sectional analysis of a prospective study, including patients referred to the post-COVID-19 service. Questionnaires and scales administered at 3, 6, 12 months were: Short-Form 36-item questionnaire (SF-36); Visual Analogue Scale of the EQ5D (EQ-VAS); in a subgroup, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Linear regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with HRQoL. RESULTS: We considered the first assessment of each participant (n = 572). The mean scores in SF-36 and in EQ-VAS were significantly lower than the Italian normative values and remained stable over time, except the mental components score (MCS) of the SF-36 and EQ-VAS which resulted in lower ratings at the last observations. Female gender, presence of comorbidities, and corticosteroids treatment during acute COVID-19, were associated with lower scores in SF-36 and EQ-VAS; patients previously hospitalized (54%) reported higher MCS. Alterations in BAI, BDI-II, and PSQI (n = 265)were associated with lower ratings in SF-36 and EQ-VAS. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence of a significantly bad perception of health status among persons with post-COVID-19 syndrome, associated with female gender and, indirectly, with disease severity. In case of anxious-depressive symptoms and sleep disorders, a worse HRQoL was also reported. A systematic monitoring of these aspects is recommended to properly manage the post-COVID-19 period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Humans , Female , Cross-Sectional Studies , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(5)2023 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252658

ABSTRACT

To compare the detection of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant in nasopharyngeal-swab (NPS) and oral saliva samples. 255 samples were obtained from 85 Omicron-infected patients. SARS-CoV-2 load was measured in the NPS and saliva samples by using Simplexa™ COVID-19 direct and Alinity m SARS-CoV-2 AMP assays. Results obtained with the two diagnostic platforms showed very good inter-assay concordance (91.4 and 82.4% for saliva and NPS samples, respectively) and a significant correlation among cycle threshold (Ct) values. Both platforms revealed a highly significant correlation among Ct obtained in the two matrices. Although the median Ct value was lower in NPS than in saliva samples, the Ct drop was comparable in size for both types of samples after 7 days of antiviral treatment of the Omicron-infected patients. Our result demonstrates that the detection of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant is not influenced by the type of sample used for PCR analysis, and that saliva can be used as an alternative specimen for detection and follow-up of Omicron-infected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Saliva , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Specimen Handling/methods , Nasopharynx
8.
Biomedicines ; 11(2)2023 Feb 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2239892

ABSTRACT

Background: In Italy, by the end of 2021, a new pandemic wave led to increased hospitalizations and death, even in some vaccinated people. We aimed to investigate the death of COVID-19-vaccinated patients who acquired infection and developed severe disease, and to assess differences with fatal COVID-19 in unvaccinated subjects by studying the pathological events triggered by SARS-CoV-2. Methods: Detailed autoptic examination was performed on five fully vaccinated compared to five unvaccinated patients. Histopathological analysis focused on the lung and heart, the two major affected organs. Results: COVID-19 caused, or contributed to death, in all the unvaccinated cases. By contrast, in vaccinated group, pre-existing pathologies played a major role, and death was not COVID-19-related in four out of five patients. These patients did not show the histological features of SARS-CoV-2 lung damage. Diffuse inflammatory macrophages infiltration recently emerged as the main feature of COVID-19 cardiac injury. Interestingly, the most striking difference between the two groups was the absence of increased macrophage infiltration in the heart of vaccinated patients. Conclusions: Results of this study confirm the efficacy of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in protecting organs from injury and support the need to maintain an adequate immune response by booster dose administration.

9.
J Clin Med ; 12(1)2022 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2239125

ABSTRACT

Aero-medical evacuation has been considered as a feasible and safe treatment option during COVID pandemic, particularly when the needs of affected patients exceed what local clinics and hospitals are supposed to provide. In this article, we analyzed the clinical course of 17 patients medically evacuated to the "L. Spallanzani" Institute in Rome, Italy from foreign countries, mainly Africa and Eastern Europe, who had COVID-19 pneumonia with, or without, coinfections such as malaria, HIV, tuberculosis and microbiologically confirmed sepsis syndrome. The aero-medical evacuation of patients with infectious diseases has become one of the greatest medical achievements we have reached during this pandemic; in fact, only two patients with life threatening coinfections have died. Although logistically difficult and cost consuming, medical evacuation should be considered as a treatment option more than a single extraordinary measure, especially among complex cases that require specific technical and human resources.

10.
J Med Virol ; : e28186, 2022 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2233132

ABSTRACT

The efficacy on the Omicron variant of the approved early coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) therapies, especially monoclonal antibodies, has been challenged by in vitro neutralization data, while data on in vivo antiviral activity are lacking. We assessed potential decrease from Day 1 to Day 7 viral load (VL) in nasopharyngeal swabs of outpatients receiving Sotrovimab, Molnupiravir, Remdesivir, or Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir for mild-to-moderate COVID-19 due to sublineages BA.1 or BA.2, and average treatment effect by weighted marginal linear regression models. A total of 521 patients (378 BA.1 [73%], 143 [27%] BA.2) received treatments (Sotrovimab 202, Molnupiravir 117, Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir 84, and Remdesivir 118): median age 66 years, 90% vaccinated, median time from symptoms onset 3 days. Day 1 mean VL was 4.12 log2 (4.16 for BA.1 and 4.01 for BA.2). The adjusted analysis showed that Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir significantly reduced VL compared to all the other drugs, except versus Molnupiravir in BA.2. Molnupiravir was superior to Remdesivir in both BA.1 and BA.2, and to Sotrovimab in BA.2. Sotrovimab had better activity than Remdesivir only against BA.1. Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir showed the greatest antiviral activity against Omicron variant, comparable to Molnupiravir only in the BA.2 subgroup. VL decrease could be a valuable surrogate of drug activity in the context of the high prevalence of vaccinated people and low probability of hospital admission.

11.
Euro Surveill ; 28(2)2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198368

ABSTRACT

With numbers of COVID-19 cases having substantially increased at the end of 2022 in China, some countries have started or expanded testing and genomic surveillance of travellers. We report screening results in Italy in late December 2022 of 556 flight passengers in provenance from two Chinese provinces. Among these passengers, 126 (22.7%) tested SARS-CoV-2 positive. Whole genome sequencing of 61 passengers' positive samples revealed Omicron variants, notably sub-lineages BA.5.2.48, BF.7.14 and BQ.1.1, in line with data released from China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genomics , China/epidemiology , Italy/epidemiology
12.
J Med Syst ; 46(12): 105, 2022 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2148880

ABSTRACT

Telemedicine and teleconsultation can be powerful and useful tools for patients to hamper the physical barriers to access to health care services during COVID-19 pandemic. We describe the teleconsultation (TC) model in the Lazio Region. It uses a hub-and-spoke network system on geographic regional basis using a web based digital platform, termed ADVICE with the aim to connect regional Emergency Departments (EDs) and Infectious Diseases (ID) acute and critical care settings for patients with acute ID syndrome. Between January 2020 and June 2021, the ADVICE platform received 18.686 TCs: of them, 10838 requests (58%) were for ID TCs in 7996 patients, followed by 2555(13%) requests for trauma, 2286(12%) for acute complex syndrome and 1681 (8%) for Stroke TCs. Three quarter of ID TCs were requested for SARS-COV-2 infection, followed by sepsis management in 7% and tuberculosis in 6%. In 5416 TCs, 68%, diagnostic investigations and therapeutic prescriptions were recommended before admission, in 1941 TCs, 24%, the recommendation was patient admission and in 608 TCs, 7%, was to discharge patient at home. Telemedicine have ensured high-profile consultations for ID patients and during COVID-19 the use of this resource optimized clinical patient management.

13.
NPJ Vaccines ; 7(1): 111, 2022 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042324

ABSTRACT

Despite the successful deployment of efficacious vaccines and therapeutics, the development of novel vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 remains a major goal to increase vaccine doses availability and accessibility for lower income setting. We report here on the kinetics of Spike-specific humoral and T-cell response in young and old volunteers over 6 months follow-up after a single intramuscular administration of GRAd-COV2, a gorilla adenoviral vector-based vaccine candidate currently in phase-2 of clinical development. At all three tested vaccine dosages, Spike binding and neutralizing antibodies were induced and substantially maintained up to 3 months, to then contract at 6 months. Potent T-cell responses were readily induced and sustained throughout the study period, with only minor decline. No major differences in immune response to GRAd-COV2 vaccination were observed in the two age cohorts. In light of its favorable safety and immunogenicity, GRAd-COV2 is a valuable candidate for further clinical development and potential addition to the COVID-19 vaccine toolbox to help fighting SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

14.
J Clin Virol ; 157: 105299, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 has evolved, leading to the emergence of new Variants Of Concern (VOCs) with significant impact on transmissibility. Although the transmission process is complex, higher nasopharyngeal viral load (NP-VL) can be considered as a proxy for greater transmissibility. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this analysis was to compare NP-VL across a set of representative VOCs observed in mildly symptomatic patients. STUDY DESIGN: Observational single-center comparative analysis of patients with early mild-to-moderate COVID-19, enrolled within the early treatment access program of Lazzaro Spallanzani Institute (March 2021-March 2022). NP-VL before drug administration was estimated through RT-PCR, based on cycle threshold values (CTs); VOCs were identified by Sanger sequencing. VOCs' average treatment effect (ATE) was estimated on the CTs fitted in the log2 scale, controlling for potential confounders. RESULTS: A total of 707 patients were included. VOCs were: 10% Alpha, 3% Gamma, 34% Delta, 34% BA.1, 19% BA.2. Mean CTs for BA.1 and BA.2 were lower than Delta and BA.1, respectively. After adjusting for calendar time, age, immunodeficiency and vaccination, CTs for Gamma were lower than those seen for Alpha and higher than Delta, for Delta were similar to BA.1, for BA.2 were lower than Delta and BA.1. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis shows higher NP-VL of BA.2 compared to previously circulating VOCs, even after controlling for factors potentially contributing to the amount of nasopharyngeal viral RNA, included vaccination, supporting the increased transmissibility of BA.2. Further studies are necessary to clarify this mechanism and to provide guidance for public health measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Viral Load , Nasopharynx , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/analysis
15.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(9)2022 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032878

ABSTRACT

We report two cases of SARS-CoV-2 recombinant variant XE detected in nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) of hospitalized patients with no evident epidemiological link in Lazio, Central Italy. Whole-Genome Sequencing (WGS) performed on an Ion Torrent GSS5 platform according to Italian flash surveys showed genomes corresponding to the PANGOLIN unclassified lineage and the Nextclade XE clade. Further analyses were then carried out to investigate more deeply the genetic characteristics of these XE-like sequences. When phylogenetic trees, by using IQ-TREE, were built splitting the genome into two regions according to the putative XE recombination site, the upstream and downstream regions were seen to be clustered near BA.1 and BA.2 sequences, respectively. However, our XE-like sequences clustered separately, with a significant bootstrap, from the classified European and Italian XE strains, although the recombination site between BA.1 and BA.2 was identified at the nucleotide site 11556 by RDP4 software, consistent with the putative XE breakpoint. These findings show the risk of the introduction of novel recombinant variants of SARS-CoV-2 and the existence of XE-like strains, phylogenetically separated, that could make their exact taxonomy difficult. It follows the need for continued SARS-CoV-2 surveillance by WGS.

16.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(12): 1636-1643, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2027990

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The adenovirus-based vaccine Gam-COVID-Vac (Sputnik V) showed promising effectiveness in a phase 3 clinical trial; however, data concerning its impact at a population level are scarce. The Republic of San Marino (RSM) conducted a SARS-CoV-2 vaccination programme mainly based (>80%) on Gam-COVID-Vac. Our aims were to investigate the impact of Gam-COVID-Vac vaccination programme and its effectiveness in a retrospective observational study based on the entire RSM population aged ≥12 years. METHODS: We calculated the incidence rate and the vaccine effectiveness (VE) in the entire RSM population not previously infected, against SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19-related hospitalization, from 25 February to 1 October 2021, considering any vaccine and separately according to the vaccine used. Vaccine effectiveness was calculated using a multivariable negative binomial regression model as 1-Incidence Rate Ratio. RESULTS: During the study period, 21 568/28 791 (74.9%) not previously infected subjects received at least one dose of the Gam-COVID-Vac (84%) or BNT162b2, vaccines with 98% completing the vaccination schedule. Overall, 1634 SARS-CoV-2 infections and 166 COVID-19-related hospitalizations were observed with 17 COVID-19-related deaths reported. Incidence rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19-related hospitalization were 7.11 and 0.49/100 000 person-days in the fully vaccinated population, respectively. The adjusted overall VE was 67.6% (95% CI: 61.8-72.5) against SARS-CoV-2 infection and 87.9% (95% CI: 77.4-93.5) against COVID-19-related hospitalizations. Gam-COVID-Vac against SARS-CoV-2 infection VE peaked 91.8% (95% CI: 86.3-95.1) in the first bimester from the second dose, declining to 57.8% (95% CI: 42.2-69.2) at 6 months. Protection against hospitalization with COVID-19 was overall 91.6% (95% CI: 81.5-96.2), with no relevant waning trend over time. DISCUSSION: Our study demonstrated the effectiveness of overall vaccination (Gam-COVID-Vac [84%] and BNT162b2 [16%]) in the prevention SARS-CoV-2 infection (pre-Omicron variant), waning over time but still with sustainable effectiveness against COVID-19-related hospitalization in the Republic of San Marino.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , BNT162 Vaccine , San Marino , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
17.
Int J Infect Dis ; 124: 11-13, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007752

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the trend of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in saliva samples from children attending nine schools in Rome in the local surveillance unit RM3 during the period of September 2021-March 2022, in parallel with the trend of SARS-CoV-2 RNA observed in nasopharyngeal swabs (NPSs) from the population in the same catchment area that was routinely tested at our laboratory in the same period. METHODS: Saliva samples were collected using the Copan LolliSpongeTM device and analyzed by Aptima® SARS-CoV-2 Assay on the Panther® System. NPSs were tested using either Aptima® SARS-CoV-2 Assay or Alinity m SARS-CoV-2 Assay. RESULTS: The percentage of positivity in the two populations was different; of the 2222 saliva samples from students, 0.99% had positive results, whereas the percentage was higher (33.43%) in the 8994 NPSs representing the population from local surveillance unit RM3. Interestingly, the trend of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in saliva samples from students was consistent with that observed in NPSs from the population in same catchment area, although with peaks slightly anticipated. CONCLUSION: Overall, screening of saliva in the schools represents a good system to monitor SARS-CoV-2 circulation in the population, allowing early detection and quick isolation of students who are asymptomatic with positive test results and thus prevention of virus transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva , RNA, Viral/genetics , Rome/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Specimen Handling/methods , Nasopharynx
18.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4922, 2022 08 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000884

ABSTRACT

In order to investigate safety and immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine third dose in people living with HIV (PLWH), we analyze anti-RBD, microneutralization assay and IFN-γ production in 216 PLWH on ART with advanced disease (CD4 count <200 cell/mm3 and/or previous AIDS) receiving the third dose of a mRNA vaccine (BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273) after a median of 142 days from the second dose. Median age is 54 years, median CD4 nadir 45 cell/mm3 (20-122), 93% HIV-RNA < 50 c/mL. In 68% of PLWH at least one side-effect, generally mild, is recorded. Humoral response after the third dose was strong and higher than that achieved with the second dose (>2 log2 difference), especially when a heterologous combination with mRNA-1273 as third shot is used. In contrast, cell-mediated immunity remain stable. Our data support usefulness of third dose in PLWH currently receiving suppressive ART who presented with severe immune dysregulation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Journal of Anesthesia, Analgesia and Critical Care ; 2(1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1999514

ABSTRACT

Background COVID‑19 is a novel cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that leads patients to intensive care unit (ICU) admission requiring invasive ventilation, who consequently are at risk of developing of ventilator‑associated pneumonia (VAP). The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, antimicrobial resistance, risk factors, and outcome of VAP in ICU COVID-19 patients in invasive mechanical ventilation (MV). Methods Observational prospective study including adult ICU admissions between January 1, 2021, and June 31, 2021, with confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis were recorded daily, including demographics, medical history, ICU clinical data, etiology of VAPs, and the outcome. The diagnosis of VAP was based on multi-criteria decision analysis which included a combination of radiological, clinical, and microbiological criteria in ICU patients in MV for at least 48 h. Results Two hundred eighty-four COVID-19 patients in MV were admitted in ICU. Ninety-four patients (33%) had VAP during the ICU stay, of which 85 had a single episode of VAP and 9 multiple episodes. The median time of onset of VAP from intubation were 8 days (IQR, 5–13). The overall incidence of VAP was of 13.48 episodes per 1000 days in MV. The main etiological agent was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (39.8% of all VAPs) followed by Klebsiella spp. (16.5%);of them, 41.4% and 17.6% were carbapenem resistant, respectively. Patients during the mechanical ventilation in orotracheal intubation (OTI) had a higher incidence than those in tracheostomy, 16.46 and 9.8 episodes per 1000-MV day, respectively. An increased risk of VAP was reported in patients receiving blood transfusion (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.26–3.59, p = 0.005) or therapy with Tocilizumab/Sarilumab (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.12–3.84, p = 0.02). The pronation and PaO2/FiO2 ratio at ICU admission were not significantly associated with the development of VAPs. Furthermore, VAP episodes did not increase the risk of death in ICU COVID-19 patients. Conclusions COVID-19 patients have a higher incidence of VAP compared to the general ICU population, but it is similar to that of ICU ARDS patients in the pre-COVID-19 period. Interleukin-6 inhibitors and blood transfusions may increase the risk of VAP. The widespread use of empirical antibiotics in these patients should be avoided to reduce the selecting pressure on the growth of multidrug-resistant bacteria by implementing infection control measures and antimicrobial stewardship programs even before ICU admission. Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s44158-022-00065-4.

20.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(8)2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987888

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel cause of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is widely used in patients with ARDS across several etiologies. Indeed, with the increase of ARDS cases due to the COVID-19 pandemic, its use has grown significantly in hospital wards. However, there is a lack of evidence to support the efficacy of NIV in patients with COVID-19 ARDS. Materials and Methods: We conducted an observational cohort study including adult ARDS COVID-19 patients admitted in a third level COVID-center in Rome, Italy. The study analyzed the rate of NIV failure defined by the occurrence of orotracheal intubation and/or death within 28 days from starting NIV, its effectiveness, and the associated relative risk of death. The factors associated with the outcomes were identified through logistic regression analysis. Results: During the study period, a total of 942 COVID-19 patients were admitted to our hospital, of which 307 (32.5%) presented with ARDS at hospitalization. During hospitalization 224 (23.8%) were treated with NIV. NIV failure occurred in 84 (37.5%) patients. At 28 days from starting NIV, moderate and severe ARDS had five-fold and twenty-fold independent increased risk of NIV failure (adjusted odds ratio, aOR = 5.01, 95% CI 2.08-12.09, and 19.95, 95% CI 5.31-74.94), respectively, compared to patients with mild ARDS. A total of 128 patients (13.5%) were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). At 28-day from ICU admission, intubated COVID-19 patients treated with early NIV had 40% lower mortality (aOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.25-1.46, p = 0.010) compared with patients that underwent orotracheal intubation without prior NIV. Conclusions: These findings show that NIV failure was independently correlated with the severity category of COVID-19 ARDS. The start of NIV in COVID-19 patients with mild ARDS (P/F > 200 mmHg) appears to increase NIV effectiveness and reduce the risk of orotracheal intubation and/or death. Moreover, early NIV (P/F > 200 mmHg) treatment seems to reduce the risk of ICU mortality at 28 days from ICU admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL