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1.
biorxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.11.07.566012

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 disease is an ongoing global health concern. Although vaccination provides some protection, people are still susceptible to re-infection. Ostensibly, certain populations or clinical groups may be more vulnerable. Factors causing these differences are unclear and whilst socioeconomic and cultural differences are likely to be important, human genetic factors could influence susceptibility. Experimental studies indicate SARS-CoV-2 uses innate immune suppression as a strategy to speed-up entry and replication into the host cell. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the impact of variants in immunity-associated human proteins on susceptibility to COVID-19. In this work, we analysed missense coding variants in several SARS-CoV-2 proteins and its human protein interactors that could enhance binding affinity to SARS-CoV-2. We curated a dataset of 19 SARS-CoV-2: human protein 3D-complexes, from the experimentally determined structures in the Protein Data Bank and models built using AlphaFold2-multimer, and analysed impact of missense variants occurring in the protein-protein interface region. We analysed 468 missense variants from human proteins and 212 variants from SARS-CoV-2 proteins and computationally predicted their impacts on binding affinities to SARS-CoV-2 proteins, using 3D-complexes. We predicted a total of 26 affinity-enhancing variants from 14 human proteins implicated in increased binding affinity to SARS-CoV-2. These include key-immunity associated genes (TOMM70, ISG15, IFIH1, IFIT2, RPS3, PALS1, NUP98, RAE1, AXL, ARF6, TRIMM, TRIM25) as well as important spike receptors (KREMEN1, AXL and ACE2). We report both common (e.g., Y13N in IFIH1) and rare variants in these proteins and discuss their likely structural and functional impact, using information on known and predicted functional sites. Potential mechanisms associated with immune suppression implicated by these variants are discussed. Occurrence of certain predicted affinity-enhancing variants should be monitored as they could lead to increased susceptibility and reduced immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection in individuals/populations carrying them. Our analyses aid in understanding the potential impact of genetic variation in immunity-associated proteins on COVID-19 susceptibility and help guide drug-repurposing strategies.

2.
8.
Mapan-Journal of Metrology Society of India ; 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-20231014

ABSTRACT

The present study is an attempt to establish relationship between the concentrations of particulate matter especially (PM2.5) and background meteorological parameters over Delhi, India with the help of statistical and correlative analysis. This work presents the evaluation of air quality in three different locations of Delhi. These locations were selected to fulfil the characteristics as residential, industrial and background locations and performed the analysis for pre and post covid-19, i.e. for 2019 and 2021. The outcome of the study shows that the meteorological parameters have significant influence on the PM2.5 concentration. It was also found that it has a seasonality with low concentration in the monsoon season, moderate in the pre-monsoon season and high during the winters and post-monsoon seasons. However, the statistical and correlative study shows a negative relation with the temperature during the winter, pre-monsoon and post-monsoon and has a positive correlation during the monsoon season. Similarly, it also has been observed that the concentration of PM2.5 shows strong negative correlation with temperature during the high humid conditions, i.e. when the relative humidity is above 50%. However, a weak correlation with ambient temperature has been established during the low humidity condition, i.e. below 50%. The overall study showed that the highest PM2.5 pollution has been observed at residential location followed by industrial and background. The study also concluded that the seasonal meteorology has a complex role in the PM2.5 concentration of the selected areas.

9.
MAPAN ; : 1-11, 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2326815

ABSTRACT

The present study is an attempt to establish relationship between the concentrations of particulate matter especially (PM2.5) and background meteorological parameters over Delhi, India with the help of statistical and correlative analysis. This work presents the evaluation of air quality in three different locations of Delhi. These locations were selected to fulfil the characteristics as residential, industrial and background locations and performed the analysis for pre and post covid-19, i.e. for 2019 and 2021. The outcome of the study shows that the meteorological parameters have significant influence on the PM2.5 concentration. It was also found that it has a seasonality with low concentration in the monsoon season, moderate in the pre-monsoon season and high during the winters and post-monsoon seasons. However, the statistical and correlative study shows a negative relation with the temperature during the winter, pre-monsoon and post-monsoon and has a positive correlation during the monsoon season. Similarly, it also has been observed that the concentration of PM2.5 shows strong negative correlation with temperature during the high humid conditions, i.e. when the relative humidity is above 50%. However, a weak correlation with ambient temperature has been established during the low humidity condition, i.e. below 50%. The overall study showed that the highest PM2.5 pollution has been observed at residential location followed by industrial and background. The study also concluded that the seasonal meteorology has a complex role in the PM2.5 concentration of the selected areas.

10.
iScience ; 26(6): 106929, 2023 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327144

ABSTRACT

Despite extensive research, the specific factor associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection that mediates the life-threatening inflammatory cytokine response in patients with severe COVID-19 remains unidentified. Herein we demonstrate that the virus-encoded Open Reading Frame 8 (ORF8) protein is abundantly secreted as a glycoprotein in vitro and in symptomatic patients with COVID-19. ORF8 specifically binds to the NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) in CD14+ monocytes to induce inflammasomal cytokine/chemokine responses including IL1ß, IL8, and CCL2. Levels of ORF8 protein in the blood correlate with severity and disease-specific mortality in patients with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, the ORF8-induced inflammasome response was readily inhibited by the NLRP3 inhibitor MCC950 in vitro. Our study identifies a dominant cause of pathogenesis, its underlying mechanism, and a potential new treatment strategy for severe COVID-19.

11.
VirusDisease ; 34(1):99, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2320065

ABSTRACT

Enteroviruses, beyond poliovirus, are important pathogens. Several non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) are causing epidemics all around the world. Limited data is available on the prevalence and diversity of these viruses from India. Objective(s): Detection and characterization of NPEVs in respiratory samples during the COVID-19 pandemic period. Material(s) and Method(s): COVID-19 negative samples from acute respiratory infections (ARI) [n = 105] and severe-acute respiratory infections (SARI) [n = 148] during the period 2021-22 were screened for NPEVs. Detection was carried out using the one step RT-PCR method targeting the 5'UTR region followed by molecular analysis. Results and Conclusion(s): Total positivity of NPEVs was noted in 35.23% and 31.08% of the ARI and SARI cases, respectively. Comparison within the two groups studied, showed significant difference in the age-wise distribution for cases>18 years of age. Year round seasonality for ARI cases while autumn seasonality for SARI cases was observed. Sequencing of representative samples of ARI cases showed prevalence of Rhinovirus A (RVA), Rhinovirus B (RVB), Rhinovirus C (RVC) and Echovirus, while predominance of RVC followed by RVA was observed for the SARI cases. Phylogenetic analysis of all the strains showed clustering of RVC strains in different clusters. Divergence was also noted in RVA and RVB strains studied. Circulation of a rare Echovirus-29 strain was noted in the ARI cases. The study highlighted significant divergence in the Rhinovirus strains studied. It warrants the need for surveillance of NPEVs, whole-genome sequencing of the circulating strains for better understanding of biodiversity among the NPEVs and the potential health burden.

12.
Intelligent Pharmacy ; 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2314454

ABSTRACT

The spread of COVID-19 across the world, triggered multiple stresses among doctors working tirelessly round the clock to attend sick patients. Doctors had to cope with new environment thereby developing anxiety and fear. The current paper identifies and explores the stress intensity developed among doctors with the aid of multi-criteria decision analysis in doctors working in private and government hospitals of India during COVID-19. After identification of numerous stresses through questionnaire, weights are assigned to common most stress factors by employing AHP method. Furthermore, comparative analysis and prioritization of stress factors is performed with the aid of TOPSIS. The current combined system is a quantitative analysis furnished to establish the feasibility of the methods in weighing and MCDM in stress assessment. This study identifies and predicts the foremost stress factor which needs to be addressed by hospital management to keep doctors with a stable and fresh mindset. This research further establishes a proper MCDM technique which need to be applied in all hospital to regulate and distribute doctors work load without overloading them. Psychological stress is the foremost type of stress reported by multiple doctors. Results showed that lack of balance among personal and professional life followed by lack of communication is highly related problem in doctors in such adverse events.

13.
Med Chem Res ; 32(6): 1063-1076, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315956

ABSTRACT

Emerging and re-emerging illnesses will probably present a new hazard of infectious diseases and have fostered the urge to research new antiviral agents. Most of the antiviral agents are analogs of nucleosides and only a few are non-nucleoside antiviral agents. There is quite a less percentage of marketed/clinically approved non-nucleoside antiviral medications. Schiff bases are organic compounds that possess a well-demonstrated profile against cancer, viruses, fungus, and bacteria, as well as in the management of diabetes, chemotherapy-resistant cases, and malarial infections. Schiff bases resemble aldehydes or ketones with an imine/azomethine group instead of a carbonyl ring. Schiff bases have a broad application profile not only in therapeutics/medicine but also in industrial applications. Researchers have synthesized and screened various Schiff base analogs for their antiviral potential. Some of the important heterocyclic compounds like istatin, thiosemicarbazide, quinazoline, quinoyl acetohydrazide, etc. have been used to derive novel Schiff base analogs. Keeping in view the outbreak of viral pandemics and epidemics, this manuscript compiles a review of Schiff base analogs concerning their antiviral properties and structural-activity relationship analysis.

14.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 17: 1115699, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319261

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Women are vulnerable during pregnancy as they experience multiple physical and psychological problems which can lead to stress and poor quality of life ultimately affecting the development of the fetus and their health during and after pregnancy. Prior evidence suggests that prenatal yoga can improve maternal health and well-being and can have a beneficial effect on immune system functioning. To date, no study has been conducted in a rural, low-resource setting in India to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a yoga-based intervention on perceived stress, quality of life, pro-inflammatory biomarkers, and symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections. Methods: To address this gap and assess whether a yoga-based intervention could improve maternal mental health and immunity during the COVID-19 crisis (Yoga-M2 trial), a single-blind individual randomized parallel group-controlled pilot trial with a 1:1 allocation ratio was implemented. We randomly allocated 51 adult pregnant women, with gestational age between 12-24 weeks in the Yoga-M2 arm (n = 25) or the enhanced usual care arm (EUC) (n = 26). Feasibility and acceptability were assessed using the process data and In-Depth Interviews (IDIs) with the trial participants and yoga instructors. Multiple linear regression was used to compare follow-up scores for quantitative outcomes. Results: A three-month follow-up assessment was completed for 48 out of 51 participants (94.12%). We did not find any statistically significant difference between both arms in total Perceived Stress Scale scores, quality of life (Eq-5D-5L index), and serum C Reactive Protein levels at the three-month follow-up assessment. The critical barriers to practicing yoga were lack of knowledge about the benefits of yoga, lack of 'felt need' to practice yoga, lack of time to practice, lack of space, lack of transport, and lack of peer group to practice yoga. Despite this, women who regularly practiced yoga described the benefits and factors which motivated them to practice regularly. Discussion: The learnings from this trial will help design the explanatory trial in the future and the study findings can also be used by the primary health care system to deliver yoga-based interventions in the newly created health and wellness centers. Trial registration: This trial was prospectively registered with the Clinical Trials Registry of India on 25 January 2022. https://www.ctri.nic.in/Clinicaltrials/showallp.php?mid1=65173&EncHid=&userName=CTRI/2022/01/039701. Trial registration number: CTRI/2022/01/039701.

15.
4th International Conference on Innovative Trends in Information Technology, ICITIIT 2023 ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2304298

ABSTRACT

This paper presents residential load forecasting using multivariate multi-step Deep Neural Networks (DNN) such as LSTM, CNN, Stacked LSTM, and Hybrid CNN-LSTM. A preliminary Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) is conducted, and the decision variables are identified. An elbowing method is used to determine the number of clusters. Data is categorized based on weekdays, weekends, vacations, and Covid-Lockdown. Dimensionality-reduction using principal component analysis (PCA) is conducted. Seasonality-based clustering is found to improve the DNN model prediction accuracy further. A comparative analysis employs error metrics such as RMSE, MSE, MAPE, and MAE. The multivariate LSTM model with feedback is found to be the best fit model with the better performance indices. © 2023 IEEE.

16.
Romanian Journal of Rhinology ; 13(50):77-82, 2023.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2301909

ABSTRACT

Histoplasmosis is a rare type of fungal infection which may manifest as a respiratory disease or as a disseminated infection. It is common in immunocompromised patients and, in recent times, seen in association with COVID-19. On histopathological examination, many intracellular and extracellular yeast forms are seen, which can be confirmed by fungal stains. Histoplasmosis involving the nasopharyngeal region is quite rare. Till date, only less than 100 cases of pharyngo-laryngeal histoplasmosis have been reported. Such cases are clinico-radiologically easily and frequently mistaken for malignancy. Here, we report a case that initially had COVID-19-like symptoms and later presented with a nasopharyngeal mass clinico-radiologically mistaken as a nasopharyngeal malignancy. The diagnosis was established on histopathological examination and the patient recovered completely with anti-fungal treatment. A high grade of suspicion and thorough histopathological examination, especially in immunocompromised patients, complimented by fungal special stains is quite rewarding as even a disseminated disease is curable. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Romanian Journal of Rhinology is the property of Romanian Rhinologic Society and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

18.
Qeios ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2270339

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND COVID-19 has impacted Indian engineering institutions (EIs) enormously. It has tightened its knot around EIs that forced their previous half-shut shades completely down to prevent the risk of spreading COVID-19. In such a situation, fetching new enrollments on EI campuses is a difficult and challenging task, as students' behavior and family preferences have changed drastically due to mental stress and emotions attached to them. Historically, during crisis situations, institutions have struggled to return to the normal track. Consequently, it becomes a prerequisite to examining the choice characteristics influencing the selection of EI during the COVID-19 pandemic to make it ‘normal' for ‘new' enrollments. The purpose of this study is to critically examine choice characteristics that affect students' choice for EI and consequently to explore relationships between institutions' characteristics and the suitability of EI during the COVID-19 pandemic across students' characteristics. Quantitative research, conducted through a self-reported survey composed of a closed-ended structured questionnaire, was purposefully incorporated into the students who recently were enrolled in EIs (batch years 2020-2021) belonging to the North Maharashtra region of India. RESULTS The findings of this study revealed dissimilarities across students' characteristics regarding the suitability of EIs under pandemic conditions. Regression analysis revealed that EI characteristics such as proximity, image and reputation, quality education and curriculum delivery have significantly contributed to suitability under COVID-19. At the micro level, multiple relationships were noted between EI characteristics and the suitability of EI under the pandemic across students' characteristics. CONCLUSION Bringing ‘normality' to ‘new' enrollments totally depends on EI's resilience in meeting the needs of diversity in the COVID-19 pandemic situation, which repositions themselves to govern student-centric strategies instituted for the overall suitability of EI under pandemic conditions. The study has successfully demonstrated how choice characteristics can be executed to regulate the ‘suitability' of EI under the COVID-19 pandemic for the inclusion of diversity. It is useful for policymakers and academicians to reposition EIs that fetch diversity during the pandemic. This study is the first to provide insights into the performance of choice characteristics and their relationship with the suitability of EIs under a pandemic and can be a yardstick in administering new enrollments.

19.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2272841

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of deucravacitinib, an oral, selective, allosteric inhibitor of TYK2, in a phase II trial in adult patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: Adults with active SLE were enrolled from 162 sites in 17 countries. Patients (n = 363) were randomized 1:1:1:1 to receive deucravacitinib 3 mg twice daily, 6 mg twice daily, 12 mg once daily, or placebo. The primary end point was SLE Responder Index 4 (SRI-4) response at week 32. Secondary outcomes assessed at week 48 included SRI-4, British Isles Lupus Assessment Group-based Composite Lupus Assessment (BICLA) response, Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus Disease Area and Severity Index 50 (CLASI-50), Lupus Low Disease Activity State (LLDAS), and improvements in active (swollen plus tender), swollen, and tender joint counts. RESULTS: At week 32, the percentage of patients achieving SRI-4 response was 34% with placebo compared to 58% with deucravacitinib 3 mg twice daily (odds ratio [OR] 2.8 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.5, 5.1]; P < 0.001 versus placebo), 50% with 6 mg twice daily (OR 1.9 [95% CI 1.0, 3.4]; P = 0.02 versus placebo), and 45% with 12 mg once daily (OR 1.6 [95% CI 0.8, 2.9]; nominal P = 0.08 versus placebo). Response rates were higher with deucravacitinib treatment for BICLA, CLASI-50, LLDAS, and joint counts compared to placebo. Rates of adverse events were similar across groups, except higher rates of infections and cutaneous events, including rash and acne, with deucravacitinib treatment. Rates of serious adverse events were comparable, with no deaths, opportunistic infections, tuberculosis infections, major adverse cardiovascular events, or thrombotic events reported. CONCLUSION: Deucravacitinib treatment elicited higher response rates for SRI-4 and other end points compared with placebo, with an acceptable safety profile, in adult patients with active SLE.

20.
Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis ; 2022: 2253656, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2278181

ABSTRACT

Background: Mask wearing can restrict the spread of respiratory viral transmission during the third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Globally, governments have emphasized its use in workplaces and public areas to prevent the transmission routes of corona virus. In spite of the current awareness in the general population, the stringency of wearing the mask lies as an individual's choices. Subject and Methods. This research work discusses available studies on the types and comparison of masks in the market for use. It includes a short survey conducted with 1,173 anonymized healthy participants primarily devoid of comorbidities. The survey includes the effects of mask wearing, while outdoor with minimal activities like walking and with mild activities like jogging and stretching. Our research further discusses various health effects of wearing a mask, including cardiac output, hypoxemia, hypoxia, and dyspnoea, and how such situations that pose a threat can be consciously avoided. Results: It was found that the majority of people use cloth/fabric reusable mask. There remains scope for better-designed masks and improving health in the mass population by inculcating healthy breathing habits and other relevant exercises that can help people cope up better in this fight against the deadly virus at a larger scale. Conclusion: For most of the survey questions, there was significant correlation between gender and the related responses as there was no significantly observable difference in the nonparametric, unpaired analyses of responses. The main objective of this research work is to initiate more discussions and enhance awareness in natural ways of staying healthy during the pandemic emphasizing mask use. Further progress in this aspect remains a whole new area for future exploration.

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