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JACC Basic Transl Sci ; 5(11): 1111-1123, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065247


Vascular and cardiovascular inflammation and thrombosis occur in patients with severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Advancing age is the most significant risk factor for severe COVID-19. Using transcriptomic databases, the authors found that: 1) cardiovascular tissues and endothelial cells express putative genes for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection, including angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and basigin (BSG); 2) severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 receptor pathways ACE2/transmembrane serine protease 2 and BSG/peptidylprolyl isomerase B(A) polarize to lung/epithelium and vessel/endothelium, respectively; 3) expression of host genes is relatively stable with age; and 4) notable exceptions are ACE2, which decreases with age in some tissues, and BSG, which increases with age in endothelial cells, suggesting that BSG expression in the vasculature may explain the heightened risk for severe disease with age.

Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 87(3): 776-784, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717284


AIMS: In light of the recent safety concerns relating to NSAID use in COVID-19, we sought to evaluate cardiovascular and respiratory complications in patients taking NSAIDs during acute lower respiratory tract infections. METHODS: We carried out a systematic review of randomised controlled trials and observational studies. Studies of adult patients with short-term NSAID use during acute lower respiratory tract infections, including bacterial and viral infections, were included. Primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes were cardiovascular, renal and respiratory complications. RESULTS: In total, eight studies including two randomised controlled trials, three retrospective and three prospective observational studies enrolling 44 140 patients were included. Five of the studies were in patients with pneumonia, two in patients with influenza, and one in a patient with acute bronchitis. Meta-analysis was not possible due to significant heterogeneity. There was a trend towards a reduction in mortality and an increase in pleuro-pulmonary complications. However, all studies exhibited high risks of bias, primarily due to lack of adjustment for confounding variables. Cardiovascular outcomes were not reported by any of the included studies. CONCLUSION: In this systematic review of NSAID use during acute lower respiratory tract infections in adults, we found that the existing evidence for mortality, pleuro-pulmonary complications and rates of mechanical ventilation or organ failure is of extremely poor quality, very low certainty and should be interpreted with caution. Mechanistic and clinical studies addressing the captioned subject are urgently needed, especially in relation to COVID-19.

Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Ibuprofen/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic